- Introduction to the Field and the Issues
- Substance Use in the Context of Adolescent Development
- A Developmental Perspective on Substance Involvement From Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood
- The Epidemiology of Substance Use Among Adolescents in the United States
- Cultural Variations and Relevance to Etiology
- Cigarette Smoking and Nicotine Dependence in Adolescence
- Adolescent Alcohol Use
- Marijuana Use and Abuse in Adolescence
- The Drugs of Abuse: Similarities and Differences: Other (Illicit) Drugs of Abuse in Adolescence
- Prescription Drug Abuse in Adolescence
- The Neural Circuitry and Neurocognitive Development
- A Developmental Biological Perspective of Adolescent Substance Abuse: Animal Models
- Behavioral Genetics of Adolescent Substance Use and Abuse
- Behavioral Undercontrol: A Multifaceted Concept and Its Relationship to Alcohol and Substance Use Disorders
- An Early Emerging Internalizing Pathway to Substance Use and Disorder
- Adolescent Resilience: Promoting More Positive Outcomes Among Youth at Risk of Using and Abusing Substances
- Application of the Expectancy Concept to Substance Use
- Child and Adolescent Socialization Into Substance Use
- Linking Peer Relationships to Substance Use Across Adolescence
- Development of Sexual Relationships and Substance Use
- Self-Regulation and Decision Making
- Substance-Impaired Driving in Adolescence
- Identity Development and Substance Use in Adolescence
- Adolescent Substance Use and Co-Occurring Disorders
- Alcohol and Drug Use as Risk Factors for Delinquent Behavior Among Adolescents
- Sleep Impairment
- Medical Issues in Adolescent Substance Use: Background and Role of the Primary Care Physician
- Adolescent Cultural Contexts for Substance Use: Intergroup Dynamics, Family Processes, and Neighborhood Risks
- Assessing Adolescent Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse
- Prevention in School, Primary Care, and Community-Based Settings
- Targeted Prevention Approaches
- Family-Based Treatments for Adolescent Substance Abuse: Advances Yield New Developmental Challenges
- Twelve-Step Approaches
- Effective Inpatient and Outpatient Models of Treatment for Adolescents With Substance Use Disorders
- Public Health Policy and Prevention of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Drug Problems
- Agenda for Future Research and Concluding Comments
Abstract and Keywords
Adolescence is a prime time for substance use onset and escalation. Key developmental concepts regarding continuity, discontinuity, transitions, and tasks are identified. For many young people, substance use reflects a cascading effect whereby earlier difficulties contribute to substance use onset and escalation, which then cascades into other difficulties. In contrast, this cascading flow can get interrupted, resulting in ontogenetic discontinuity whereby substance use and other risky behaviors during adolescence are more the result of developmentally proximal individual and contextual characteristics than distal ones. This discontinuity can reflect either a temporary developmental disturbance or a turning point, a permanent change in course. Substance use is intertwined with the many developmental changes of adolescence, providing some developmentally functional experiences while posing serious risks to health and well-being that can reverberate into adulthood.
John E. Schulenberg is Associate Director of the Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Research; Research Professor (tenured) and Program Director, Youth and Social Issues Program, Survey Research Center; Professor of Developmental Psychology (tenured), Department of Psychology; and Research Professor, Center for Human Growth and Development; all at the University of Michigan.
Julie Maslowsky is a postdoctoral fellow in the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Health & Society Scholars program at the University of Wisconsin, Madison.
Megan E. Patrick is Research Assistant Professor, Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan.
University of Michigan
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