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date: 19 November 2017

(p. 1223) Index

(p. 1223) Index

abrupt onset 235–6, 759
academic achievement 911–12
acetylcholine 1180
attention 487–93, 512–17
expected/unexpected uncertainty 1165–72
memory 517
neural oscillations 492–3, 496–7, 530
pulvinar 409
response gain 488–91
thalamus 404–5
tuning role 497
action 865–84, 1214
affordances 883–4
attentional landscape 883
attention for action 366
eye movements 867–76
grasping 877–9
multiple foci of attention 880–3
reaching 876–7
selection-for-action 865, 866–7
active sensing 495, 707
adaptive coding 171–2
adaptive training 1084
addiction 367
additional singleton task 240, 241, 247
affective biases 367–9; see also emotion
affordances 883–4
ageing 927–54, 1217
aerobic exercise 940–1, 944
attentional capture 945–8
attention control training 1089
cognitive reserve 951–2
compensatory mechanisms 954
context model 949–50
crossmodal attention 462
CRUNCH model 950–1
cue-based attention 928–9
distractor interference 67
divided attention 939–43
feature-based attention 930–1
frontal lobe hypothesis 949
generalized slowing 941, 948
HAROLD model 950
inhibitory deficits 930, 948–9
intermodal attention 934–5
internal attention 936–7
load theory 67, 949
memory encoding 813
mental imagery 936–7
multimodal divided attention 940–1
multistream divided attention 939–40
multitasking 941–3
neural noise model 952
object-based attention 931–4
perceptual capacity 67
posterior to anterior shift 950
scaffolding theory (STAC) 951
selective attention 928–38
spatial attention 928–30
speech processing 933
suppression of irrelevant information 932–3
sustained attention 938–9
task-switching 943–4
temporal cues 935–6
theories of cognitive ageing 948–53
timing abilities 936
top-down modulation 952–3
visual search 929
alerting
brain networks 542–3
development 548–9, 551–2
(p. 1224) alpha oscillations 495, 629, 632–9
ageing 935
attentional blink 636, 639–42
attentional role 482–6
cortico-cortical information exchange 638–9
discontinuities in perception 475
frontal eye fields 486
inhibitory role 632
perception and 632–7
phosphenes 633
pulvinar 409, 410, 411, 486
relationship with other oscillations 643
temporal attention 639–42
temporal expectations 680–1, 683, 687, 691, 698, 702, 708
thalamo-cortical information transfer 637–8
working memory 634, 638
Alzheimer's disease 513, 515, 1114
amphetamines 523
amygdala 549, 739, 742, 743–5
A not B task 550
anterior cingulate cortex
attention network 114
development 546
executive control 1032
Von Economo cells 6
anterior cingulate gyrus 544, 545
anterior directing attention negativity 300, 301, 302
anticipatory looking 550
anticipatory saccades 688
anti-saccades 352
anxiety 745
AOC curves 870
area 7a 347
arousal 518, 543
atipamezole 519
atomoxetine 518, 519
attentional blink 624–9
alpha oscillations 636, 639–42
benzodiazepine effect 531
beta oscillations 642
crossmodal 458
emotional stimuli 739, 742–5
ERPs 86–7, 295
filter theories 626
global work space 627
neural synchronization 627–9
noradrenaline 521
simultaneous type/serial token model 626–7
temporal cues 697
theories 626–7
value learning 728
attentional capture 240–8
ageing 945–8
attentional window 246–7
contingent capture 242–3, 247–8
ERP markers 311–13
non-spatial filtering 244–5
search mode 245–6
stimulus-driven 240–2
superior colliculus 429–30
top-down/bottom-up control 309–13, 782
attentional landscape 883
attentional network, see network model
attentional operating characteristic curves 870
attentional receptive fields 218
attentional templates 754–5
attentional window 236, 246–7
attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder 894–901
cognitive underpinnings 895–6
default mode network 897–8
dopamine system 386, 899–900
dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene 900
dual pathway model 896
epigenetics 900
executive function 895
fragile X syndrome 902
genetic studies 559–60, 900
inhibitory control 895–6, 898
learning and attention dynamics 909
methylphenidate therapy 523, 899–900
motivation 896, 898–9
neural systems 897–9
prefrontal cortical thickness 897
recovery from 901
reward circuitry 898–9
sustained attention training 1088
(p. 1225) attention for action 366
attention for learning 366, 1160–72
attention from memory 824–6
Attention Network Test (ANT) 546, 551, 554, 1038, 1044
attention to memory model 821
attributes 21, 23–7
auditory cortex
cueing 696–7
temporal expectations 691
autism spectrum disorder 67
awareness 765–6, 1215
Balint's syndrome 1062–78
feature binding 1068–72, 1074–7
first description 1062
illusory conjunctions 1068, 1070–1, 1076
implicit spatial coding 1072–4
object-based attention 1063–8
simultanagnosia 1062, 1063
basal ganglia 545, 789, 791–5
baseline shift 85, 86, 153, 155, 156, 158, 163, 173, 261, 264–6, 1212–13
Bayesian models 1131, 1143, 1159–90
attention for learning 1160–72
decision-making 854, 1172–81
overt spatial attention 1181–9
perceptual load 60–1
Behavioural Inattention Test 982
benzodiazepines 531
beta oscillations
attentional blink 642
LGN 405
relationship with other oscillations 643
temporal expectations 685
thalamic reticular nucleus 413–14, 415
biased-choice model 1098
biased competition model 88, 108, 110, 155, 183–4, 253–4, 255, 290, 355, 358, 511–12, 608–9, 782, 828, 867, 1095, 1105, 1212
biases 108–9
computational models 1138
slates for 129, 131–3
sources of 123–7
top-down/bottom-up 109, 110
types of 128–9
binding
Balint's syndrome 1068–72, 1074–7
crowding 16
divided attention 810
illusory conjunctions 15–16
