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date: 20 November 2018

Abstract and Keywords

Achaemenid Iran features prominently in a wide range of Greek sources, from the historical writing of Herodotus to the tragedy of Aeschylus and the biographies of Xenophon and Plutarch. This chapter surveys the Greek literary sources on the Achaemenid Empire, evaluating their utility as historical sources and discussing the attitudes of Greek writers and their audiences to ancient Iran. The relationship between Herodotus and the text of Darius I’s Bisotun inscription is discussed. The fragments of Ctesias are treated, as are the references to Persia in Greek philosophic texts.

Keywords: Herodotus, Aeschylus, Plutarch, Xenophon, Bisotun, Darius, Artaxerxes II, Ctesias

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