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date: 21 January 2019

Abstract and Keywords

Anabaptism was a charismatic and diverse movement whose focus was a visible church whose members confessed an existential faith. The primary meaning of “body of Christ” was a visible community that acted in imitation of its Lord, took on form, and was transformed in Communion. Anabaptism sought an alternative between spiritualism and sacramentalism. The three subjects here, Balthasar Hubmaier, Pilgram Marpeck, and Dirk Philips, had different models for the role of divine initiative and human response in a sacrament based on different interpretations of the Incarnation. For Hubmaier sacraments were outward acts of faith and love in response to inward acts of grace. Philips added the mystical experience of Christ in conjunction with ceremonies. For Marpeck Christ was encountered through the Spirit in the coming together of inward and outward, for an analogue to the Incarnation. Philips and Marpeck also called ethical acts ceremonies because they too made Christ manifest.

Keywords: divine initiative, human response, Incarnation, inwardness, outwardness, sacrament as act

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