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date: 13 December 2018

(p. 568) Subject Index

(p. 568) Subject Index

(p. 569) Page numbers followed by “f”, “t”, or “n” denote figures, tables, or notes, respectively.

A
AAC&U (Association of American Colleges and Universities), 113, 114, 116, 125, 128
abductive reasoning, 51, 52, 57n2
ABE/ESOL (Adult Basic Education/English for Speakers of Other Languages), 461–62
ABE/ESOL learners in Adult Diploma Program study, 12, 461–87. See also ways of knowing
Bill’s case, 470–72, 477–78, 479–81
Christopher’s case, 461–62
cohort groups, 469–87, 470t, 477t, 480t, 486t
collaborative learning groups, 461, 462, 468, 469–70, 470t, 473, 476–77, 477t, 478, 479, 480t, 484, 485, 486t, 487
constructive-developmental perspective and, 463–64, 485, 487
core findings, 463
Daniel’s case, 474–76, 478–79, 482–84
data analysis, 468
data collection, 467–68
developmental diversity in, 469, 469t
educational implications, 484–86
future directions, 487
holding environments, 467, 476–77, 479, 484
Hope’s case, 472–74, 478
methods, 467–68, 487n3
NCSALL and, 461, 470t, 477t, 480t, 487n1
participant selection, 467
perspective broadening, 479–84
purpose of, 462–63
questions in, 463
results, 468–86
Rita’s case, 481–82
site, 467
summary, 484–86
theoretical framework, 463–67
ways of knowing, 464–67, 465t
Abrahamic spiritual traditions, 252–53
absolute truth, 179, 181, 183, 259, 352, 515, 529
abstract stage, 289t
accelerated longitudinal designs, 70–71
accommodation
accommodative challenges, 175, 176, 179, 181, 183
accommodative structure building, 179
identity accommodation, 175, 176, 177, 181, 182, 183, 184
as mode of coping, 371
accounting, holistic development and, 527–28
achievement identity status, 175, 176, 178, 179, 427, 428, 434, 441
activities of daily living. See ADLs
adaptability, 206
adaptive aging, 220, 227
adaptive self, 431
ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), 297
ADLs (activities of daily living), 68–69, 71
adolescence. See also emerging adulthood
adolescent separation-individuation process, 178, 181
prolonged, 429
adoptive families, 369, 371, 373
Adult Basic Education/English for Speakers of Other Languages. See ABE/ESOL
adult development. See also holistic development; lifespan development; stage theories of development
constitute attributes of, 398
defined, 6, 20, 397–98
generativity and, 199–200
intimacy and, 547
learning v., 159
PLA and, 83–84, 84t, 87–90, 88t
plasticity and, 156
positives in, 6–7
recency of scholarship on, 4
stage theories of, 20–22
adult development and learning. See also parent development and learning; religious, spiritual, and moral development and learning
borders of thought and, 3
children effects on, 11, 365–78
college students, 113–28
convenience sampling and, 546
critical cultural pedagogy and, 25–30
cycles of research and application in, 11–12, 447–58, 450f
emotion, regulation, and learning (across adult life span), 9, 132–48
epilogue, 546–48
essential points, 8
future directions, 546–48
gene-environment interactions and, 103, 104f, 546
integration, 8, 61
interpersonal competence and motivation, 9–10, 155–67
latent growth models and, 9, 61–78, 548
master narrative and, 9, 17–25
as new area of study, 61
non-Western perspective and, 31–35
postmodernism and, 17–18, 28, 30, 35
qualitative research methods and, 9, 39–57, 548
reciprocal nature of, 3, 8, 511–13
reductionism and, 546
work as catalyst of, 11, 396–417
work role transitions and, 204–7
Adult Education Quarterly, 43t
adulthood
changing views/prospects for, 4–5
emerging, 429, 430, 431, 435, 440
adult learning. See also adult development and learning; learning; meaning-making
constructivism and, 201–4
defined, 7–8, 398
developmental intentions and, 23–25
influential developmental theories for, 18–23
for personal change, 24–25
processes, 179–80
for professional change, 25
recency of scholarship on, 4
adult life transitions. See life transitions
Adult Sibling Relationship Questionnaire, 382, 392. See also sibling relationships in adulthood
African American women
Caucasian/African American women grounded theory study, 51–52
Waiting to Exhale and, 27
African life-cycle, 32–33
age differences
transformative learning and, 354–55
wisdom and, 307
age-graded theory of life structure change, 20–21
(p. 570) agency. See also self-efficacy
adaptability and, 206
autobiographical narratives and, 433
cognitive components of, 216–20
communion and, 433, 434
control beliefs and, 216–18
evaluative standards and, 216–18
goals and, 160–61, 216–18
identity formation and, 427–28
reflections on, 238
self-efficacy and, 216–20, 223, 238
self-efficacy beliefs and, 223–24
self-regulation and, 217
aging. See also constructing self
adaptive, 220, 227
cognitive engagement and, 5–6
crisis of meaning and, 251
deficit views of, 5
population, 4, 5, 167, 197, 548
stereotypes of, 229
successful, 5, 215–16
usual, 5
aging parents, sibling relationships and, 389
Aging Semantic Differential Scale, 219
AIC (Akaike Information Criterion), 72
alcohol use, sibling relationships and, 384–86
Alcoholics Anonymous, 315
alliance, therapeutic, 277, 282n4
alternate-forms approach, 73
Alverno Longitudinal Study, 513, 516, 520, 522, 529, 530–31
Alverno College Faculty, 534, 536, 537
Alzheimer’s disease, 5, 226–27
ambiguous loss, 10, 249f, 250–51, 261, 262
ambition/persistence model, 295–96
American Dream, 105
American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, 193, 206
American Management Association, 187
American Psychological Association, 31, 378n5, 406
amygdala, 6
analogic mapping, 85
analysis of variance, repeated-measures, 64, 77, 78
analytic geometry, 291
ancient Greeks, 34
andragogy, 19, 20, 21, 201
angiogenesis, 6, 414
Anna’s story, 438–40. See also autobiographical narratives
ANOVA, repeated-measures, 64, 77, 78
anticipation of triggers to action category, 376
antithesis, 292, 292f
arithmetic abilities/technology skills, SLS, 105
articulate, diffuse to, 372
The Artist’s Way (Cameron), 24
Ashforth’s work role transition model, 195, 196
assertion, constructive, 371
assimilation, identity, 175, 176, 177, 181, 183
Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U), 113, 114, 116, 125, 128
Attachment Theory, 335–37
attention, in present moment, 349–50
attentional blink, 349, 356
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), 297
authority stage, 373
autism, 390, 391
Autism Spectrum Disorders, 390
autobiographical narratives
agency and, 433
Anna’s story, 438–40
auto/biographical and narrative research, 45, 47t, 54–55, 548
autonomy and, 433–34, 435–36, 437, 438, 439, 440
cultural models in, 432–34
in Germany, 435–40
health and, 434–35
Linda’s story, 436–38
narrative identity and, 10, 173–84, 431–40
principles in, 432
relatedness and, 433–34, 435–36, 437, 438, 439, 440
wisdom-of-experience, 308–9
autobiographical writing, 24
automobile driving behavior, 369
automobile safety belts, 376
autonomous-related self, 434
autonomy
Ethics of Autonomy, Community, and Divinity, 33
as organizer of life course, 433–34
relatedness v., 433–34, 435–36, 437, 438, 439, 440
self-directed learning and, 19
successful aging and, 5
worker, 407–8
average expectable environment, 366
awareness
choiceless, 280
nonjudgmental, 11, 272, 305t, 349, 350, 356
B
Baby Boomer population. See also work role transitions
aging, 167
American Dream and, 105
A Generation of Seekers and, 266, 267
Generation X and, 197, 207
identity study and, 401
middle adulthood and, 197
Millennial generation and, 62
Balanced Self-Assessment and Acting from Values, 522, 535
balance theory, of wisdom, 303
banking institution study, 76–77
barriers
to adult development and learning, 3
exercise and, 225
identity formation and, 179, 181
self-efficacy/skill acquisition and, 232
basic (generic) qualitative research, 45, 47t, 52–54
Basic Skills Test, 110, 111f
behavioral momentum, 294, 296–97
beliefs
control, agency and, 216–18
post-critical, 322
self-efficacy, 223–24
bidirectional effects, 366–67
biographical narratives. See autobiographical narratives
blink, attentional, 349, 356
boundaryless careers, 10, 192, 193
brain
Alzheimer’s disease and, 5, 226–27
amygdala, 6
cortex, 6, 103, 143, 312, 350, 355, 356, 357
dementia and, 5, 163, 226, 228, 250, 414
hippocampus, 6, 180, 415
mindful practice and, 356
neurobiology and, 303, 311, 312
neurogenesis, 6, 414, 547
neuroscience and, 311–12
plasticity, 6, 163, 226, 355–56, 414–15
synaptogenesis, 6, 414, 547
traumatic brain injury, 390–91
wisdom and, 311–12, 315
breathing concentration, 280, 349, 356
Buddha, 252, 269, 304
Buddhism, 252, 270, 308. See also mindfulness
suchness and, 280–81, 282
Zen, 252, 270, 271, 276
Budget Living, 27
buffering hypothesis, 387
Buffy the Vampire Slayer, 28
bureaucratization, 408
Bureau of Labor Statistics, 187, 236, 396, 397, 402, 404
bystander syndrome, 305
C
CAEL (Council for Adult and Experiential Learning), 82
calamity theory of growth model, 177
calculation
calculatory stage, 289t
multivariate, 294
calculus, 291
Cambridge Academic Search (CAS), 41, 42–43t, 57, 57n1
