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date: 21 January 2019

Abstract and Keywords

From the ninth-century Carolingian Renaissance to the eleventh-century Gregorian Reform movement, a debate on the doctrine of the Real Presence took place: whether the body of Christ in the Eucharist was the same as the body born of the Virgin, which suffered and died, and rose in glory. This debate began in response to the first monograph on the Eucharist, the De corpore et sanguine Christi by Paschasius of Corbie. This formed the basis of a discussion on the sacrament for almost 250 years, spurring doctrinal development and theological speculation on the Eucharist. This chapter addresses the doctrinal elements of that debate, with an exposition of Paschasius’ work, and a treatment of his critics and supporters from Gottschalk of Orbais to Lanfranc of Canterbury; placing emphasis on teaching about the presence of Christ, and the substantial change in the elements of bread and wine by which it is brought about.

Keywords: Real Presence, transubstantiation, Eucharist, body and blood of the Lord, sacrament, substantialiter, naturaliter, species, substance

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