- The Oxford Handbook of Music Censorship
- In the Quest of Gallican Remnants in Gregorian Manuscripts: Archaisms in the Masses for the Holy Cross in Aquitanian Chant Books
- The English Kyrie
- Governmental Interference as a Shaping Force in Elizabethan Printed Music
- The Sounds of Indigenous Ancestors: Music, Corporality, and Memory in the Jesuit Missions of Colonial SouthAmerica
- “We Should Not Sing of Heaven and Angels”: Performing Western Sacred Music in Soviet Russia, 1917–1964
- A Strident Silencing: The Ban on Richard Wagner in Israel
- HARPOCRATES at Work: How the God of Silence Protected Eighteenth-Century French Iconoclasts
- Sex, Politics, and Censorship in Mozart’s Don Giovanni/Don Juan
- The Depoliticized Drama: Mozart’s Figaro and the Depths of Enlightenment
- The Curious Incident of Fidelio and the Censors
- “Years in Prison”: Giuseppe Verdi and Censorship in Pre-Unification Italy
- Micronarratives of Music and (Self-)censorship in Socialist Yugoslavia
- Popular Music as a Barometer of Political Change: Evidence from Taiwan
- Music and Censorship in Vietnam since 1954
- Miguel Ángel Estrella: (Classical) Music for the People, Dictatorship, and Memory
- A Case Study of Brazilian Popular Music and Censorship: Ivan Lins’s Music during Dictatorship in Brazil
- Alban Berg’s “Guilt” by Association
- Slow Dissolves, Full Stops, and Interruptions: Terezín, Censorship, and the Summer of 1944
- Selling Schnittke: Late Soviet Censorship and the Cold War Marketplace
- Curb that Enticing Tone: Music Censorship in the PRC
- Censorship and the Politics of Reception: The Filmic Afterlife of Marc Blitzstein’s The Cradle Will Rock
- Pete Seeger’s Project
- Government Censorship and Aaron Copland’s Lincoln Portrait during the Second Red Scare
- “A Day in the Life”: The Beatles and the BBC, May 1967
- Composing in Black and White: Code-Switching in the Songs of Sam Lucas
- Exploring Transitions in Popular Music: Censorship from Apartheid to Post-Apartheid South Africa
- Rap Music and Rap Audiences Revisited: How Race Matters in the Perception of Rap Music
- Deaths and Silences: Coding and Defiance in Music about AIDS
- Teaching Silence in the Twenty-First Century: Where are the Missing Women Composers?
- Veiled Voices: Music and Censorship in Post-Revolutionary Iran
Abstract and Keywords
This current paper offers a review of some of the early rap studies and discusses some of the more recent rap investigations that have been dominated by negative effects investigations. It argues that the suspicion of negative effects and stereotyping of African Americans have driven support for censorship of this musical genre. Although psychologists and lay critics have focused on the potential negative effects of rap music, the current chapter provides evidence that the effects are not all negative and that rap music audiences may use their culture and “agency” to empower themselves.
Travis L. Dixon is Communication Alumni Professorial Scholar and Associate Professor of Communication Studies and African American Studies at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.
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