necessity of 16–18
property binding 15
pulvinar 407
range binding 15
re-entry 23
types of 14–15
bootstrapping 795–6
bottleneck 23, 107, 626, 627, 778–80, 1201–4
bottom-up control
attentional capture 309–13, 782
biases 109, 110
computational models 1123, 1126–35
memory encoding 813–14
neural competition 261–4
visual search 34, 309–13
brain networks
alerting 542–3
development 551–5
executive attention 544–6, 1032
genes and experience 555–61
orienting 543–4 see also network model
brain oscillations, see neural oscillations
brightness perception 208
bromocriptine 528
caloric stimulation 986
cancellation tasks 976–8
Catherine Bergego Scale 982–3
central performance drop 214
centre bias 1135
change blindness 390–2, 439
children
attention and learning 910–11
brain development 546–7
crossmodal attention 462
perceptual capacity 67
theory of visual attention-based assessment 1116
(p. 1226) cholinergic system, see acetylcholine
cingulate gyrus 110
cingulum bundle 1043
classical conditioning 1161–3
clonidine 521–2, 1085, 1086
closure 18, 1064–5
CODE theory of visual attention (CTVA) 1101
cognitive ageing 948–53
cognitive biases 1138
cognitive capacity 778–82
cognitive enhancement 530
cognitive models 1129
cognitive reserve 951–2
Colavita effect 459–60
compensation-related utilization of neural circuits hypothesis (CRUNCH) 950–1
competition
crossmodal attention 459–60
emotion–attention interaction 742, 745
memory encoding 811–15
memory retrieval 815–24
computerized attention training 1083, 1088
COMT 526, 557, 559
conditioned taste aversion 789
conditioning 367–9, 386, 388–90, 1161–3
conflict processing 734–8
conjunction search 14, 19–21, 32
connectivity models 276
conscious awareness 765–6, 1215
context
context model of ageing 949–50
scene context 1141
contextual cueing 123–5, 824, 826
contingent capture 242–3, 247–8
contingent negative variation 552, 702, 935
continuous flash suppression 64
continuous performance tasks 551–2, 1035
contrast gain 257, 847, 849
contrast response function 848–9
contrast sensitivity 190–208
endogenous attention 198–201, 208
exogenous attention 194–7, 205–8
perceived contrast 205–8
second-order 196–7
corona radiata 1043
corpus callosum 1000
cortical cell classes 339
cortical magnification factor 209, 210
covert attention 184–90, 351, 375
behavioural studies 188–90
contrast sensitivity 190–208
frontal eye fields 376
mechanisms 187–8
spatial resolution 208–19
superior colliculus 436–40
crossmodal attention 446–63
attending to a sensory modality 447–9
attentional blink 458
cue salience 462
development 462
endogenous 296–8, 452–6
exogenous 298, 449–52
facilitation versus competition 459–60
neural substrates 462
postural changes 456
temporal orienting 456, 458
unity assumption 461
crowding 16
CRUNCH model 950–1
d′ 189, 193, 480, 840, 842
decision-making 837–58
Bayesian models 854, 1172–81
decision policy 838
decision threshold bound 838
decision variable 838
drift-diffusion model 845
economic 838
evidence 838
expectation 850–1, 854–7
feature-based attention 581–2
ideal observer models 842–4
normative models 838–9
perceptual 837
predictive perception 849–51
principles 838
serial sampling models 845–6
signal detection theory 840–2
(p. 1227) statistical probability 850–1
template models 846–9
uncertainty reduction 843–4
value function 838
decision-theoretic models 1131
deep brain stimulation 1047
default mode network 530, 897–8, 937, 1031, 1041, 1042
defining attention 1204–6
delta oscillations 480–1, 482, 496, 685
dementia with Lewy bodies 514, 1044–5, 1046
desipramine 519
development
alerting 548–9, 551–2
attention and learning interaction 909–11
brain changes 546–7
crossmodal attention 462
executive attention 549–50, 553–5
frontal system 552
genes and experience 555–61
orienting 548–9, 552–3
developmental disorders 893–4; see also specific disorders
diazepam 531
diffusion models 35–6
diffusion tensor imaging
cortical projections in pulvinar 406
neglect 119
traumatic brain injury 1037–8
dimension weighting 34
disengagement of attention 232, 992
distractor heterogeneity 31
distractor inhibition 87–91, 187, 306–7, 828
distractor interference
ageing 67
dilution account 60–1
executive control load 68–71
perceptual load 58–61, 88
pulvinar role 407–8
distractor location cueing 239
divided attention 266–7, 1032
ageing 939–43
focal brain lesions 1036–7
memory encoding 809–10
memory retrieval 815–16
Parkinson's disease 1046–8
traumatic brain injury 1041
visual cortex 267–8
dopamine system
attention 524–9
frontal eye field control of visual cortex 383–6, 387
Pavlovian associations 369
plasticity 791
rule learning 788–9
working memory 386
dorsal attention network (DAN) 115–16, 1029
dorsal noradrenergic ascending bundle 518, 519
dorsal stream 903–4
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
crossmodal attention 462
executive control 1032
memory and attention 392
multitasking 392–3
drift-diffusion model 845
dual-task paradigm 199–200, 355, 809–10, 815–16, 1032, 1046–8
dwell time 627, 658, 659, 661–2
dynamic attention 652–70
motion role 653–6
neural substrate 662–7
spatiotemporal limits 658–62
sprites 656–8
temporal structure 667–8
dynamic Bayesian network 1145
dynamic belief model 1184, 1185–9
dynamic population coding 164–71, 173–4
dynamic remapping 1103
dyschiria 993
dyslexia, neglect 982, 995–6
early directing attention negativity 300
early selection 57, 77–8, 79, 80–2, 83–6, 87, 90, 106–7, 266, 291–6
Ebbinghaus illusion 70
economic decision-making 838
education 1216
efference copy 655
effortful control 556, 558
electroencephalogram (EEG)
