Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). (c) Oxford University Press, 2015. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy).

date: 19 October 2017

Abstract and Keywords

Appearance and performance enhancing drugs (APEDs) include a wide range of substances borrowed from a wide range of medical disciplines and associated fields and have a long history in sport and competition. The defining features of APED use are discussed and include polypharmacy, body image disturbance, and disturbances in diet and exercise. Appearance and performance enhancing drugs are unique among substances of abuse in their biological action, as well as in the basic motivations for their use. Although there are a wide range of potentially serious physical and psychiatric side effects, APEDs continue to be used by millions of men and women and to a greater degree by those engaged in sport and fitness activities. It is still unclear how individuals become illicit APED users, but it is possible that legal APEDs act as a gateway substance for illicit APED use. There are few empirically supported prevention programs for APED use and a complete absence of empirically supported interventions for those using APEDs. The engagement of APED users in treatment is complicated by the ethical-legal obstacles and mistrust between the APED-using and health services communities. Future research will need to overcome these barriers to provide effective and useful interventions for those APED users in the sport or performance fields.

Keywords: Anabolic-androgenic steroid, testosterone, appearance and performance enhancing drug, drug dependence, exercise, body image disturbance

Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can''t find the answer there, please contact us.