(p. 571) Campus-Wide Information Systems, 42t
Canadian Journal for the Study of Adult Education, 42t
Canadian Journal of University Continuing Education, 42t
cardiovascular system
disease, 5
emotions and, 137–38
self-efficacy and, 225
careers. See also work as catalyst; work role transitions
boundaryless, 10, 192, 193
career construction theory, 190, 193, 200
encore, 207
interests/choices, self-efficacy and, 235
interorganizational mobility and, 187, 192
jobs v., 207
knowledge workers, 82
motivation, 165, 236
protean, 192–93
skill development training programs, 235–36
supplies-values fit and, 236–38
21st-century, 186, 191–93, 205, 207
Career Consolidation stage, 200
career development, 187–93
developmental perspectives, 189–93
future directions, 207–8
historical roots of, 187–90
sociological perspective, 188
vocational/differentialist perspectives, 188–89
career transition process models, 196–97
caregiving. See also generativity
aging parents and siblings, 389
caregiving daughters study, 75–76
chronic illness and, 225
collectivist cultures and, 34
gains from, 167
Carrie, identity development study, 182–83
Carter, Jimmy, 310
cartographers metaphor, 9, 80–81, 87, 89–91, 97. See also prior learning assessment
case study research, 45, 47t, 48–50
catalysts for integration category, 375
catastrophic disorganization, 181, 182
Caucasian/African American women grounded theory study, 51–52
CDSMP (Chronic Disease Self-Management Program), 225
CEI (Continuing Education Institute), 467
Census Bureau, 197, 373, 381
Center for Workforce Preparation, 462
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4
CFI (comparative fit index), 70
changes. See also openness to experience/change; transitions
adult learning for, 24–25
epistemological, 87, 180, 181, 359
in identity statuses, 174–79
life, 180, 193, 259
normative change conditions, 293
readiness for, 177, 181, 182, 183
selectionism and, 293–94
Chicago School of Sociology, 188, 190
children effects on adult development and learning, 11, 365–78
bidirectional effects, 366–67
empirical studies, 374–76
future directions, 376–77
holistic/systems-developmental theory, 11, 365, 366, 368–72, 374, 376–77
socialization effects, 366–69
transactional effects, 367–69
unidirectional effects, 366
children-in-environment effects, 377
Chinese college students, 33, 430, 434, 501
choiceless awareness, 280
Choosing a Vocation (Parsons), 188
Christian Higher Education, 42t
Christianity, 252, 271, 276, 279, 307
chronic disease self-management, 225
Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP), 225
circular sensory-motor stage, 289t, 294
civic performance, holistic development and, 526–27
Civil Rights Act, 105
classroom, wisdom in, 313
clinical vignettes. See transformations
closed v. open adoption, 371
closeness regulation, 156, 158, 167
co-curricular examples, college student learning and development, 127–28
cognition, social, 6, 397, 405, 411, 417, 515, 538
cognitive development. See also metacognition; Seattle Longitudinal Study
doctoral study and, 491–93
education shifts and, 104–5
emotions and, 547
heuristic schematic (SLS), 103–4, 104f
models/theories of, 21–23
cognitive engagement, 5–6
cognitive flexibility category, 375
cognitive pathology, 258
cognitive style, 369, 370t, 377
cohorts
ABE/ESOL learners in Adult Diploma Program study and, 469–87, 470t, 477t, 480t, 486t
SLS and, 107–10
collaborative interactions, 165
collaborative learning
ABE/ESOL learners in Adult Diploma Program study and, 461, 462, 468, 469–70, 470t, 473, 476–77, 477t, 478, 479, 480t, 484, 485, 486t, 487
importance of, 469
Collaborative Organizational Thinking and Action, 522, 523, 524, 525, 531
collective case study, 48
collectivist perspective, 31–35. See also non-Western perspective
college student learning and development, 113–28. See also doctoral study; holistic development; metacognition; self-authorship
Chinese, 33, 430, 434, 501
co-curricular examples, 127–28
curricular examples, 125–27
metacognition, 119–24
scaffolded reflections, 125–28
self-authorship, 9, 113, 114–19
wisdom and, 311
communicative learning, 86
communion, agency and, 433, 434
Community, Divinity, Autonomy, 33
comparative-developmental theory, 368. See also holistic/systems-developmental theory
comparative fit index (CFI), 70
complexity, emotion, 135–36
complex medical decision making, 226
complex postformal cognition, 255–58
complex postformal thought. See postformal complex thought
conative development, doctoral study and, 493
concentration camp experiences, 251
concrete stage, 289t
conditioned reflexes law, 293
Confucianism, 31, 33, 34, 252, 308
confusion
identity, 399, 400, 426
neutral zone of, 181, 182
role, 174
conscientiousness, 11, 396, 406, 407, 408–11, 412, 413, 416, 417
conscious learning, 7, 81, 132, 403, 417
constructing self (in face of aging and death), 10, 248–62
ambiguous loss and, 10, 249f, 250–51, 261, 262
evolving self as creative act, 260–61
felt connections and, 249, 249f, 255, 256–58, 257f, 261, 262
future research, 262
meaning in life and, 251
model for, 249f
new science models and, 253–54
overloaded self and, 258–60
(p. 572)
postformal complex cognition and, 255–58
postformal complex thought and, 253–55
postmodernism and, 260–61
spiritual traditions and, 249, 251–53
suggestions for, 261–62
wisdom/generativity/integrity and, 251
construction theory, career, 190, 193, 200
constructive assertion, 371
constructive-developmental theory, 12, 203–4. See also ABE/ESOL learners in Adult Diploma Program study
ABE/ESOL learners in Adult Diploma Program study and, 463–64, 485, 487
core concepts, 203
Kegan’s orders of consciousness, 87, 88–90, 88t, 116, 204, 303, 514–15
PLA and, 84, 87–90, 88t, 91t, 96, 97
constructive dynamics, developmental maieutics and, 448–49
constructivism, 115
adult learning and, 201–4
contructivist grounded theory, 46t, 47t, 51, 52
experiential learning and, 21
holistic/systems-developmental theory and, 368
interpretivism v., 40t
meaning-making and, 21, 40, 201
person-in-environment system and, 368
reflection and, 21
research and, 40t
construct validity, 72–73, 454
contemporary career landscape, 191–93
contextual contributors, to identity development, 178–79
continual improvement, 407, 409, 410
Continuing Education Institute (CEI), 467
continuing professional education, 25
continuum, of wisdom, 304
contradictory logical systems, 252, 256
control beliefs, agency and, 216–18
convenience sampling, 455, 546
coping, modes of, 371
cortex, 6, 103, 143, 312, 350, 355, 356, 357
Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (CAEL), 82
counseling, holistic development and, 525–26
Creating a World Without Poverty (Yunus), 314
creativity. See also postformal orders of hierarchical complexity
decentration and, 290, 297
evolving self as, 260–61
holistic development and, 527
innovation v., 287–88
originative, 287, 288, 293, 294, 297, 298
of postformal thought, 289
crisis
capabilities, 451
financial, 2007–2008, 191, 404, 548
of identity, 10, 248, 399, 426, 427
of meaning, 251
critical cultural pedagogy, 25–30
critical realism, 40t, 46t, 47t
critical reflection. See also reflection; transformative learning
cognitive development models and, 33, 492
doctoral students and, 505, 506
experiential learning and, 85
generic qualitative research and, 53
interpretivism and, 50
intuition v., 492
mindful practice v., 350, 352, 359, 547
PLA and, 80, 87, 96
reflection v., 86, 93
self and, 497t
transformative learning and, 20, 23, 29, 84t, 86, 91t, 202, 203, 205, 314, 347, 353–54, 355, 358
Critical Thinking Appraisal (CTA), 517, 518t, 519t, 523
Cronbach’s alpha, 73, 454
cross-cultural body experience, 369
cross-cultural differences, wisdom and, 307–8
cross-cultural invariance
identity and, 399
personality and, 406–7
cross-paradigmatic stage (postformal order of hierarchical complexity), 290–91, 331
cross-parental learning patterns, 164
cross-sectional studies, longitudinal studies v., 61–64
crystallization
of desire, 176, 181, 183
of discontent, 177, 181, 182, 183, 184
crystallized ability of verbal meaning, SLS, 105, 107f
CTA (Critical Thinking Appraisal), 517, 518t, 519t, 523
cultural models
in autobiographical narratives, 432–34
of religious/spiritual development, 337–38
cultures
collectivist, 31–35
identity formation and, 425–26, 427–29
individualistic, 30–31, 32–35
media, 26
non-Western, 17, 31–35, 427, 428, 430, 441
resistant popular culture, 27–28
sociocultural adaptation to environment, 427–29
sociocultural perspectives and doctoral study, 502–4, 503t
wisdom and cross-cultural differences, 307–8
culture industries, 26
curiosity, 34, 162, 201, 203, 206, 297–98, 339, 355, 413, 465, 547
curricular examples, college student learning and development, 125–27
cycles of research and application in adult learning and development, 11–12, 447–58, 450f
D
Dasein, 280
death. See also constructing self
constructing self and, 10, 248–62
sibling support and, 388
decentration, 290, 297
decision making. See also Lectical Decision Making Assessment
complex medical, 226
perspective taking and seeking in, 451–53