attention and learning interaction 912
dynamic attention 665
(p. 1228) Simon task 945
temporal expectations 685
emotion 738–45, 1214
automaticity 738
executive attention 544
perceptual load 66
encoding memory 807–15
endogenous attention 109, 185–6, 232–4
contrast sensitivity 198–201, 208
crossmodal 296–8, 452–6
frontal eye fields 375–7
interaction with exogenous attention 235–6, 377–8
neural systems 115–17
perceived brightness 208
perceived position 218–19
spatial resolution 216, 218
top-down-biases 110
entrainment 477, 479–80, 493–4, 497, 685–7, 707
error detection 547, 553–4
error neurons 851
error-related negativity 554, 898
event-related fMRI
dorsal and ventral attention networks 115
object-based attention 588
sites and sources of attention 544–5
event-related potentials (ERPs) 289–90
action affordances 883–4
ADHD 898, 899
ageing 928–9, 947
anterior directing attention negativity 300, 301, 302
attentional blink 86–7, 295
attentional capture 311–13
attentional modulation 83, 84, 86
attention network 117
contingent negative variation 552, 702, 935
crossmodal links 296–303
developmental studies 554–5
distractor exclusion 91
distractor positivity 306–7
early directing attention negativity 300
early investigations 4
early/late selection debate 291–6
emotion–attention interaction 741, 742
error-related negativity 554, 898
feedback-related negativity 899
fragile X syndrome 904
late directing attention positivity 300, 301, 302
motivation–attention interaction 729–31
N140 298
object-based attention 587
P3 295
P300 521
perceptual load 64
processing negativity 295, 299
semantic expectations 128
spatial cueing 239
spatially specific attention 257
sustained posterior contralateral negativity 304
temporal expectations 130–1, 681, 694–5, 696, 702
tracking targets 653
visual search 303–7, 308–9
event-related synchronization and desynchronization 631
executive attention
brain network 544–6, 1032
development 549–50, 553–5
focal brain lesions 1036–7
genetic factors 557–61
self-regulation 545
traumatic brain injury 1041–3
executive control 754, 1031–2
ADHD 895
load 68–71
neural mechanisms 786–96
executive control theory of visual attention (ECTVA) 1101
exercise 940–1, 944
exogenous attention 109, 185–6, 234–5
bottom-up biases 109
contrast sensitivity 194–7, 205–8
crossmodal 298, 449–52
frontal eye fields 377–8
(p. 1229) interaction with endogenous attention 235–6, 377–8
lateral prefrontal cortex 377
LIP 377
neural systems 115–17
perceived position 218–19
spatial resolution 214–16, 217–18
expectation 850–1, 854–7
expectation suppression 855–7
expected uncertainty 1164–72
experimental paradigms 1209–11
external attention 806
extinction
conscious awareness 765–6
crossmodal competition 459
neglect 270, 989, 990
eye movements
attention link 378, 867–76, 1208–9
cognitive influences 1181–2
computational models 1123–4, 1148
grasping 877–8
neglect 990
spatial attention 114–15, 236–7
visual search 37
working memory and 759 see also saccades; smooth pursuits
eye patching 1002–3
face processing 66–7
fan effect 818, 820
Fano Factor 92, 93, 329
feature-based attention 574–83, 601–2, 613–14
ageing 930–1
behavioural evidence 574–7
capacity 614
computational models 1139
control of 582–3
core aspects 606–7
decision making 581–2
distractor suppression 89
feature similarity gain model 580, 607, 609
fronto-parietal network control 582–3
grasping 879
independence from spatial attention 336
interaction with object-based attention 590–1
models 579–81
MT 604, 605, 606
neural evidence 577–9
normalization 326
receptive fields 604, 606
topographic organization of attended features 614
visual cortex 577–9, 603–4, 608
visual search 608
feature binding, see binding
feature frame of reference 621
feature integration theory 13–16, 238, 307, 1069–70, 1076, 1126
feature search mode 245–6
features, guiding 21–30
feature similarity gain model 579–80, 607, 609, 1105
feedback-related negativity 899
figure–ground segregation 491
filling-in 62
filtering
attentional blink 626
theory of visual attention 1097, 1108–9
filter model (Broadbent) 57, 77, 290, 291
fixation cells 354
fixation prediction models 1132
fixed belief model 1184, 1185, 1187–8
fixed-capacity independent race model (FIRM) 1099–101
flanker task 932
flicker detection 62
fluctuations in attention 333–7
fluid intelligence 778, 780
FMR1 903
fMR adaptation 64
focal brain lesions 1033–7
foreperiod 676–8, 688
fragile X syndrome 902, 903–4, 905–8
frames of reference 620–1, 990
free energy principle 123
frontal cortex
feature-based attention 583
inferior 277
topographic organization 273
(p. 1230) frontal eye fields (FEF)
alpha oscillations 486
dopaminergic control of visual cortex 383–6, 387
endogenous attention 375–7
exogenous attention 377–8
hemispheric asymmetry 275
memory 390–3
microstimulation 378–83
network for attention 110 117, 118
operant conditioning 386, 388–90
persistent activity 386, 392
rewards 365
saccades 354, 378–9, 543
TMS 272, 379, 381
top-down role 276, 783–5
visual cortex activity 118, 161, 379–81, 383–6, 387
working memory 390–3
frontal lobe hypothesis of ageing 949
fronto-parietal networks 114, 271, 272, 782, 1029, 1031
defining control properties 273–6
development 546–7
feature-based attention 582–3
object-based attention 588–9
temporal orienting 700
theory of visual attention 1115
top-down signalling from 118
functional connectivity models 276
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
ADHD 897
alpha oscillations 485, 635, 637
attentional capture 247
attentional modulation 81–2, 85–6, 254–5, 269, 402
