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date: 22 November 2017

Abstract and Keywords

This current paper offers a review of some of the early rap studies and discusses some of the more recent rap investigations that have been dominated by negative effects investigations. It argues that the suspicion of negative effects and stereotyping of African Americans have driven support for censorship of this musical genre. Although psychologists and lay critics have focused on the potential negative effects of rap music, the current chapter provides evidence that the effects are not all negative and that rap music audiences may use their culture and “agency” to empower themselves.

Keywords: rap music, censorship, racial stereotyping, African Americans, misogyny, 2 Live Crew, As Nasty As They Wanna Be, blacks, black culture, rap audiences

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