- The Oxford Handbook of Zooarchaeology
- Online Supplementary Material
- Zooarchaeology in the twenty-first century: where we come from, where we are now, and where we are going
- Humans and mammals in the Upper Palaeolithic of Russia
- The zooarchaeology of complexity and specialization during the Upper Palaeolithic in Western Europe: changing diversity and evenness
- Mesolithic hunting and fishing in the coastal and terrestrial environments of the eastern Baltic
- Archaeozoological techniques and protocols for elaborating scenarios of early colonization and Neolithization of Cyprus
- Zooarchaeological results from Neolithic and Bronze Age wetland and dryland sites in the Central Alpine Foreland: economic, ecologic, and taphonomic relevance
- Zooarchaeology in the Carpathian Basin and adjacent areas
- Sheep, sacrifices, and symbols: animals in Later Bronze Age Greece
- Changes in lifestyle in ancient Rome (Italy) across the Iron Age/Roman transition: the evidence from animal remains
- Zooarchaeology of the Scandinavian settlements in Iceland and Greenland: diverging pathways
- Fishing, wildfowling, and marine mammal exploitation in northern Scotland from prehistory to Early Modern times
- Zooarchaeological evidence for Muslim improvement of sheep (Ovis aries) in Portugal
- The zooarchaeology of Medieval Ireland
- Animals in urban life in Medieval to Early Modern England
- From bovid to beaver: mammal exploitation in Medieval northwest Russia
- The emergence of livestock husbandry in Early Neolithic Anatolia
- Patterns of animal exploitation in western Turkey: from Palaeolithic molluscs to Byzantine elephants
- South Asian contributions to animal domestication and pastoralism: bones, genes, and archaeology
- The zooarchaeology of Neolithic China
- Subsistence economy, animal domestication, and herd management in prehistoric central Asia (Neolithic–Iron Age)
- Introduction of domestic animals to the Japanese archipelago
- Farming, social change, and state formation in Southeast Asia
- The zooarchaeology of early historic periods in the southern Levant
- Middle and Later Stone Age hunters and their prey in southern Africa
- Pastoralism in sub-Saharan Africa: emergence and ramifications
- Cattle, a major component of the Kerma culture (Sudan)
- The zooarchaeology of Iron Age farmers from southern Africa
- The exploitation of aquatic resources in Holocene West Africa
- Animals in ancient Egyptian religion: belief, identity, power, and economy
- Animals, acculturation, and colonization in ancient and Islamic North Africa
- Historical zooarchaeology of colonialism, mercantilism, and indigenous dispossession: the Dutch East India Company’s meat industry at the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa
- Zooarchaeology of the pre-Contact Northwest coast of North America
- Fauna and the emergence of intensive agricultural economies in the United States Southwest
- 13,000 years of communal bison hunting in western North America
- Advances in hunter-gatherer research in Mexico: archaeozoological contributions
- The exploitation of aquatic environments by the Olmec and Epi-Olmec
- Tracking the trade in animal pelts in early historic eastern North America
- Animal use at early colonies on the southeastern coast of the United States
- Zooarchaeology of the Maya
- Zooarchaeological approaches to Pre-Columbian archaeology in the neotropics of northwestern South America
- Zooarchaeology of Brazilian shell-mounds
- Camelid hunting and herding in Inca times: a view from the south of the empire
- Forests, steppes, and coastlines: zooarchaeology and the prehistoric exploitation of Patagonian habitats
- Themes in the zooarchaeology of Pleistocene Melanesia
- Behavioural inferences from Late Pleistocene Aboriginal Australia: seasonality, butchery, and nutrition in southwest Tasmania
- Regional and chronological variations in energy harvests from prehistoric fauna in New Zealand
- Spatial variability and human eco-dynamics in central East Polynesian fisheries
- Online Supplementary Material
- A Glossary of Zooarchaeological Methods
- Notes on Contributors
Abstract and Keywords
The Scandinavian Viking Age and Medieval settlements of Iceland and Greenland have been subject to zooarchaeological research for over a century, and have come to represent two classic cases of survival and collapse in the literature of long-term human ecodynamics. The work of the past two decades by multiple projects coordinated through the North Atlantic Biocultural Organization (NABO) cooperative and by collaborating scholars has dramatically increased the available zooarchaeological evidence for economic organization of these two communities, their initial adaptation to different natural and social contexts, and their reaction to Late Medieval economic and climate change. This summary paper provides an overview of ongoing comparative research as well as references for data sets and more detailed discussion of archaeofauna from these two island communities.
Konrad Smiarowski is a zooarchaeologist and a doctoral candidate at the City University of New York Graduate Center. His research interests focus on past human ecodynamics in the northern landscapes, especially where challenging climatic conditions influenced significant social response and societal reorganization. His main research area is in Norse Greenland, where he conducted multidisciplinary NABO field projects in 2006–2016, and studied the complex use of wild terrestrial and marine resources, as well as climate effects on animal husbandry practices. As an active member of NABO and GHEA Konrad works with other researchers on projects in the North Atlantic, Iceland, Norway, Poland, the United States, and the Caribbean.