declarative knowledge, 7, 142, 146, 398, 415, 495t
deconstruction of thesis, 292, 292f
dedifferentiated, 368, 371, 374
deductive theory building, 41, 44
defense mechanisms
Grant Study and, 527
identity formation and, 178, 179, 181, 183
Defining Issues Test (DIT), 517, 518t, 519, 519t, 520, 521, 523, 524f, 526, 527, 528, 529, 530, 531
dementia, 5, 163, 226, 228, 250, 414
departure stage, 373
Department of Health and Human Services, 5, 224
depression, job loss and, 403–4
descriptive case study, 48
descriptive/explorative case study
in interpretivist framework, 50
in post-positivistic framework, 49–50
desire, crystallization of, 176, 181, 183
despair. See also integrity
ego integrity v., 20, 32, 189, 282, 401, 402, 511
future uncertainty and, 405
generativity v., 201
determinism, reciprocal, 220, 221, 367
Developing Others and Perspective Taking, 522, 523
developmental contextualism theory, 372
developmental disabilities, 390
developmental functionalism, 133, 138–48
emotion-related cognitive capacities, 142
goal management processes, 143–44
goal-relevant capacities, 141
posed emotions, 141
primary life tasks/goals/motivations, 139–41
regulatory capacities, 144–45
self and, 143
developmentally based career theory, 189–93. See also career development
developmental maieutics, 447–48. See also Lectical Decision Making Assessment
constructive dynamics and, 448–49
future directions, 458
LAS and, 449, 450–51
methods, 450–51
model, 448–49
developmental plasticity, 156
The Dictionary of Occupational Titles (Dawes), 189
Digest of Education Statistics, 114
differentialist/vocational perspectives, 188–89
differentiated and in conflict, 371, 374
differentiated and integrated, 368, 371, 374
differentiated and isolated, 371, 374
diffuse to articulate, 372
diffusion identity status, 174, 175, 177, 198, 400, 427
diffusion stage (identity v. identity diffusion), 189, 198
dilemmas
disorienting, 23, 86, 91t, 202, 203, 205, 314, 348
LDMA, 453, 454, 457
Office Reorganization, 453
disabilities, sibling relationships and, 389–91
Discernment dimension, 305, 305t, 314
discontent, crystallization of, 177, 181, 182, 183, 184
The Discovery of Grounded Theory (Strauss, G.), 50
discrete, syncretic to, 371–72
discrete emotions, 134–35. See also emotion, regulation, and learning
disengagement, 143, 144, 145, 160, 181, 190, 196, 205, 349, 371, 392, 413
disequilibrating events, 96, 177, 198, 205, 365
disgust, 134, 136, 138, 142, 146, 147
disorganization, catastrophic, 181, 182
disorienting dilemmas, 23, 86, 91t, 202, 203, 205, 314, 348
Divinity, Community, Autonomy, 33
divorce, sibling support and, 387–88
doctoral study, 12, 490–506
cognitive development and, 491–93
conative development and, 493
emotions and, 492–93
future research on, 505–6
membership in learning community, 496–99, 500t
postformal knowledge and learning, 491–92, 494–96, 495t
“Re-envisioning the Ph.D.”, 490
self-authorship and, 493–94
sociocultural perspectives, 502–4, 503t
summary and conclusions, 504–5
use of self in, 497t, 500–502
wisdom and, 493
domains of growth, holistic development, 532–36, 532f, 535f
Down syndrome, 390
dynamic analysis, 368, 372
dynamic intersubjectivity, 375
dynamic skill theory, 448–49
Dynamics of Wisdom Model, 303, 304–5, 305t
dynamic systems theory, 11, 304, 372
E
East Asian spiritual traditions, 31, 34, 252–53, 308
EBSCOhost, 41, 42–43t, 57, 57n1
ECI (Ethic of Care Interview), 519, 520
ecological theory, 372
economic downturn 2007–2008, 191, 404, 548
economy, knowledge, 189, 397, 404
education. See also mentoring
deeper purposes of, 113
history of, 104–5
liberal, 113, 118, 127, 531
educational attainment, SLS and, 105–10
Educational Testing Service (ETS), 110
ego development
Loevinger and, 83, 268, 325, 514
Maharishi University of Management and, 530
ego integrity. See also integrity
despair v., 20, 32, 189, 282, 401, 402, 511
identity and, 402
Einstein, A., 3, 253, 291, 297, 331
electromagnetic fields, 290
Elementary and Secondary Education Act, 105
elicitation, emotion, 135, 136
emancipatory learning, 86, 201
embedded experience, 349, 350
embodied learning, 28, 31, 35
emerging adulthood, 429, 430, 431, 435, 440
emotion, regulation, and learning (across adult life span), 9, 132–48
developmental functionalism and, 133, 138–48
discrete emotions, 134–35
emotion complexity, 135–36
emotion elicitation, 135, 136
emotion experience, 133–36
emotion expression, 136–37
emotion physiology, 137–38
empirical picture, 133–38
empirical summary, 138
felt emotion intensity, 135
future directions, 147–48
mindful practice and, 351
emotion-related goals, 231
emotions
cardiovascular activity and, 137–38
cognition and, 547
developmental functionalism and, 133, 138–48
doctoral study and, 492–93
learning and, 132–33
metacognition and, 128
posed, 141
self-authorship and, 128
socioemotional selectivity, 136, 140, 155, 156–57, 160, 161, 165
encore career, 207
Engagement dimension, 305, 305t
enhanced seeing, 24
entity theorists, 501
environment
average expectable environment, 366
children-in-environment effects, 377
gene-environment interactions, 103, 104f, 381, 405–6, 546
parent-in-environment system, 369, 370t, 371, 378n4
person-in-environment system, 368–69, 371, 374, 376
sociocultural adaptation to, 427–29
epistemology
epistemological changes, 87, 180, 181, 359
qualitative research and, 40, 40t, 44, 45
self-authorship and, 116–17
e-portfolios, 42t, 126, 127. See also portfolio course
Ethic of Care Interview (ECI), 519, 520
ethic of care theory, 33, 516, 519
Ethics of Autonomy, Community, and Divinity, 33
(p. 574) ethnogenesis, 368, 377
ethnographic research, 9, 47t, 51, 52, 57, 548
ethnomethodology, 40
ETS (Educational Testing Service), 110
evaluative standards, agency and, 216–18
ever-present now moment, 253
evolving self, as creative act, 260–61
experiential learning
CAEL and, 82
constructivism and, 21
embedded experience and, 349, 350
Kolb Cycle and, 85–86, 85f, 91t, 92, 94
PLA and, 81, 84–86, 84t, 85f
portfolio course and, 81
theory, 85
experiential self-focus, 356–57
Experiential Wisdom and Optimal Experience case study, 49
explanatory case study, 48
explicit knowledge, 85, 495t
exploratory case study, 48. See also descriptive/explorative case study
expressivity, emotion, 136–37
extreme athletics, 268
F
factor loadings, for holistic development measures, 516–20, 518t, 519t
faith development, 324–26
Faith in O, 280–81
fallacy, rubber band, 4, 414
false self, 279, 333, 336
family change model, 433
feedback, formative, 125–26
felt connections, 249, 249f, 255, 256–58, 257f, 261, 262
felt emotion intensity, 135
The Feminine Face of God (Anderson & Hopkins), 266
fifth order consciousness. See self-transforming consciousness
financial crisis 2007–2008, 191, 404, 548
Five-Factor Model, 262, 406–7, 411
flexible, rigid to, 372
fluid ability of inductive reasoning, SLS, 105, 107f
foreclosure identity status, 174, 175, 178, 179, 198, 427, 428
forgiveness, 272, 321
formal stage, 289t
formative feedback, 125–26
fostering of extreme emotion category, 376
Foundational Value Scale (FVS), 310
four-quadrant model, 322
fourth order consciousness. See self-authoring consciousness
fractal nature, of hierarchical complexity stages, 292–93
functional neuroimaging, 6, 312
FVS (Foundational Value Scale), 310
G
Gall-Peters Projection, 81
gain-loss dynamics, 156, 161, 166, 167
Gandhi’s Truth (Erikson, E.), 399
gender, wisdom and, 306–7
gene-environment interactions, 103, 104f, 381, 405–6, 546
general linear mixed models, 64
General Social Survey, 133
General Stage Development Theory, 328
A Generation of Seekers (Roof), 266, 267
generational/cohort effects, SLS, 107–10
Generation X, 197, 207
generativity, 197–201
adult development and, 199–200
despair v., 201
identity development and, 198–99, 401–2
intimacy and, 198, 258, 401
meaning-making and, 201
mentoring and, 254, 401, 402
midlife work role transitions and, 10, 186–208
objectivist grounded theory and, 47t
process of, 200–201
“raging grannies” case study and, 50
seven-facet generativity model, 200–201
stagnation v., 20, 32, 174, 186–87, 189, 197
wisdom/integrity and, 251
generic (basic) qualitative research, 45, 47t, 52–54
The Geography of Thought (Nisbett), 33–34
geo-political shifts, tectonic, 310. See also globalization
Germany
autobiographical narratives in, 435–40
individualization and, 429–30
Gerontology & Geriatrics Education, 43t
Gilligan’s ethic of care theory, 33, 516, 519
“Gladys Who Refused to Grow” (Daloz, L. A.), 91
globalization, 32, 35, 310, 430, 441
goal-relevant capacities, 141
goals
agency and, 160–61, 216–18
emotion-related, 231
management processes, 143–44
primary life tasks/motivations and, 139–41
self-efficacy and, 219
goodbye without leaving, 250
good-enough mothering, 333, 366
graduate education. See doctoral study
grandmother hypothesis, 165, 166
grannies, raging, 47t, 50
Grant Study of Adult Development, 199, 208n1, 208n3, 527
Greater Expectations report, 113–14
Greeks, ancient, 34
grounded theory
constructivist, 46t, 47t, 51, 52
objectivist, 46t, 47t, 51
study, 45, 47t, 50–52