attentional network 114, 118
attention from memory 824, 825
baseline shifts 264
contextual cueing 123–5
divided attention 1032
dynamic attention 665, 666
emotion–attention interaction 741
expectation 855, 856
feature-based attention 577, 578, 579, 582, 583
fluctuations in attention 333–4
load theory 63–4
motivation–attention interaction 731–3
multisensory integration 459
multivariate pattern analysis 159, 173, 809
neglect 90–1
neural competition 261–2
object-based attention 587, 591
perceptual grouping 262
preparatory activity 153, 159–60, 173
retrieval interference 819
semantic expectations 128
spatially specific attention 257–8
visual cortex response to FEF stimulation 379
working memory biases 766–7, 769 see also event-related fMRI
fusiform face area 71
gamma oscillations 785
acetylcholine 492–3, 530
cell assemblies 496
memory encoding 809
pulvinar 410
rhythmic entrainment 480
schizophrenia 531
temporal expectations 685, 691, 698
thalamic reticular nucleus 413–14, 415
top-down feedback 161
genetics
brain network development 555–61
fragile X syndrome 903
PFC dopamine levels 526
polymorphisms 7
Williams syndrome 903
Gestalt grouping 262–3
gist 29, 1141, 1143
global processing 1034, 1073–4
global work space 627
go/no-go 1036, 1047
graphical models 1131, 1143, 1145
grasping 877–9
guanfacine 521, 522
guidance 1123
long-term memory 123–5
motivation 126–7
(p. 1231) guided search 20, 21–38
asymmetries 32
attributes 21, 23–7
bottom-up/top-down 34
conjunction search 19–21, 32
diffusion process 35–6
distractor heterogeneity 31
features 21–30
multiple features 32
non-selective pathway 30
priming 31, 34
priority map 34
rules 31–3
salience map 34
scene-based 24, 29
habit formation 794–5
haloperidol 524
hand movements 435–6
HAROLD model 950
hazards 688–93
Helmholtz, H. von 105
hemianaesthesia 976
hemianopia 975, 980
hemifield independence 781
hemispheric asymmetry reduction in older adults (HAROLD) 950
hemispheric dominance 121–2
hidden states 168, 170, 171
hippocampus
contextual cueing 824
learning 790
memory 125, 770
histamine 530
Hotel Test 1087–8
Huntington's disease 1114
hyperattention 992–3
hypocretin 530
idazoxan 519, 522
ideal observer models 842–4
identity intrusion 244
illusory conjunctions 15–16, 1068, 1070–1, 1076
illusory square 263
imagery 936–7, 981–2
inattentional blindness
executive control load 70
perceptual load 61–2
working memory bias 766
inattentional deafness 62
incentive salience 524
inductive biases 1160
infants, see children
inference 1160–2
inferior frontal gyrus 820–1
inferior parietal lobe 110, 346, 665, 666
inferior temporal cortex (IT)
normalization 324
perceptual load 64
preparatory activity 156
sensory response modulation 321, 322
temporal expectations 698
visual selection 754–5
information-theoretic models 1129, 1130
inhibition of return 35, 234, 245, 430, 449, 528, 621–2, 823, 1046, 1126, 1128
inhibitory control 1031–2
ADHD 895–6, 898
ageing 930, 948–9
alpha oscillations 632
focal brain lesions 1036–7
Parkinson's disease 1046
traumatic brain injury 1042
instance theory of attention and memory (ITAM) 1101
insula
default mode network 1042
self-regulation 545
Von Economo cells 6
integrative competition model 587
intelligence 778, 780
interface hypothesis 263–4
interhemispheric competition theory 271, 274, 275–6
intermodal attention, ageing 934–5
internal attention 806, 936–7
internal clock 706–7
interneurons 339, 401
intracranial recordings, entrainment 687
intraparietal sulcus 273, 275, 276
alpha oscillations 486
spatial attention 114
top-down control 161, 813
Kalman filter 1161, 1163
ketamine 530–1
koniocellular neurons 400, 401
Lag-1 sparing 624
Landmark task 980
Landolt acuity 210
late directing attention positivity 300, 301, 302
latent inhibition 524
lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) 399, 400–5
attentional modulation 81–2, 268, 402–3
burst/tonic switching 403–4
cholinergic inputs 404–5
feature-based attention 579
koniocellular neurons 400, 401
laminar organization 400
magnocellular neurons 400–1, 403
modulatory inputs 401–2
neural synchrony and oscillations 404–5
parvocellular neurons 400–1, 403
perceptual load 64
retinal inputs 400
thalamic reticular nucleus inputs to 401, 403, 412, 414
V1 feedback 401, 403, 405
lateral inhibition 153
lateral intraparietal area (LIP)
adaptive spatial representation 347–51
attentional enhancement 80
categorical membership 363–4
combining bottom-up and top-down information 358–69, 782–3
decision-making 1173
dynamic attention 665
emotional attention 367–9
exogenous attention 377
inputs 347
network for attention 110, 117, 118,
neuronal modulations 338
perceptual learning 96
rewards 365
saccade production 352–4
semantic associations 359, 361–4
spatiotopic map 348
temporal expectations 691–2
utility and information 364–6
visual attention 354–8
visual selection 351–4
lateral occipital complex 591, 769
lateral prefrontal cortex 377
late selection 57, 77, 78–9, 80, 86–7, 97, 107, 266, 291–6
learning
attention and 908–12
attention for learning 366, 1160–72
Bayesian models 1160–72
fast and slow learning 789–91
perceptual load 60
prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia interactions 794–5
rules 787–9, 797
sensory read-out 96
temporal expectations 687–8
Lewy body dementia 514, 1044–5, 1046
limb activation 986, 1003
line bisection 979–81
linking hypothesis 208
load theory 56–72
ageing 67, 949
automaticity 66–7
background 57–8
Bayesian models 60–1
dilution 60–1
distractor interference 58–61, 68–70, 88
early/late selection debate 57
education 60
