- The Oxford Handbook of Social Movements
- About the Contributors
- Author Index
- General Index
- Introduction: The Field of Social Movement Studies
- Social Movements in Social Theory
- Social Movements in Political Science
- Historical Analysis and Social Movements Research
- Contentious Politics
- New Theoretical Directions from the Study of Gender and Sexuality Movements: Collective Identity, Multi-Institutional Politics, and Emotions
- Historical Dynamics of Capitalism and Labor Movements
- Migration and Social Movements
- Religious Revivalism and Social Movements
- Ethnicity, Nationalism, and Social Movements
- Urban Dynamics and Social Movements
- Demography and Social Movements
- Motivations to Action
- Networks as Constraints and Opportunities
- Rational Action
- Micromobilization and Emotions
- Demobilization and Disengagement in a Life Course Perspective
- Social Movements and Organizational Analysis
- Network Approaches and Social Movements
- Social Movement Coalitions
- Movements as Communities
- New Technologies and Social Movements
- Geography and Social Movements
- Communication in Movements
- Repertoires of Contention
- Political Violence
- Social Mobilization and Violence in Civil War and their Social Legacies
- Civil Resistance
- Consumer Strategies in Social Movements
- Voluntary Actions and Social Movements
- Cultural Conflicts and Social Movements
- Narrative and Social Movements
- The Art of Social Movement
- Visuals in Social Movements
- Practice Movements: The Politics of Non-Sovereign Power
- Immanent Accounts: Ethnography, Engagement, and Social Movement Practices
- Contentious Collective Action and the Evolving Nation-State
- Social Movements and the Multilateral Arena
- “The Game’s Afoot”: Social Movements in Authoritarian States
- Repression: The Governance of Domestic Dissent
- Managing Protest: The Political Action Repertoires of Corporations
- Party Systems, Electoral Systems, and Social Movements
- Populism, Social Movements, and Popular Subjectivity
- Markets, Business, and Social Movements
- Democracy in Social Movements
- Welfare Changes and Social Movements
- The Impacts of Environmental Movements
- Is it Social Movements that Construct Human Rights?
- The Conditions for Civil Society Participation in International Decision Making
- Democratic Innovations
- Revolutions and Regime Change
Abstract and Keywords
The chapter examines two major impacts of increasingly pervasive information and communication technologies (ICT) usage, one on protest and social movements themselves and another on scholarship about these phenomena. For the former, we review research on ICT-enabled infrastructural changes within movements, including: (1) the introduction of new formats of protest and a new model of power; (2) the ability to organize outside of formal social movement organizations (SMOs) and/or within dramatically altered SMOs; and (3) the facilitation of transnational and non-Western protest and social movements. Regarding social movement scholarship, we argue that the information-saturated environments that social movements operate within increasingly require scholars to draw on political communication research. This connection may lead social movement scholars to complicate existing understandings (e.g., agenda setting), identify hitherto unexamined determinants of social movement effectiveness (e.g., priming), and add nuance to social movement scholars’ understanding of audiences and audience reception, among other topics.
Keywords: information communication technologies, internet, online protest, flash activism, social movement organizations, transnational protest, political communication, media effects, agenda setting, priming
Jennifer Earl is a Professor of Sociology at the University of Arizona.
Jayson Hunt is a Doctoral Candidate, Department of Sociology, University of California, Irvine.
R. Kelly Garrett (Ph.D., University of Michigan) is an Associate Professor of Communication at The Ohio State University. His research interests include the study of online political communication, online news, and the ways in which citizens and activists use new technologies to shape their engagement with contentious political topics.
Aysenur Dal is a doctoral student at Ohio State University.
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