Group Health Cooperative, 105
growth models. See also latent growth models
level 1/level 2 equations in, 65–66
linear, 64–65
repeated-measures ANOVA v., 64, 77, 78
H
Hari Seldon character, 295–96
Harmony factor, 310
Harvard University Grant Study of Adult Development, 199, 208n1, 208n3, 527
health
adult sibling relationships and, 389–91
autobiographical narratives and, 434–35
morbidity compression and, 5
self-efficacy and, 225–26
hell-bent on change category, 267–68
hermeneutics, 40, 55. See also interpretivism
Hierarchical Complexity Model, 289, 289t, 327, 328. See also postformal orders of hierarchical complexity
postformal stages in, 10–11, 287–99, 328
religious/spiritual development and, 328–29, 330–32
hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), 64, 65, 77
hierarchy of needs, Maslow’s, 18
highest stage transformation, 268–69
Hinduism, 252
hippocampus, 6, 180, 415
Hispanic EPESE archived dataset, 78
HLM (hierarchical linear modeling), 64, 65, 77
holding environments, 467, 476–77, 479, 484
holistic development, 12, 510–39
accounting and, 527–28
Alverno Longitudinal Study, 513, 516, 520, 522, 529, 530–31
Balanced Self-Assessment and Acting from Values, 522, 535
beyond formal education, 530–31
bivariate relationships in holistic development measures, 520–21
civic performance and, 526–27
Collaborative Organizational Thinking and Action, 522, 523, 524, 525, 531
creative performance and, 527
CTA and, 517, 518t, 519t, 523
Developing Others and Perspective Taking, 522, 523
DIT and, 517, 518t, 519, 519t, 520, 521, 523, 524f, 526, 527, 528, 529, 530, 531
(p. 575)
domains of growth, 532–36, 532f, 535f
ECI and, 519, 520
factor loadings for holistic development measures, 516–20, 518t, 519t
future directions, 537–39
Integration of Self in Context, 517, 518t, 519t, 521, 523f, 524f, 525, 531
leadership and, 523–25
learning/development reciprocal relationship, 511–13
learning that lasts model, 12, 531–36
metatheoretical framework, 510–11, 531–32
MID and, 517, 518t, 519t, 523, 529, 530, 531, 536
Minnesota Twins Study, 519
MJI and, 517, 519, 519t, 520, 521, 523, 526, 527, 528, 529, 530, 531
moral self and, 12, 510, 515, 516, 519, 521, 534, 538
openness to learning, 529–30
parenting and, 526
performance and, 521–29
physician performance and, 526
relativized self and, 516, 517, 524
SCT and, 517, 518t, 519, 519t, 520, 523, 525, 527, 528, 529, 530, 531
structural development and, 513–21
Structural Model of Breadth and Career in Relation to Alumna Learning, Development, and Performance, 524–25, 524f
TCD and, 517, 518t, 519t, 523
teaching/counseling and, 525–26
transformative learning cycles, 534–36, 535f
workplace and, 522–23, 528
holistic learning, 114
holistic/systems-developmental theory, 11, 365, 366, 368–72, 374, 376–77
horizontal cultural transmission, 384, 385, 386
human agency. See agency
Human Genome Project, 405
humanistic psychology, 18–20
I
I, Me v., 533
IADLs (instrumental activities of daily living), 68–69, 71
IAPS pictures, 137
Icarus complex, 267
identification, projective, 277, 282n5
identity. See also work as catalyst
cross-cultural invariance and, 399
defined, 174, 399
ego integrity and, 402
v. identity diffusion (stage), 189, 198
misinterpretation of meaning, 399
role confusion v., 174
unconscious and, 398, 536
universality of, 399
women’s identities study, 199, 208n2
identity accommodation, 175, 176, 177, 181, 182, 183, 184
identity assimilation, 175, 176, 177, 181, 183
identity commitments, 174, 176, 177, 178, 181
identity conflict, 177–78, 183
identity confusion, 399, 400, 426
identity crisis, 10, 248, 399, 426, 427. See also constructing self
identity development/formation. See also autobiographical narratives
agency and, 427–28
barriers, 179, 181
Carrie study, 182–83
contextual contributors to, 178–79
cultures and, 425–26, 427–29
defense mechanisms and, 178, 179, 181, 183
emerging adulthood and, 429, 430, 431, 435, 440
empirical studies of, 400–402
generativity and, 198–99, 401–2
individualization and, 429–30, 433, 435, 440, 441
intervention and, 181–83
job loss and, 403–5
life transitions and, 180–81
meaning-making and, 177, 179–80, 186, 206, 425, 430
narrative identity and, 431–40
non-Western cultures and, 427, 428, 430, 441
outcomes of, 402–3
readiness for change and, 177, 181, 182, 183
research overview, 173, 177–79
self-focus and, 429, 430
as sociocultural adaptation to environment, 427–29
temporal-spatial continuity and, 426, 428
theoretical overview, 174–77
work as catalyst in, 398–405
identity narratives, 10, 173–84, 431–40
identity statuses, 174
achievement, 175, 176, 178, 179, 427, 428, 434, 441
adolescent separation-individuation process and, 178, 181
changes in, 174–79
diffusion, 174, 175, 177, 198, 400, 427
foreclosure, 174, 175, 178, 179, 198, 427, 428
Marcia’s model for, 174, 198, 427
moratorium, 174, 177, 178, 179, 198, 401, 427, 428
Identity Status Interview, 175
identity synthesis, 198, 426
ideological detoxification, 28
illness, self-efficacy and, 225–26
ill-structured problems, 116, 121, 122, 125, 131, 253, 259, 260, 491, 494, 528
image-making stage, 373
impermeable constructs, 495t
improvement, continual, 407, 409, 410
incremental theorists, 501, 502
Index of Educational Aptitude, 110
Index of Intellectual Ability, 108
individual agency. See agency
individualistic perspective, 30–31, 32–35, 399, 408
individualization, 429–30, 433, 435, 440, 441
ineffable moment, love of, 282
informational influence category, 375
informational learning, 202, 313, 464. See also transformative learning
information economy, 404
innovation. See also scientific innovations
creativity v., 287–88
rarity of, 288–89
traits of innovators, 294–98
inspirational influence category, 375
instrumental activities of daily living. See IADLs
instrumental case study, 48
instrumental (second order) consciousness, 88, 88t, 89, 204
instrumental knowers, 465t, 466, 469t, 470–72, 470t
instrumental learning, 86, 157
integrated, differentiated and, 368, 371, 374
Integration of Self in Context, 517, 518t, 519t, 521, 523f, 524f, 525, 531
integrity
ego integrity v. despair, 20, 32, 189, 282, 401, 402, 511
narrative, 433
wisdom/generativity and, 251
intellectual competence, 414
intellectual deficits, 390
intelligence
openness and, 546–47
practical, 110, 111, 414
revised views about, 415
scientific, 34
self-theories on, 501
social, 34
successful, 414
testing, 104
wisdom and, 312
work and, 413–15
intentional learners, 114, 128
interactional/mechanistic effects, 367
interactionism, 220–21
Interactive Model of Research Design (Maxwell, J.), 44–45
(p. 576) interdependent stage, 373
interdisciplinary studies, 291
interfused to subordinate, 371
Intergenerational Study, Institute of Human Development, 178
intergenerational transmission of knowledge and resources, 139, 165
internalization, transmuting, 265, 278, 279
Internet
reciprocal learning and, 164
telemedicine and, 225
interorganizational mobility, 187, 192
interpersonal competence
organizational citizenship behavior and, 396, 411, 412, 416
work and, 11, 396, 398, 407, 411–12
interpersonal competence and motivation, 9–10, 155–67
reciprocal learning, 155, 161–66
relationship differentiation, 10, 155, 156, 158–59, 160
socioemotional selectivity, 10, 155, 156–57, 160, 161, 165
theoretical accounts of, 156–62
interpersonal dimension, self-authorship, 118
interpretation as intervention, 28
interpretive stage, 373
interpretivism, 40t, 46t, 47t, 55. See also constructivism
auto/biographical and narrative research and, 54–55
constructivism v., 40t
descriptive/explorative case study and, 50
interpretive turn (in social sciences) and, 40–41
intersubjectivity, dynamic, 375
intervention
identity development and, 181–83
interpretation as intervention, 28
intimacy
adult development and, 547
generativity and, 198, 258, 401
isolation v., 20, 189, 435
intrapersonal dimension, self-authorship, 117–18
intrinsic case study, 48
IQ
testing, 104
wisdom and, 312
Islam, 252, 310
is-ness, 280, 282
isolation
differentiated and isolated, 371, 374
intimacy v., 20, 189, 435
self-efficacy and, 220, 221, 238
J
Jesus, 304
job loss, identity and, 403–5. See also work as catalyst
John of the Cross, Saint, 266
journaling, 24, 127, 406, 414
Journal of College Student Development, 43t
Journal of General Education, 42t
Journal of Learning Disabilities, 43t
Judaism, 252, 273, 276, 279
judgment
nonjudgmental awareness and, 11, 272, 305t, 349, 350, 356
religious, 324–26
K
Kabbalists, 252
KAPA (knowledge and appraisal personality architecture), 215, 216, 221–22, 222f, 235, 237, 238
Keeper of the Meaning, 200
Kegan’s orders of consciousness, 87, 88–90, 88t, 116, 204, 303, 514–15
kindness meditation, 352
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 304, 312, 399
knowledge. See also usable knowledge; ways of knowing; specific knowledge
declarative, 7, 142, 146, 398, 415, 495t
explicit, 85, 495t
procedural, 8, 88t, 89
received knowing, 88, 88t, 89, 288
somatic, 31
tacit, 83, 85, 86, 90, 93, 96, 251, 499, 548
knowledge economy, 189, 397, 404
knowledge workers, 82
Kolb Cycle, 85–86, 85f, 91t, 92, 94