emotion processing 66
executive control 68–71
learning 60
neural processing 63–6, 70–1
perceptual capacity 67–8
perceptual load 58–68, 88, 266
unconscious processing 63, 64
visual perception 61–3, 64–5, 66, 70
working memory 69, 70, 71
local field potentials 85, 388, 404
local processing 1034, 1073–4
location frame of reference 620
locus coeruleus 517, 519, 521, 542, 548, 627, 1085
long-term memory 123–5
lorazepam 531
(p. 1233) McCollough effect 16–17
McGurk effect 458
machine learning 1146
'magic number’ 778
magnetic resonance imaging 6; see also functional magnetic resonance imaging
magnetoencephalogram (MEG)
alpha oscillations 633
attentional blink 628
crossmodal attention 455
dynamic attention 665
emotion–attention interaction 742
expectation suppression 855–6
feature-based attention 579
multisensory processing 460
repetition suppression 855–6
Simon task 945–6
magnocellular neurons 400–1, 403
masked priming 622
mathematical cognition 912
memory 806–92, 1214–15
acetylcholine 517
as act of attention 806
attention and learning interaction 911–12
attention from memory 824–6
attention guiding 123–5
bias 123–5, 127
encoding 807–15
frontal eye fields 390–3
illusory conjunctions 16
interference 817–18
long-term 123–5
neural oscillations 809
predictors of successful remembering 807–9
prefrontal cortex 171, 810, 820–1, 829
retrieval 133, 815–24, 829
saccade guiding 273
unattended information 814–15
visual search 35, 37–8
visual short-term 131–3, 827, 1096, 1103, 1105–7 see also working memory
mental imagery 936–7, 981–2
methylphenidate 523, 899–900, 903
microsaccades 430–1
middle temporal area (MT/V5)
attentional modulation 80, 602–3
feature-based attention 604, 605, 606
neuronal modulation 321, 338
normalization 324–5
object-based attention 586, 611, 612
perceptual learning 96
perceptual load 65
temporal expectations 690–1
mind-wandering 59–60
modafinil 530
motion after-effects 574–5
motion discrimination 439
motion tracking 653–6
motivation 725–38, 1214
ADHD 896, 898–9
behavioural effect 726–9
brain recordings 729–34
conflict processing 734–8
guidance by 126–7
motor cortex 495
multimodal divided attention 940–1
multimodal system 300–2
multiple object tracking 586, 653
multisensory integration 458–9, 984–5
multistream divided attention 939–40
multitasking 392–3, 941–3
multivariate pattern analysis 159, 173, 809
mu rhythm 482
muscimol 356, 363
mutual information 92
Navon figures 1034
near-absence of attention 17, 191
neck vibration 986
negative priming 622, 623, 823, 930–1
negative subsequent memory 810
neglect 972–1004
amorphosynthesis 989, 990
anosognosia 1002
attentional interpretations 991–3
attention training 1003
auditory 984
brain stimulation 988–9, 1003
caloric stimulation 986
cancellation tasks 976–8
(p. 1234) clinical presentation 973–6
corpus callosum 1000
defining features 972
dimensions of 994
disengagement of attention 992
dissociations 983, 995
distractor exclusion 90–1
dopamine depletion 524–5
drawing tasks 978–9
dyschiria 993
dyslexia 982, 995–6
everyday activities and disability scales 982–3
extinction 270, 989, 990
eye movements 990
eye patching 1002–3
facial 981
frames of reference 990
haptic 984
hemispatial theory 271
hyperattention 992–3
imagery 981–2
infarction 998
interhemispheric competition theory 271, 274, 275–6
lesion sites 119, 270, 407, 997
limb activation 986, 1003
line bisection 979–81
multi-components 983–4, 993–6
multisensory aspects 984–6
neck vibration 986
network model 119–21
neuropathology 996–1001
observing 973–4
olfaction 984
optokinetic stimulation 986, 1002
orienting deficits 991–3
perceptual judgements 981
personal space 982
pharmacological therapy 1003
physiological simulation 976, 986–8
primary sensorimotor deficits 974–6
prism adaptation 987, 1002, 1003–4
psychometric assessment 976–83
reading 982, 995–6
rehabilitation 1001–4, 1087
representational interpretations 993
selective impairments 973
sensory input defects 989
space remapping training 987
subcortical lesions 997–8
superior longitudinal fasciculus 119, 997
superior parietal lobule 1001
syndrome approach 122, 983–6
taste 984
theory of visual attention 1114
unconscious processing 973
vector model 991–2
virtual reality training 987
visual field defect 975
visual scanning training 1001–2
visual search 975
network model 110–22, 1211–12
dorsal attention network (DAN) 115–16, 1029
endogenous/exogenous orienting 115–17
hemispheric dominance 121–2
imaging 112–14
neglect 119–21
oculomotor control 114–15
temporal dynamics 117–18
ventral attention network (VAN) 115–17, 271–2, 277–8, 1029–30, 1031, 1035
neural competition 152–3, 258–64
neural correlations 327–32
neural gain control 255–7
neural noise model of ageing 952
neural oscillations 473–7, 629–32, 1213
acetylcholine 492–3, 496–7, 530
amplitude (power) 631
cell assemblies and networks 496
cognitive capacity 781
discontinuities in perception 475
entrainment 477, 479–80, 493–4, 497, 685–7, 707
frequency 630–1
laminar distributions 494–5
memory encoding 809
phase 631–2
random and rhythmic modes 477, 478
rhythm 475, 477
spike-field coherence 495
(p. 1235) temporal expectations 707–8
unique cellular circuits 494 see also specific frequencies
neural synchronization 328, 785–6
attentional blink 627–9
neurotransmitters 509–10; see also specific neurotransmitters
newborns 548
nicotine 513, 516, 530
NMDA 491–2
noise reduction 76, 87–94, 187, 191–3, 198, 847–8, 849
non-spatial filtering 244–5
noradrenaline
attention 517–23, 1085–6
expected/unexpected uncertainty 1165–72
optimization 1181
normalization 201–5, 318, 322–6, 609, 849, 1105