Ramona Harrison is Associate Professor of Archaeological Methods with specialization in Zooarchaeology at the Department of Archaeology, History, Cultural Studies and Religion, University of Bergen. She is an active member of NABO and has worked in the field in Iceland, Greenland, the Faroes, Austria, Hungary, Antigua, and the US. Her doctoral thesis was a study of the effects of international Medieval exchange on Northern Icelandic society. She is co-director of the Gásir Hinterlands Project (GHP), which most recently includes extensive research of the Viking Age site at Skuggi in northern Iceland. She also co-directs the Siglunes rescue and research excavation project as part of an investigation of the long-term human-ecodynamics of the Eyjafjörður Region (www.nabohome.org).
Research Associate with the Department of Anthropology at Hunter College in New York. His research focuses primarily on past human–environment dynamics in the islands of the North Atlantic. In particular, he is interested in themes such as human impacts on biota and landscapes, island and coastal archaeology, human adaptation to climate change, and indigenous management of natural resources. Seth’s current research includes ongoing collaboration in a multidisciplinary comparative study of social–ecological resilience in the Norse North Atlantic and prehistoric US Southwest.
Megan Hicks is an anthropological archaeologist. Her present research and fieldwork focuses on animal based subsistence and market economies in Iceland as well as the knowledge and politics that emerge around them. She is a Ph.D. candidate in Archaeology at the CUNY Graduate Center. She earned her MA in Anthropology from Hunter College (2009) and a BA in Anthropology from New York University (2005). She presently serves as the NABO NORSEC Laboratory supervisor in the Hunter College Anthropology Department where she has also instructed undergraduate courses. Recent publications include: Hicks, M. (2014). Losing sleep counting sheep: early modern dynamics of hazardous husbandry in Mývatn, Iceland. In R. Harrison and R. A. Maher (eds), Human Ecodynamics in the North Atlantic: A Collaborative Model of Human and Nature through Space and Time. Lanham, MD: Lexington Publishers.
Frank J. Feeley is a graduate student at the CUNY Graduate Center in New York City. He is a zooarchaeologist who is interested in early commercial fishing in fifteenth-century Iceland. His thesis work focuses on the site of Gufuskálar in western Iceland, one of the few large commercial fishing stations dotting the coast of Iceland in the fifteenth century.
Céline Dupont-Hébert is a PhD candidate in archaeology at Université Laval (Québec). Her thesis aims to reconstruct the landscape economy of the Icelandic estates from the Landnám to the Early Modern period through the study of zooarchaeological assemblages, settlement patterns, and social and climatic contexts. Since 2009, she is responsible for midden excavations in the Archaeology of Settlement and Abandonment of Svalbarð project in northeast Iceland.
Brenda Prehal is an archaeologist and PhD student at the City University of New York. She is currently researching for her dissertation, which focuses on pagan Icelandic burial practices. Her work involves an interdisciplinary approach to understanding mortuary ritual and identity by combining archaeology, Medieval literature studies, hard sciences such as aDNA, and environmental sciences. Since 2010, she has been doing fieldwork in Iceland and collaborating on projects of the NABO and GHEA networks.
George Hambrecht is an Assistant Professor in the Anthropology Department at the University of Maryland, College Park. He is a zooarchaeologist interested in the intersection between human action and environmental change. He is also interested in the impacts that contemporary climate change is having on cultural heritage, especially given the potential for cultural heritage to produce data relevant to our current climate situation. Dr Hambrecht is currently working with the US National Parks Service and the United States Department of Agriculture, as well as an agriculture bioscience company, Acceligen, investigating these issues.
James Woollett specializes in areas including the archaeology of the Arctic, the North Atlantic, and prehistoric northern North America. In zooarchaeology, his expertises include reconstructions of seasonality, palaeodemography, and life histories through analyses of periodic growth structures. His recent work is focused on regional-scale interdisciplinary studies of landscape history, settlement, and subsistence practices of Inuit seal hunters in northern Labrador, Canada, and of communities practising mixed sheep herding, fishing, and hunting economies in northeast Iceland. He is a faculty member of the Département des sciences historiques, Université Laval (Québec), and a regular member of the Centre d’études Nordiques.
Thomas H. McGovern (Ph.D., Columbia University. 1979) is Professor in Anthropology at City University of New York, serving both at Hunter College’s Zooarchaeology Laboratory and the CUNY Doctoral Center Human Ecodynamics Research Center. He has done archaeological fieldwork in UK, France, US, Norway, and Caribbean, but his major research focus has been on the islands of the North Atlantic (Greenland, Iceland, Faroes, Shetland). Since 1992 he has served as coordinator for NABO (North Atlantic Biocultural Organization; www.nabohome.org) and is active in promoting archaeological contributions to global environmental change research through GHEA (the Global Human Ecodynamics Alliance; www.gheahome.org) and IHOPE (Integrated History and Future of People on Earth; ihopenet.org).
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