Koreans
collectivist perspective and, 34–35
temporal-spatial continuity and, 428
L
labile to stable, 372
language/symbol formation, 368
latent growth models, 9, 61–78, 548
construct validity, 72–73
defined, 61
form of curve in, 71–72
intercept time point for, 71
measures of model fit in, 70
missing data and, 70–71
multi-domain (multivariate), 61, 75–76, 76f, 77f
with predictors, 69–70
sample size and, 70
second-order, 61, 74–75, 74f
for single variable over time, 61, 64–74
time scale for, 71
unconditional linear, 67–69
leadership
holistic development and, 523–25
openness and, 525
wisdom, 309–10
learning. See also ABE/ESOL learners in Adult Diploma Program study; adult development and learning; adult learning; collaborative learning; emotion, regulation, and learning; experiential learning; transformative learning; specific types of learning
communicative, 86
conscious, 7, 81, 132, 403, 417
development v., 159
emancipatory, 86, 201
embodied, 28, 31, 35
emotions and, 132–33
holistic, 114
informational, 202, 313, 464
instrumental, 86, 157
intentional learners, 114, 128
as lifespan process, 132
mutual learning processes, 163–64
non-reflective, 85
Quantitative Analysis of Behavior and, 293
reciprocal, 3, 155, 161–66, 384, 385
self-directed, 19, 20, 21, 25, 28, 29, 201, 408, 500t, 547
service learning programs, 126–27
social, 155, 158, 161–62, 164, 165, 166, 190, 201, 202, 367, 385, 387, 389
social contexts of, 166
stage change and, 293
unconscious, 7–8, 132, 398, 403, 417
wisdom and, 303, 312–15
writing-to-learn, 80, 94–95, 97
Learning by Doing, 104
learning organization, 407, 416
Learning Partnerships Model, 126
Learning Reconsidered, 114
Learning that Lasts model, 12, 531–36
Lectical Assessment System (LAS), 449, 450–51, 453–54
Lectical Decision Making Assessment (LDMA)
defined, 447, 453
developmental maieutics and, 447–48
dilemmas, 453, 454, 457
discussion, 456–58
perspective-taking scale and coding procedures, 454
results, 455–56
sample, 455, 455t, 456f
level 1/level 2 equations, in growth models, 65–66
Levinson’s life course development, 194–95
liberal education, 113, 118, 127, 531
liberalism, 30–31
life adjustment courses, 105
(p. 577) Life-Career Rainbow, 190
life changes, 180, 193, 259
life course development, Levinson’s, 194–95
Life Employment Workshop, 479
lifespan development
central premise, 155
emotion, regulation, and learning, 9, 132–48
interpersonal competence and motivation, 9–10, 155–67
theories, 20–21
life stimulation, 179
life stories. See autobiographical narratives
life transitions, 20, 21, 180–81
limits on knowing field, 291
Lincoln, Abraham, 304
Linda’s story, 436–38. See also autobiographical narratives
linear growth models, 64–65, 65f
logotherapy, 251
longitudinal changes, SLS
crystallized ability of verbal meaning, 105, 107f
fluid ability of inductive reasoning, 105, 107f
longitudinal studies. See also ABE/ESOL learners in Adult Diploma Program study; latent growth models; Seattle Longitudinal Study
accelerated longitudinal designs v., 70–71
Alverno Longitudinal Study, 513, 516, 520, 522, 529, 530–31
cross-parental learning patterns, 164
cross-sectional studies v., 61–64
defense mechanisms, 179
Grant Study of Adult Development, 199, 208n1, 208n3, 527
identity status change, 177–78
Mills College Longitudinal Study, 528
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 134
religious/spiritual development, 338
women’s identities, 199, 208n2
Lord of the Flies (Golding), 89
loss, ambiguous, 10, 249f, 250–51, 261, 262
love. See also intimacy
Frankl and, 251
Freud and, 189
of humanity, 282, 306
of ineffable moment, 282
isolation v. intimacy stage and, 20, 189, 435
mature transformations and, 271, 272, 275, 276, 280
need for, 18
post-narcissistic, 281, 282
wisdom and, 305t
M
MacArthur Research Network on Successful Aging Community Study, 62, 133
magnet schools, 105
Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, 268
Maharishi University of Management, 530
managerial wisdom, 309–10
map-maker metaphor. See prior learning assessment
Marcia’s identity status model. See identity statuses
marital spirituality, 334–35
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, 18
master narrative of modernity, 9, 17–25
matching law, 293, 294
mature transformations, 267, 269–81. See also transformations
defined, 269
illustrative clinical examples, 270–76
improvement and, 269
religion and, 276–81
maximum likelihood estimation, 70
Me, I v., 533
meaning in life, facing death and, 250
meaning-making, 173. See also adult learning
constructive-developmental theory and, 464
constructivism and, 21, 40
defined, 176–77, 204
faith development and, 325
generativity and, 201
holistic development and, 512, 519, 521, 529, 530, 537, 538
identity development and, 177, 179–80, 186, 206, 425, 430
Kegan’s orders of consciousness and, 87, 88–90, 88t, 116, 204, 303
midlife learning and development and, 205, 206
openness and, 529
reflection and, 124, 125, 126, 127, 201
religion/spirituality and, 320, 325, 327
synonyms for, 487n2
transformative learning and, 179, 202, 203
truth and, 183
Wabash National Study and, 116, 119
Measure of Intellectual Development (MID), 517, 518t, 519t, 523, 529, 530, 531, 536
mechanistic/interactional effects, 367
media culture, 26
medial prefrontal cortex, 143, 145, 357
meditation, 261, 271, 273, 275, 307, 320, 356, 530
melioration model, 293, 296
memory
intervention program, West and colleague’s, 229
objective memory complaints, 228
PLA and, 85
schematic, 230
self-efficacy and, 226–31
SMC and, 227, 228
stereotypes and, 229
training, 228, 229
Memory Controllability Inventory, 227
Memory Functioning Questionnaire, 227
mental illnesses, sibling relationships and, 389–91
mental time travel, 217
mentoring
Daloz on, 24
generativity and, 254, 401, 402
graduate education and, 494, 497, 498
PLA and, 80, 82, 90, 96, 97
Mercator projection, 80–81
metacognition, 9, 113
in college students, 119–24
components of, 120–21
emotions and, 128
future research, 128
research on, 121–23
scaffolded reflection and, 125–28
self-authorship v., 123–28
teachers and, 128
metacognitive reflection, 122, 124, 125, 126
metasystematic stage (postformal order of hierarchical complexity), 290, 330–31
metasystems
defined, 290
supersystem of, 295
metatheoretical framework, holistic development, 510–11, 531–32
Mexican American adults study, 68–69, 70, 78
Michelangelo, 266
microgenesis, 368
MID (Measure of Intellectual Development), 517, 518t, 519t, 523, 529, 530, 531, 536
midlife work role transitions. See work role transitions
Millennial generation, 62
Mills College Longitudinal Study, 528
mind
orchestration of, 251, 500
use it or lose it, 6, 162
mindfulness, 11, 347–59
characteristics of, 352
critical reflection v., 350, 352, 359, 547
future research, 358–59
meditation, 349, 350, 351, 352, 355, 356, 358, 359, 360, 506
reflection in action as, 415, 497t, 501
self and, 356
transformational learning and, 347–59
Model of Dynamics of Wisdom. See Dynamics of Wisdom Model
Model of Hierarchical Complexity. See Hierarchical Complexity Model
models. See specific models
modes of coping, 371
moment. See present moment
momentum, behavioral, 294, 296–97
monitoring of reciprocity, 156, 158, 161–62, 166
Moral and Intellectual Development in the College Years: A Scheme, 87
Moral Judgment Interview (MJI), 517, 519, 519t, 520, 521, 523, 526, 527, 528, 529, 530, 531
moral self, holistic development and, 12, 510, 515, 516, 519, 521, 534, 538
moratorium identity status, 174, 177, 178, 179, 198, 401, 427, 428
morbidity compression, 5
mortality, symbolic, 200, 201
mothering, good-enough, 333, 366
motivation. See also interpersonal competence and motivation
primary life tasks/goals and, 139–41
supplies-values fit and, 236–38
work, 165, 236
multi-domain (multivariate) latent growth models, 61, 75–76, 76f, 77f
multilevel modeling approach, 61, 64, 67, 73, 77, 78, 402
multiple intentionality, 368–69
multiple map users, 9, 80, 89, 90, 97
multiple modes of analysis, 368
multiple modes of functioning, 375
multiple-perspective taking, 87, 89, 90, 91t, 93, 94, 96, 97, 119, 123, 206, 297, 305, 305t, 492, 495, 503, 536
multivariate calculation, 294
multivariate latent growth models. See multi-domain latent growth models
mutual learning processes, 163–64
mystical experiences, 252, 280, 307
N
narrative identity, 10, 173–84, 431–40
narrative integrity, 433
narratives. See also autobiographical narratives
master narrative of modernity, 9, 17–25
religious/spiritual development and, 337–38
wisdom-of-experience, 308–9
narrative self-focus, 356–57
National Career Development Association, 191
National Center for Health Statistics, 225
National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL), 461, 470t, 477t, 480t, 487n1
National Defense Education Act, 105
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 134
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 385
nature-nurture interplay. See gene-environment interactions
Navajo tradition, 34
NCSALL (National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy), 461, 470t, 477t, 480t, 487n1