nucleus basalis of Meynert 513, 514
object-based attention 583–90, 610–14
ageing 931–4
automaticity 590, 591, 593
Balint's syndrome 1063–8
behavioural evidence 584–6
computational models 1138
fronto-parietal network control 588–9
integrative competition model 587
interaction with feature-based attention 590–1
neural evidence 586–8
visual cortex 586, 611
object frame of reference 620–1
oculomotor capture 871
oculomotor control, see eye movements
oddball paradigm 277, 491, 668, 855, 904, 947
off-line attention 133
olfaction 164, 984
one-trial learning 789
operant conditioning 386, 388–90
optic apraxia 1062
optic ataxia 1062
optimization 1181
optogenetic methods 6
optokinetic stimulation 986, 1002
orexin 530
orienting
abrupt onsets 235–6
as regulatory system 558
brain networks 543–4
crossmodal 446–63
development 548–9, 552–3
endogenous 232–4, 235–6
exogenous 234–6
eye movements 114, 236–7
neglect 991–3
superior colliculus 436–40
supramodal control 300–2
without awareness 237–8
owl gaze control 381
P300 521
parabigeminal nucleus 401
parahippocampal place area 64
parallel strategy 667
parietal cortex
bottom-up role 782
crossmodal attention 462
dynamic attention 663–6
feature-based attention 583
feature binding 1077
memory retrieval 821–3, 829
population coding 164
reward 127
subdivisions 346–7
temporal orienting 700, 701
top-down control 813
topographic organization 272–3 see also posterior parietal cortex
Parkinson's disease 528, 1043–8
Parkinson's disease with dementia 1044, 1046
parvocellular neurons 213, 400–1, 403
pattern classification models 1132
Pavlovian associations 367–9
pedunculopontine tegmentum 401
perceptual attention 807, 815, 828–9
perceptual capacity 67–8
perceptual decision-making 837
perceptual grouping 262–3
perceptual learning 96
perceptual load 58–68, 88, 266
(p. 1236) perceptual sensitivity 759–61
perceptual template model 191–3, 846
phenomenal identity 652
phosphenes 381, 633
physical exercise 940–1, 944
physostigmine 512–13, 515
pigeonholing 1097, 1109–10
plasticity 364, 510, 707, 708, 791–5, 1082, 1085
point-light walkers 656–7
point of subjective equality 205
pop-out 13, 239, 377, 378, 783
population coding 93, 164–71, 173–4, 199, 328–30, 424–5
position perception 218–19
positive priming 622, 623
positron emission tomography (PET)
attentional network 114
crossmodal attention 455
early investigations 4
feature-based attention 577
spatially specific attention 257
Posner cueing task 185–6, 188–9, 232–3, 620, 842, 928, 1029
posterior cingulate cortex
motivation 127, 733
working memory 770
posterior parietal cortex
early investigations 3–4
memory retrieval 821
motivation–attention interaction 731
multiple functioning 112
negative subsequent memory 810
spatial attention 114
task irrelevance 814
topographic organization 273
working memory 770
posterior to anterior shift 950
posture, crossmodal attention 456
preattentive processing 13, 26, 33, 231, 294, 1072–4
precentral cortex 273
prediction errors 365–6
prediction neurons 851
predictive coding 202, 840, 851–7
predictive perception 849–51
prefrontal cortex
acetylcholine release 492
adaptive coding 171–2
ADHD 897
basal ganglia connections 791–5
dopaminergic system 383–4, 386, 387, 524, 525–8
general executive controller 796–7, 1032
memory 171, 810, 820–1, 829
narrow-spiking neurons 339
persistent activity 386
population coding 164–6
rule learning 787–8, 797
spatial attention 114
top-down feedback 160–1, 782–3
unattended information 826
working memory 162–3, 171, 174, 767 see also dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
premotor cortex 300
premotor theory 110, 236–7, 439, 495–6, 866, 873
preparatory attention 153, 155–60, 161–2, 173–4
presaccadic attention shifts 869–70
primary auditory cortex 691
primary visual cortex, see V1
priming 622–3
guided search 31, 34
inter-trial 248
masked 622
negative 622, 623, 823, 930–1
positive 622, 623
priming of pop-out paradigm 728–9
prior entry 448
priority map 34, 430, 436, 613
prism adaptation 987, 1002, 1003–4
proactive interference 818
probabilistic reasoning 1143, 1145
progressive supranuclear palsy 437
propanolol 521
property binding 15
pro-saccades 352
prosody 475, 477
psychological refractory period 623–4, 867–8
pulvinar 399, 400, 405–11
alpha oscillations 409, 410, 411, 486
attentional enhancement 269–70
behavioural response modulation 408–9
binding role 407
(p. 1237) burst firing 409
cholinergic inputs 409
cortical connections 406–7
cortico-cortical transmission 409–11
distractor information 407–8
feature-based attention 579
gamma oscillations 410
lesion studies 407–8
neglect 407
neuron features 405
thalamic reticular nucleus inputs 412, 414
theory of visual attention 1115
visual areas 405
pure alexia 1114
pyramidal cells 339, 486
race model 433
range binding 15
rapid serial visual presentation 218
reaching 550, 876–7
reading 35
neglect 982, 995–6
theory of visual attention 1114
reboxetine 521
recursive processing 795–6
re-entry 23
reflective attention 807, 815, 828–9
rehabilitation 1081–9
computerized training 1083, 1088
neglect 1001–4, 1087
selective attention 1082–4
sustained attention 1085–8
repetition blindness 623
repetition suppression 64, 855–6
representation neurons 851
resolution hypothesis 209, 210, 211, 214
response competition paradigm 58
response gain 255–7, 488–91, 847, 848–9
retrieval 133, 815–24, 829
retrieval-induced forgetting 823–4
retrieval practice paradigm 823
retroactive interference 818
retro-cues 131
reward 126–7, 365, 728
ADHD 898–9
attention from memory 826 see also motivation
