- New Paths into the Anthropocene: Applying Historical Ecologies to the Human Future
- Thinking Like An Archaeologist and Thinking Like an Engineer: A Utilitarian-Perspective Archaeology
- Expedience, Impermanence, and Unplanned Obsolescence: The Coming-About of Agricultural Features and Landscapes
- Just How Long Does ‘Long-Term’ Have to Be? Matters of Temporal Scale as Impediments to Interdisciplinary Understanding in Historical Ecology
- Archaeology, Historical Sciences, and Environmental Conservation
- Landscaping, Landscape Legacies, and Landesque Capital in Pre-Columbian Amazonia
- Integrating Geoarchaeology with Archaeology for Interdisciplinary Understanding of Societal–Environmental Relations
- Digging for Indigenous Knowledge: ‘Reverse Engineering’ and Stratigraphic Sequencing as a Potential Archaeological Contribution to Sustainability Assessments
- Linking the Past and Present of the Ancient Maya: Lowland Land Use, Population Distribution, and Density in the Late Classic Period
- Paleozoology Is Valuable to Conservation Biology
- Historic Molecules Connect the Past to Modern Conservation
- Community and Conservation: Documenting Millennial Scale Sustainable Resource Use at Lake Mývatn, Iceland
- Soils, Plants, and Texts: An Archaeologist’s Tool-Box
- Grappling with Interpreting and Testing People–Landscape Dynamics
- From Narratives to Algorithms: Extending Archaeological Explanation beyond Archaeology
- Growing the Ancient Maya Social-Ecological System from the Bottom Up
- Wells, Land, and History: Archaeology and Rural Development in Southern Africa
- Participatory Checking and the Temporality of Landscapes: Increasing Trust and Relevance in Qualitative Research
- Freelisting as a Tool for Assessing Cognitive Realities of Landscape Transformation: A Case Study from Amazonia
- A 1980 Attempt at Reviving Ancient Irrigation Practices in the Pacific: Rationale, Failure, and Success
- The Invisible Landscape: The Etruscan <i>Cuniculi</i> of Tuscania as a Determinant of Present-Day Landscape and a Valuable Tool for Sustainable Water Management
- The Rehabilitation of Pre-Hispanic Agricultural Infrastructure to Support Rural Development in the Peruvian Andes: The Work of the Cusichaca Trust
- Applied Archaeology in the Americas: Evaluating Archaeological Solutions to the Impacts of Global Environmental Change
- Indigenous Technologies, Archaeology, and Rural Development in the Andes: Three Decades of Trials in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru
- Quality of Life and Prosperity in Ancient Households and Communities
- Applied Perspectives on Pre-Columbian Maya Water Management Systems: What are the Insights for Water Security?
- Beyond Rhetoric: Towards a Framework for an Applied Historical Ecology of Urban Planning
- Culture, Power, History: Implications for Understanding Global Environmental Change
- Energy Gain and the Evolution of Organization
- Conclusion: Anthropocentric Historical Ecology, Applied Archaeology, and the Future of a Usable Past
Abstract and Keywords
Cognitive reality of landscape transformation in Amazonia refers to the traditional knowledge local people share in a common culture concerning past and sometimes lasting human impacts on substrates and biotic compositions of specific areas. A method for determining cognitive reality of any semantic domain is freelisting. Freelists of terms for flora and landscapes in the indigenous languages of Greater Amazonia indicate extensive shared vocabularies and accurate knowledge of large inventories of biota and their respective habitats. In these languages, and the small-scale societies associated with them, effects of anthropogenic activities in the landscape over time can be inferred from contemporary freelists. In this chapter, we apply a cluster measure to semantic categories in freelist data concerning cultural (or anthropogenic) forests, some of which was previously published and some not, collected among the Ka’apor people of the eastern Amazon of Brazil.
William Balée is Professor of Anthropology at Tulane University in New Orleans. His research focuses on historical ecology, lowland South American ethnology, and Ka’apor society and culture of eastern Amazonian Brazil. In addition to contributing articles and chapters and editing volumes on the subject matter of historical ecology, he is the author of Footprints of the Forest: Ka’apor Ethnobotany—The Historical Ecology of Plant Utilization by an Amazonian People (1994) and Cultural Forests of the Amazon: A Historical Ecology of People and their Landscapes (2013), both of which won the Mary W. Klinger Award from the Society for Economic Botany.
Justin M. Nolan (Ph.D., University of Missouri, 2000) is Associate Professor and Chair of Anthropology at the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville. His interests in biocultural and ecological anthropology include traditional health beliefs, medical ethnobotany, and emerging food security initiatives among rural cultures of the US South. Nolan recently completed a three-year study of the relations between ecological and cultural conservation among the Western Cherokees of northeast Oklahoma, USA. Nolan served as President of the Society of Ethnobiology from 2011-13.
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