neurobiology, 303, 311, 312
neurogenesis, 6, 414, 547
neuroimaging, 6, 312
neuropathology, 104f, 377
neuroscience, wisdom and, 311–12
neutral zone, of confusion, 181, 182
new physics, 253, 260, 261
Nicholson’s transition cycle model, 195
nirvana, 252
nominal stage, 289t
non-constructive ventilation, 371
nonfragmented self, 258–59
nonjudgmental awareness, 11, 272, 305t, 349, 350, 356
non-reflective learning, 85
non-Western perspective, 17, 31–35, 427, 428, 430, 441
NORA (Nordic Research on Aging), 62
Nordic Research on Aging. See NORA
Normative Aging Study, 133
normative change conditions, 293
now moment, ever-present, 253
nurture-nature interplay. See gene-environment interactions
nurturing stage, 373
O
O, Faith in, 280–81
object, pervasive, 272, 282n2
objective memory complaints, 228
objective truth, 40t, 89, 465t
objectivist grounded theory, 46t, 47t, 51
object relations theory, 271, 332–35, 336, 337
Occupational Research Program, 188
Office Reorganization dilemma, 453
On Becoming a Person (Rogers, C.), 18–19
ontogenesis, 368, 427
ontology/epistemology, qualitative research and, 40, 40t, 44, 45
openness to experience/change, 348, 546–47. See also present moment
definition, 348
holistic development and, 529–30
identity development and, 181
innovative scientists and, 296
intelligence and, 546–47
leadership and, 525
mature transformation and, 269
meaning-making and, 529
mindfulness and, 347–59
suchness and, 280–81
work and, 412–13
open v. closed adoption, 371
optimal frustration, 278
optimism, 222, 250, 296, 407
oral/tribal/primal spiritual traditions, 252, 253, 260
orchestration, of mind, 251, 500
orders of consciousness, Kegan’s, 87, 88–90, 88t, 116, 204, 303, 514–15
organismic-developmental theory, 366, 367, 368, 378n3. See also holistic/systems-developmental theory
organismic worldview, 367, 368
organization, learning, 407, 416
organizational citizenship behavior, 396, 411, 412, 416. See also interpersonal competence
originative creativity, 287, 288, 293, 294, 297, 298
orthogenetic principle, 368, 371, 376, 512
overloaded self, 258–60
P
PACE curriculum, 312
paid work. See work as catalyst
paradigmatic stage (postformal order of hierarchical complexity), 290, 331
paradigm war, 44
parent development and learning, 372–74. See also children effects on adult development and learning
adoptive families, 369, 371, 373
good-enough mothering, 333, 366
holistic development and, 526
parent-in-environment system, 369, 370t, 371, 378n4
particle physics, 291
pathogenesis, 368
paying attention, in present moment, 349–50
pedagogies
andragogy v., 19, 20, 21, 201
critical cultural pedagogy, 25–30
public, 25–30
of the unknowable, 30
perceived self-efficacy, 218–20
perennial philosophy, 252
performance, holistic development and, 521–29
persistence, 294
behavioral momentum and, 296–97
persistence/ambition model, 295–96
personal attributes, of wisdom, 303
personality. See also work as catalyst (p. 579)
cross-cultural invariance and, 406–7
gene-environment interaction and, 405–6
plasticity and, 398, 405, 409
unconscious and, 398
universality of, 406–7
personality attributes. See also autonomy; intelligence; interpersonal competence; openness to experience/change
conscientiousness, 11, 396, 406, 407, 408–11, 412, 413, 416, 417
Five-Factor Model, 262, 406–7, 411
work and, 406–16
person-in-environment system, 368–69, 371, 374, 376
perspective seeking, 451–53
perspective taking, 451–53
perspective transformation, 22–23, 202–3, 348, 354, 492, 493, 506. See also transformative learning
pervasive object, 272, 282n2
phenomenology, 40, 51, 52
philosophy, perennial, 252
phylogenesis, 368, 377
physician performance, holistic development and, 526
physics
new, 253, 260, 261
paradigm of, 291
physiology, emotion, 137–38
pictures, IAPS, 137
plasticity
developmental, 156
personality and, 398, 405, 409
Polaroid’s Adult Learning Program. See ABE/ESOL learners in Adult Diploma Program study
popular culture, resistant, 27–28
population aging, 4, 5, 167, 197, 548
portfolio course, 91t
college student learning and development and, 126
e-portfolios, 42t, 126, 127
experiential learning and, 81
formative feedback and, 126
PLA and, 81, 82–83, 87, 90, 91t
Women’s Ways of Knowing and, 83–84
posed emotions, 141
positivism, 39, 40–41, 40t, 46t, 47t
postconventional self, 493
post-critical beliefs, 322
postformal complex cognition, 255–58
postformal complex thought
constructing self and, 253–55
creativity of, 289
doctoral study and, 491–92, 494–96, 495t
synthesis and, 256, 294, 295
postformal development, wisdom as, 303
postformal orders of hierarchical complexity, 10–11, 287–99, 328. See also Hierarchical Complexity Model
cross-paradigmatic stage, 290–91, 331
fractal nature of stages, 292–93
metasystematic stage, 290, 330–31
Model of Hierarchical Complexity, 289, 289t
paradigmatic stage, 290, 331
religious/spiritual development and, 330–32
selectionism and, 293–94
systematic stage, 289–90, 330
traits of innovators, 294–98
transition steps, 291–93, 291f, 293f
postmodernism
adult development and learning and, 17–18, 28, 30, 35
identity formation in postmodern societies, 429–31
self construction and, 260–61
post-narcissistic love, 281, 282
post-positivism, 39, 40–41, 40t, 46t, 47t, 49
descriptive/explorative case study and, 49–50
generic qualitative research and, 53–54
post-traumatic stress disorder, 174
practical intelligence, 110, 111, 414
practical wisdom, 303, 304, 307–8, 309, 310, 311
Practical Wisdom Scale (PWS), 311
predictors, latent growth models with, 69–70
preoperational stage, 289t
present moment. See also openness to experience/change
choiceless awareness, 280
ever-present now moment, 253
love of ineffable moment, 282
paying attention in, 349–50
suchness and, 280–81, 282
teachable moments, 21
Transcendent and, 256, 257, 257f, 258
primal/oral/tribal spiritual traditions, 252, 253, 260
primary life tasks/goals/motivations, 139–41
primary stage, 289t
prior learning assessment (PLA), 9, 80–97
acronym usage for, 97n1
adult development and, 83–84, 84t, 87–90, 88t
cartographers metaphor and, 9, 80–81, 87, 89–91, 97
constructive-developmental theory and, 84, 87–90, 88t, 91t, 96, 97
critical reflection and, 80, 87, 96
experiential learning and, 81, 84–86, 84t, 85f
future directions, 97
historical context, 81–82
multiple map users and, 9, 80, 89, 90, 97
portfolio course and, 81, 82–83, 87, 90, 91t
practice, 90–96
research on, 82–84
side benefits of, 82–83
theoretical frameworks, 84–90, 84t, 85f, 88t
transformative learning and, 83, 84, 84t, 86–87
problem solving
ill-structured, 116, 121, 122, 125, 131, 253, 259, 260, 491, 494, 528
across lifespan, 233–34
role in learning, 232–35
self-efficacy and, 234–35
procedural knowledge, 8, 22, 88t, 89, 307, 398, 403, 415, 548
processes, adult learning, 179–80
progressive higher-order transformations, 268
projective identification, 277, 282n5
prolonged adolescence, 429
promotion of self-world distancing category, 376
prospective longitudinal studies, 63
prostate cancer treatment, 226
protean careers, 192–93
protean individuals, 206, 207, 208
psychobiology, 291
psychohistory, 296
psychological transformations. See transformations
psychology
history, usable knowledge and, 447–48, 458
humanistic, 18–20
religious/spiritual development and, 323
psychopathology, 369, 377
psychophysics, 291
psychotherapy
object relations theory and, 271, 332–35, 336, 337
transformations and, 10, 265–82, 282n1
public pedagogies, 25–30
PWS (Practical Wisdom Scale), 311
pyramid
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, 18
squaring of, 5
(p. 580) Q
Quakers, 267, 307
qualitative research methods, 9, 39–57, 548
analytic framework for, 44–45, 46t, 47t
auto/biographical and narrative research, 45, 47t, 54–55, 548
case study research, 45, 47t, 48–50
characteristics of, 44
future directions, 56–57
generic (basic) qualitative research, 45, 47t, 52–54
grounded theory study, 45, 47t, 50–52
interpretative turn and, 40–41
strength of, 41
Quantitative Analysis of Behavior, 293
quantum mechanics, 291
Queries, 305, 305t, 314
questioning of social values category, 376
R
“raging grannies” case study, 47t, 50
random effects models, 64
rarity, of scientific innovations, 288–89
Rasch scaling analysis, 72, 328, 331, 332, 454, 455
Rathunde’s case study, 49
Ratings of Transcendent Wisdom scale (RTW), 311
rational expectation theory, 294
RCQ (Religious Cognition Questionnaire), 329
realization of different life possibilities category, 376
real-life view, of wisdom, 308
received knowing, 88, 88t, 89, 288
recession 2007–2008, 191, 404, 548
reciprocal adult development and learning. See adult development and learning
reciprocal causality, 367
reciprocal determinism, 220, 221, 367
reciprocal learning, 3, 155, 161–66, 384, 385
reciprocity
monitoring, 156, 158, 161–62, 166
social learning and, 161–62
reconstructing self. See constructing self
recycling, 187, 197
reductionist approach, 406, 417, 514, 546
“Re-envisioning the Ph.D.” (Nyquist and Woodford), 490
reflection. See also critical reflection
on agency, 238