rhythms 475, 477, 679–88, 704
rivastigmine 513–14
rule learning 787–9, 797
saccades
anticipatory 688
attention and 378
frontal eye field stimulation 354, 378–9, 543
head movements 382
involuntary 871
memory-guided 273
microsaccades 430–1
motion-induced bias 381–2
preparation 867–9, 870–3
presaccadic attention 869–70
spatial orienting 236–7
superior colliculus control 354, 423–30
trajectories 873
working memory and 759
salience map 34, 377, 430, 613, 668, 731, 782, 1123, 1124, 1126, 1128, 1131, 1132, 1143
salience network 1032, 1042
salient region detection models 1132
sampling strategy 667–8
saporin 513
scaffolding theory of ageing and cognition (STAC) 951
scene context 1141
scene guidance 24, 29
schizophrenia 530, 531
scopolamine 512–13
second-order contrast 196–7
selection-for-action 865, 866–7
selection-for-perception 865
selective adaptation 200, 214
selective attention 76, 1029–30
ageing 928–38
dementia with Lewy bodies 1044–5
early/late selection debate 57, 77–9, 80–2, 83–7, 90, 97, 106–7, 266, 291–6
focal brain lesions 1033–5
noise suppression 76, 87–94, 187, 191–3, 198, 847–8, 849
(p. 1238) Parkinson's disease 1044–6
rehabilitation 1082–4
selective read-out 76, 94–7
signal enhancement 76, 79–87, 187–8, 191–3, 198
traumatic brain injury 1038–9
selective read-out 76, 94–7
self-organization 153
self-referencing 278
self-regulation 545, 547, 556–7, 558
semantic associations 359, 361–4
semantic expectations 128–9
separable-but-linked mechanism 453, 455–6
serial sampling models 845–6
set size effect 12–13, 14, 20, 21, 209, 307
shape perception 219
signal detection theory 194–5, 840–2
signal enhancement 76, 79–87, 187–8, 191–3, 198
signal-to-noise ratio 92–3, 525
Simon task 945–6
simultanagnosia 1062, 1063
simultaneous type/serial token model 626–7
singleton detection mode 245–6
site of signals 544, 1208
6-Element test 1087
smooth pursuits
initiation and maintenance 873–6
superior colliculus control 431–5
social anxiety 67–8
social cognition 278
source of signals 544, 1208
space remapping training 987
spatial conflict task 553
spatial neglect, see neglect
spatial orienting, see orienting
spatial priors 1139, 1141
spatial resolution 208–19
spectral-analysis models 1131–2
speech perception 475, 477, 933
spike count correlations 328, 332
spindles 413–14
spotlight of attention 231, 232, 233, 257
sprites 656–8
statistical probability 850–1
steady-state visual evoked potentials
alpha oscillations 635, 640
video gamers 1082
stimulants 523–4
stop-signal task 523, 896, 898, 1032, 1036, 1042, 1047
strategic resampling 762–3
striatum 528–9
Stroop task 737–8, 930, 1037, 1047
subcortex
attentional enhancement 268–70
feature-based attention 579
neglect 997–8
network for attention 111
subliminal cueing 237–8
subsequent memory paradigm 807–9
substantia nigra 354
superior colliculus
attentional capture 429–30
attentional enhancement 269
build-up neurons 424, 427
burst neurons 424
change blindness 439
hand movements 435–6
inhibition of return 430
microsaccades 430–1
microstimulation 382, 439–40
orienting attention 436–40
population code 424–5
priority map 430, 436
retinotopic map 424, 425
rewards 365
saccades 354, 423–30
smooth pursuits 431–5
spatial attention 428–30
visual motion discrimination 439
visual neurons 424, 426–7
superior frontal gyrus 769
superior longitudinal fasciculus 119, 122, 997, 1038
superior parietal lobule 273, 275, 346
neglect 1001
top-down control 813
support vector machine 159
supramodal system 300–2, 453, 455
sustained attention 1030–1
ageing 938–9
dementia with Lewy bodies 1046
focal brain lesions 1035–6
(p. 1239) Parkinson's disease with dementia 1046
rehabilitation 1085–8
traumatic brain injury 1039–41 see also endogenous attention
sustained attention to response task (SART) 938, 1035
sustained posterior contralateral negativity 304
synaesthesia 1071
synapsemble 170
tacrine 513
task-switching 943–4
temperament questionnaires 549
templates 191–3, 754–5, 846–9
temporal attention
ageing 935–6
alpha oscillations 639–42
crossmodal 456, 458
theory of visual attention 1099
temporal expectations
biases 129, 130–1
control networks 699–702
hazards 688–93
mechanism 706–9
preparatory activity 173–4
rhythms 679–88, 704
spatial expectations and 705–6
temporal factors
attention-induced time dilation 668–9
attention network 117–18
dynamic attention 667–8
limits of attention 658–62
perception 676–8
spatial resolution 212–13
temporal frame of reference 621
temporo-parietal junction 115, 277–8, 814
texture segmentation 213–16
thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) 399, 400, 411–15
attentional enhancement 269, 412–13
beta oscillations 413–14, 415
gamma oscillations 413–14, 415
input to LGN 401, 403, 412, 414
input to pulvinar 412, 414
sectors 411
spindle generation 413–14
spontaneous activity 412
thalamo-cortical influences 414–15
visual response 412
thalamus 399–400
alpha oscillations 637
attentional enhancement 81, 255
cholinergic inputs 404–5
working memory biases 767 see also specific nuclei
theory of mind 278
theory of visual attention 689, 866, 1095–116
applications 1098–101
assessments 1111–16
basic assumptions 1096–7
biased competition 1095, 1105
children 1116
clinical neuropsychology 1114
CODE (CTVA) 1101
executive control (ECTVA) 1101
filtering 1097, 1108–9
fronto-parietal networks 1115
functional anatomy 1107
lesion anatomy 1115
neural interpretation 1102–10
parameter estimation 1112–13
pertinence values 1097
pharmacological research 1116
pigeonholing 1097, 1109–10
pulvinar 1115
rate equation 1096, 1103–4