in college students, 124–27
constructivism and, 21, 201
critical reflection v., 86, 93
explicit knowledge and, 85
meaning-making and, 124, 125, 126, 127, 201
metacognitive, 122, 124, 125, 126
reflective discourse, 23, 86, 87, 91t, 314, 492
reflective practices, 25, 84t, 113, 114, 123, 126, 128
scaffolded reflections, 125–28
self-authorship, 124, 125, 126, 127
on self-efficacy, 238
on wisdom, 303–4
reflection in action, 415, 497t, 501. See also mindfulness
Reflection/Transformation dimension, 305, 305t, 306, 314
regulatory capacities, 144–45. See also emotion, regulation, and learning
reinforcement contingencies, 294
relatedness, 433–34, 435–36, 437, 438, 439, 440. See also autonomy
relationship differentiation, 10, 155, 156, 158–59, 160
relative truth, 179, 181, 183, 254
relativism, 292, 292f
relativity field, 291
relativized self, 516, 517, 524
reliability
generic qualitative research and, 53–54
LAS, 454
latent growth modeling and, 73
LDMA, 454
religion. See also spiritual traditions; transformations
mature transformation and, 276–81
psychotherapy and, 276–81
religious, spiritual, and moral development and learning, 311, 318–39
Attachment Theory and, 335–37
conceptual/empirical relationships, 326–27
definitions and boundaries, 319–20
early research, 323–24
faith development and, 324–26
future directions, 339
Hierarchical Complexity Model and, 328–29, 330–32
marital spirituality and, 334–35
object relations theory and, 332–35, 336, 337
postformal stages of hierarchical complexity and, 330–32
psychology and, 323
religious judgment and, 324–26
religious v. spiritual development, 319–20
sociocultural models of, 337–38
well-being and, 320–22
wisdom and, 322
Religious Cognition Questionnaire (RCQ), 329
religious judgment, 324–26
remarriage, sibling support and, 387–88
repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), 64, 77, 78
Research in Post-Compulsory Education, 42t
resistant popular culture, 27–28
Respecting dimension, 305, 305t, 306
reverse integration category, 376
rigid to flexible, 372
RMSEA (root mean square error), 70
role confusion, identity v., 174
romance novels study, 27
Roosevelt, Eleanor, 304
Roosevelt, Franklin, 304
root mean square error (RMSEA), 70
RTW (Ratings of Transcendent Wisdom scale), 311
rubber band fallacy, 4, 414
S
Sara (clinical vignette), 272–74
SAS Institute, 73
SAT (Scholastic Aptitude Test), 104–5
scaffolding
adult development and learning and, 548
college learning and development and, 125–28
PLA and, 91–92
scaffolded reflections, 125–28
socioemotional selectivity and, 155, 156, 157
transformative learning and, 29, 86, 87
Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), 104–5
science. See also constructing self; qualitative research methods
new science models and constructing self, 253–54
scientific inquiry process, 39
scientific intelligence, 34
scientific innovations, 287–99
creativity v., 287–88
openness to challenge and, 296
rarity of, 288–89
traits of innovators, 294–98
Seattle Longitudinal Study (SLS), 5, 9, 163, 415
additional details on, 105
crystallized ability of verbal meaning, 105, 107f
database for, 105
educational attainment and, 105–10
educational levels for data sets, 105, 106t
fluid ability of inductive reasoning, 105, 107f
generational/cohort effects, 107–10
(p. 581)
heuristic model of development, 103–4, 104f
technology skills/arithmetic abilities, 105
second order consciousness. See instrumental consciousness
second-order latent growth models, 61, 74–75, 74f
Seldon character, 295–96
selectionism, 293–94
selective optimization and compensation (SOC), 10, 215, 220, 226, 235
self. See also constructing self; holistic development
adaptive, 431
autonomous-related, 434
collectivist perspective and, 32
critical reflection and, 497t
developmental functionalism and, 143
evolving, as creative act, 260–61
false, 279, 333, 336
master narrative and, 18
as memory schematic, 230
mindful practice and, 356
moral, holistic development and, 12, 510, 515, 516, 519, 521, 534, 538
nonfragmented, 258–59
overloaded, 258–60
postconventional, 493
relativized, 516, 517, 524
Sources of the Self (Taylor, C.), 430
transformative learning and, 29–30, 86
use of, doctoral study and, 497t, 500–502
self-actualization, 18, 30, 189, 202, 281, 435, 438, 439
self-authoring (fourth order) consciousness, 88, 88t, 89, 204
self-authoring knowers, 465t, 466, 469t, 470t, 474–76, 477t, 480t, 485, 486t
self-authorship
college students and, 9, 113, 114–19
doctoral study and, 493–94
emotions and, 128
epistemological dimension, 116–17
future research, 128
interpersonal dimension, 118
intrapersonal dimension, 117–18
metacognition v., 123–28
research on, 118–19
scaffolded reflection and, 125–28
self-authorship reflection, 124, 125, 126, 127
self-directed learning, 19, 20, 21, 25, 28, 29, 201, 408, 500t, 547
self-efficacy, 215–38
agency and, 216–20, 223, 238
analysis, 10, 215–38
beliefs, 223–24
chronic disease self-management and, 225
complex medical decision making and, 226
goals and, 219
illness and, 225–26
isolation and, 220, 221, 238
perceived, 218–20
problem solving and, 234–35
reflections on, 238
skill acquisition and, 231–35
systems view, 220–31
self-focus
experiential, 356–57
identity formation and, 429, 430
narrative, 356–57
self-help groups, 24–25, 229
self-knowledge development, 83
self-management, chronic disease, 225
self-other comparisons, 219
self-reflection domain, 532–34, 532f
self-stories. See autobiographical narratives
self-theories, on intelligence, 501
self-transforming (fifth order) consciousness, 88, 204
self-world relationships, 369, 371, 374, 376, 377
self-worth, 217, 222f, 355, 356, 403, 409, 473, 501, 502
sense of coherence, 227, 426
sensitivity
to delay, 296
to reinforcement, 295–96
to risk, 296
sensory-motor stage, 289t
sensory-tonic field theory of perception, 368
Sentence Completion Test (SCT), 517, 518t, 519, 519t, 520, 523, 525, 527, 528, 529, 530, 531
sentential stage, 289t
separation-individuation process, adolescent, 178, 181
September 11th terrorist attacks, 63, 413
service learning programs, 126–27
serving as role model category, 376
Sesame Street, 105
seven-facet generativity model, 200–201
sibling relationships in adulthood, 11, 381–93
alcohol use, 384–86
caring for aging parents, 389
conclusions, 392
developmental course, 383–84
disabilities and, 389–91
divorce and remarriage, 387–88
future directions, 392–93
learning and development opportunities, 384–91
mental illnesses and, 389–91
sibling support and, 386–88
variation in affective qualities, 382–83
signaling, emotion, 136–37
single-cohort longitudinal studies, 62–63
sitcoms study, 27
skills
acquisition, self-efficacy and, 231–35
development, training programs and, 235–36
smash, 292, 292f
SMC (subjective memory complaints), 227, 228
soap operas study, 27
SOC (selective optimization and compensation), 10, 215, 220, 226, 235
social cognition, 6, 397, 405, 411, 417, 515, 538
social contexts, of learning, 166
social goals, agency and, 160–61
social intelligence, 34
socialization effects, 366–69
bidirectional, 366–67
defined, 366
transactional, 367–69
unidirectional, 366
socializing (third order) consciousness, 88, 88t, 89, 204
socializing knowers, 89, 94, 96, 465t, 466, 469t, 470t, 472–74
social learning, 155, 158, 161–62, 164, 165, 166, 190, 201, 202, 367, 385, 387, 389
social-perspective taking, 83, 452, 454
social sciences, interpretive turn in, 40–41
sociocultural adaptation, to environment, 427–29
sociocultural models, of religious/spiritual development, 337–38
socioemotional selectivity, 10, 136, 140, 155, 156–57, 160, 161, 165
sociological perspective, on careers, 188
socio-ontogenetic stages, 427
somatic knowing, 31
Sources of the Self (Taylor, C.), 430
South Asian spiritual traditions, 252–53
spatial-temporal continuity, 426, 428
Spearman-Brown formula, 73
spirituality, marital, 334–35
spiritual traditions. See also mindfulness; religious, spiritual, and moral development and learning; transformations
Abrahamic, 252–53
Buddhism, 252, 270, 280, 281, 282, 308
Christianity, 252, 271, 276, 279, 307
Confucianism, 31, 33, 34, 252, 308
constructing self and, 249, 251–53
East Asian, 31, 34, 252–53, 308
Islam, 252, 310
(p. 582)
Judaism, 252, 273, 276, 279
meaning-making and, 320, 325, 327
meditation and, 261, 271, 273, 275, 307, 320, 356, 530
mystical experiences, 252, 280, 307
primal/oral/tribal, 252, 253, 260
religious v. spiritual development, 319–20
South Asian, 252–53
Sufism, 252, 279, 314
Taoism, 252, 308
Zen Buddhism, 252, 270, 271, 276
squaring of the pyramid, 5
stable, labile to, 372
stage change, learning and, 293
stage theories of development, 20, 41, 44, 87. See also postformal orders of hierarchical complexity
careers, 190–91
Erikson’s, 20, 32, 41, 44, 87, 189
General Stage Development Theory, 328
Kegan’s orders of consciousness, 87, 88–90, 88t, 116, 204, 303, 514–15
Kohlberg’s, 33, 41, 44, 331, 514, 515, 527
Loevinger’s, 41, 87, 514–15
parenting, 373
Piaget’s, 21–22, 203, 323–24, 327–28
religious/spiritual, 323–24
transformation and, 10, 267
stagnation, generativity v., 20, 32, 174, 186–87, 189, 197
Statement on Liberal Learning, AAC&U, 113
stereotypes
of aging, 229, 230
Aging Semantic Differential Scale and, 219
college students and, 117, 119, 124
gender role, 261
identity development and, 179
impermeable constructs and, 495t
lift, 229
self-authorship and, 119
threat, 223, 229, 232
stimulation overload, 258–60
story form, 337. See also narratives
structural analysis, 368, 372
structural development. See also holistic development
as college learning outcome, 513–14
debate (among theorists) about, 514–16
defined, 512
empirically disentangling, 516–21
orthogenetic principle and, 512
structural equation modeling (SEM), 64, 67, 68, 69, 70, 73, 77, 220, 223
Structural Model of Breadth and Career in Relation to Alumna Learning, Development, and Performance, 524–25, 524f
Studies in Continuing Education, 43t
subjective memory complaints (SMC), 227, 228
subject-object balance, 83, 203
subject-object shift, 84, 86, 90, 94
subordinate, interfused to, 371
successful aging, 5, 215–16
successful intelligence, 414
suchness, 280–81, 282
Sufism, 252, 279, 314
supersystem, of metasystems, 295
supersystems, 290
supplies-values fit, 236–38
support, inter-sibling, 386–88
surfacing tacit knowledge, 90, 93, 96
symbolic mortality, 200, 201
symbol/language formation, 368
synaptogenesis, 6, 414, 547
syncretic to discrete, 371–72
synthesis
Hierarchical Complexity Model and, 292, 292f
memory and, 85
organismic worldview and, 367
post formal thought and, 256, 294, 295
systematic stage (postformal order of hierarchical complexity), 289–90, 330
systems view. See also holistic/systems-developmental theory
scientific innovation and, 289–90
of self-efficacy, 220–31
T
tacit knowledge, 83, 85, 86, 90, 93, 96, 251, 499, 548
Taiwanese view, of wisdom, 308
Taosim, 252, 308
tathata, 280, 281
TCD (Test of Cognitive Development), 517, 518t, 519t, 523
teaching
holistic development and, 525–26
metacognition and, 128
teachable moments, 21
wisdom, 312–15
technology skills/arithmetic abilities, SLS, 105
tectonic geo-political shifts, 310. See also globalization
telemedicine, 225
temporal-spatial continuity, 426, 428
terrorist attacks, September 11th, 63, 413
terror management theory, 529–30
Test of Cognitive Development (TCD), 517, 518t, 519t, 523
test-retest reliability, 73
theory-testing case study, 48–49
therapeutic alliance, 277, 282n4
third order consciousness. See socializing consciousness
threat, stereotype, 223, 229, 232
three-dimensional wisdom scale (3D-WS), 251, 303, 305, 306–7, 308, 311
time travel, mental, 217
Title IX (1972), 105
TLI (Tucker-Lewis Index), 70
total quality management, 407
tracking system, 104
training, memory, 228, 229
traits of innovators, 294–98
transactional effects, 367–69. See also holistic/systems-developmental theory
Transcendent, 256, 257, 257f, 258
Transcendental Meditation program, 530
transcendent wisdom, 303, 307, 311
Transformation/Reflection dimension, 305, 305t, 306, 314
transformations (facilitated by psychotherapy and spiritual practice), 10, 265–82, 282n1
future directions, 282
hell-bent on change category, 267–68
highest stage transformation category, 268–69
mature, 267, 269–81
pervasive search for, 265–66
progressive higher-order transformations category, 268
stage description category, 267
themes, in academic literature, 266–67
typology of, 267–69
transformative learning, 202–3. See also critical reflection; meaning-making
age and, 354–55
auto/biographical and narrative research and, 55
competing perspectives on, 28–30
critical reflection and, 20, 23, 29, 84t, 86, 91t, 202, 203, 205, 314, 347, 353–54, 355, 358
defined, 23, 202, 347, 464
humanistic psychology and, 19–20
informational learning v., 202, 313, 464
meaning-making and, 179, 202, 203
mindfulness and, 347–59
perspective transformation and, 22–23, 202–3, 348, 354, 492, 493, 506
phases in, 23, 86, 202–3
(p. 583)
PLA and, 83, 84, 84t, 86–87
public pedagogies and, 26–30
scaffolding and, 29, 86, 87
self and, 29–30, 86
wisdom and, 313–14
transformative learning cycles, 534–36, 535f
transitional space, 333
transition cycle model, 195
transitions. See also changes
defined, 193
life, 20, 21, 180–81
theories/models, 194–97
ways of knowing and, 466–67, 472–76
work role, 10, 186–208
transition step sequence, 291–92, 291f. See also postformal orders of hierarchical complexity
transmission
horizontal cultural transmission, 384, 385, 386
intergenerational transmission of knowledge and resources, 139, 165
vertical cultural transmission, 384, 385, 391, 392
transmuting internalization, 265, 278, 279
traumatic brain injury, 390–91
tribal/primal/oral spiritual traditions, 252, 253, 260
truth
absolute, 179, 181, 183, 259, 352, 515, 529
adult learning and, 179, 181, 183
of contradictory logical systems, 252, 256
Gandhi on, 248
Kolb Cycle and, 92, 93
liberal education and, 113
mature transformation and, 269
meaning-making and, 183
media culture and, 26
objective, 40t, 89, 465t
positivism and, 40t
relative, 179, 181, 183, 254
socializing knowers and, 465t
systematic stage and, 290
Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI), 70
Turning Point program, 184
21st-century careers, 186, 191–93, 205, 207. See also careers
twins
Minnesota Twins Study and, 519
organizational citizenship behavior and, 412
U
Unbowed (Maathai), 314
unconditional linear latent growth models, 67–69
unconscious, 548
identity and, 398, 536
procedural knowledge and, 8, 22, 88t, 89, 307, 398, 403, 415, 548
projective identification and, 282n5
unconscious learning, 7–8, 132, 398, 403, 417
unemployment. See also work as catalyst
job loss and identity, 403–5
job tenure and, 396–97
skills development training program and, 236
unidirectional effects, 366
Unitarians, 307
United Nations Population Division, 236
United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, 187, 236, 396, 397, 402, 404
United States Census Bureau, 197, 373, 381
United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4
United States Department of Health and Human Services, 5, 224
universality
of identity, 399
of personality, 406–7
unknowable, pedagogy of the, 30
usable knowledge
developmental maieutics and, 450–51
history of psychology and, 447–48, 458
use it or lose it, 6, 162
usual aging, 5
V
ventilation, non-constructive, 371
vertical cultural transmission, 384, 385, 391, 392
visualization techniques, 349, 356
vocational/differentialist perspectives, 188–89
W
Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education, 116, 119
Waiting to Exhale, 27
wave theory, 291
ways of knowing, 464–67, 465t. See also ABE/ESOL learners in Adult Diploma Program study
instrumental knowers, 465t, 466, 469t, 470–72, 470t
self-authoring knowers, 465t, 466, 469t, 470t, 474–76, 477t, 480t, 485, 486t
socializing knowers, 89, 94, 96, 465t, 466, 469t, 470t, 472–74
transitioning and, 466–67, 472–76
Women’s Ways of Knowing (Belenky et al), 83, 84, 87
well-being, religion/spirituality and, 320–22
West and colleague’s memory intervention program, 229
wisdom, 11, 302–16
3D-WS model, 251, 303, 305, 306–7, 308, 311
age differences and, 307
balance theory of, 303
in classroom, 313
continuum of, 304
cross-cultural differences and, 307–8
definitions of, 251, 302, 303, 305–6
doctoral study and, 493
Dynamics of Wisdom Model, 303, 304–5, 305t
enhancing, 313–15
future directions for research, 315
gender studies and, 306–7
integrity/generativity and, 251
leadership, 309–10
learning and, 303, 312–15
managerial, 309–10
measuring, 310–11
neuroscience and, 311–12, 315
personal attributes of, 303
as postformal development, 303
practical, 303, 304, 307–8, 309, 310, 311
purpose of, 315–16
real-live view of, 308
recent research on, 306–9
reflections on, 303–4
religious/spiritual development and, 322
St. Augustine on, 302, 316
Taiwanese view of, 308
teaching, 312–15
transcendent, 303, 307, 311
transformative learning and, 314–15
Wisdom Development Scale, 311
wisdom-of-experience narratives, 308–9
Woods, Tiger, 266
Women’s Ways of Knowing (Belenky et al), 83, 84, 87
work. See also ABE/ESOL learners in Adult Diploma Program study
ABE/ESOL and, 462
aging work force, 236
holistic development and, 522–23, 528
work motivation, 165, 236
work as catalyst (of reciprocal adult development and learning), 11, 396–417
future implications, 417
identity development, 398–405
intelligence and, 413–15
interpersonal competence, 11, 396, 398, 407, 411–12
job loss, 403–5
openness to experience, 412–13
organizational citizenship behavior, 396, 411, 412, 416
personality attributes, 406–16
(p. 584) work autonomy, 407–8
work role transitions, 10, 186–208. See also careers; career development; generativity
adult learning and development and, 204–7
Ashforth’s work role transition model, 195–96
future directions, 207–8
Levinson’s life course development, 194–95
transition cycle model, 195
understanding, 206–7
world-self relationships, 369, 371, 374, 376, 377
worldviews, 288. See also scientific innovations
writing-to-learn, 80, 94–95, 97
Y
yoga, 349, 356, 358
Young Man Luther (Erikson, E.), 399
Z
Zen Buddhism, 252, 270, 271, 276