selection from multielement displays 1099–101
selection mechanisms 1097–8
singe-cell studies 1108–10
single-stimulus identification 1098–9
temporal attention 1099
test qualities 1113–14
thalamic version 1107
visual categorizations 1096
weight equation 1097, 1103
whole and partial report 1111–12
theta oscillations 482, 492, 496, 809
time
attention-induced dilation 668–9
perception and 676–8
perceptual modulation 679–85 see also temporal headings
(p. 1240) tolcapone 527
top-down control 782–5
ageing 952–3
attentional capture 309–13
biases 109, 110
computational models 1123, 1135–46
frontal eye fields 276, 783–5
fronto-parietal network 118
learning style 789–91
memory encoding 813
memory retrieval 820–3
neural competition 260–1, 263–4
preparatory activity in visual cortex 160–1
visual search 34, 309–13
tracking targets 586, 653–6, 780
transcranial electrical stimulation 988–9
transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
alpha oscillations 633
attention network 118
crossmodal attention 449, 452
dynamic attention 665–6
frontal eye fields 272, 379, 381
fronto-parietal network 272
neglect 988–9, 1003
perceptual load 64–5
working memory biases 767
transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) 986, 1003
transient attention, see exogenous attention
traumatic brain injury 1037–43
triazolam 531
two-alternative forced choice 189, 205, 623, 1182
unattended information 266, 814–15, 826
uncertainty
expected/unexpected 1164–72
unconscious processing
neglect 973
perceptual load 63, 64
spatial orienting 237–8
unexpected uncertainty 1164–72
unilateral spatial neglect, see neglect
unity assumption 461
utility 364–6
V1
attentional enhancement 80, 81, 255, 844
cholinergic modulation 488–90
feedback to LGN 401, 403, 405
neural competition 258
nicotinic receptor interactions 493
object-based attention 611
perceptual load 64
temporal expectations 691, 698
V2
attentional enhancement 80
baseline shifts 264
normalization 324
V4
attentional modulation 80, 602–3
baseline shifts 264
dimension switching 609–10
dopaminergic control of 384–5
feature-based attention 603–4, 608
feature/spatial attention comparison 336
frontal eye field stimulation 118, 379
gamma oscillations 785
narrow- and broad-spiking neurons 339
neural competition 261
neural correlations 328, 331
neuronal modulation 319, 321, 322, 337, 338
noise attenuation 93
normalization 322, 324
population coding 329–30
pulvinar connections 406
single-trial measure of attention 334
temporal expectations 689–90
value learning 728
vector-averaging 434–5
vector model of neglect 991–2
ventral attention network (VAN) 115–17, 271–2, 277–8, 1029–30, 1031, 1035
ventral intraparietal area 346–7
ventriloquism effect 458
Vernier acuity 210
video games and gamers 6, 68, 1082–3, 1141
virtual reality training 987
visual acuity 210–11
visual cortex
attentional modulation 80, 81, 254–5, 318, 319–26, 338, 375, 545, 602–3
(p. 1241) baseline shifts 264–6
contrast appearance 208
correlations 327–32
divided attention 267–8
emotion processing 739
feature-based attention 577–9, 603–4, 608
feedback to LGN 401, 403, 405
frontal eye fields link 118, 161, 379–81, 383–6, 387
intraparietal sulcus links 161
motivation–attention interaction 731
multiple stimuli 322–3
neural competition 152–3, 258–64
neural correlations 327–32
neural gain control 257
normalization 322–6
object-based attention 586, 611
perceptual load 64–5
population coding 328–30
prefrontal feedback to 160–1
preparatory activity 153, 154, 155–60, 173–4
sensory response modulation 319–22
spatial specificity of attention 257–8
spontaneous activity 321
texture segmentation 216
tuning curves 319–21
unattended stimuli 266
working memory 71 see also V1; V2; V4
visual evoked potentials
alpha oscillations 635, 640
object-based attention 588
prior entry 448
video gamers 1082
visual imagery 936–7, 981–2
visual marking 623
visual perception
alpha oscillations 632–3
load 61–3, 64–5, 66, 70
visual scanning training 1001–2
visual search 11–13
ageing 929
asymmetries 32
conjunction searches 14, 19–21, 32
contextual cueing 123–5
efficient/inefficient searches 12–13, 14, 20
eye movements 37
feature-based attention 608
maximizing and matching strategies 1182–9
memory 35, 37–8
neglect 975
Parkinson's disease 1044–6
psychophysics 37
quitting behaviour 36–7
resolution hypothesis 209–10
serial, parallel 307–9
serial, self-terminating 13–14
set size effect 12–13, 14, 20, 21, 209, 307
speed–accuracy trade-off 13
top-down/bottom-up control 34, 309–13 see also guided search
visual selection 351–4, 754–5
visual short-term memory 131–3, 827, 1096, 1103, 1105–7
Von Economo cells 6
Williams syndrome 902, 903, 904, 905–8, 909
winner-take-all 35, 153, 1077, 1106–7, 1126
Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test 1036, 1047
working memory 753–71, 826–8
alpha oscillations 634, 638
calcium kinetics 168
capacity 778
conscious awareness 765–6
distractor suppression 828
dopaminergic system 386
dynamic population coding 166, 168–70
early bias on visual selection 758–61
eye movement modulation 759
foreground and background components 763–4
functional overlap with attention 755–6
hidden states 168
impulse response function 171
load 69, 70, 71
modularity 758
neural basis 766–70
perceptual sensitivity 759–61
persistent activation hypothesis 166
prefrontal representations 162–3, 171, 174, 767
(p. 1242) preparatory attention 161–2
spatial attention 390–3
strategic resampling 762–3
synaptic model (synapsemble) 170
task control 763–5
visual selection 754–5
Yerkes–Dodson law 516, 517, 526, 1086