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date: 20 April 2019

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter asks whether anti-Semitism and Holocaust (shoah) denial are more than ‘moral’ offences. Pope Benedict XVI represents Jew-hatred as an attack on salvation history. Romans 9–11 has been put to supersessionist purposes because it speaks of God hardening the Jews’ hearts and cursing. Does the hardening indicate broken relations between God and Jewry, or rather a purgative stage? Paul speaks of a ‘spirit of stupefaction’ (Rom 11:8) coming upon the Jews. As it is used in Isaiah, however, katanauxis, the spirit of stupefaction, precedes renewal. A comparison between Romans 5:10, where Christ’s death and resurrection brings the reconciliation of the world, and Romans 11:15, where the rejection and re-acceptance of Israel brings about ‘life from the dead’, shows that Christ and Israel intermesh: one does not suffer, die and rise again without the other. Paul stresses that Christ’s suffering is bound up with the suffering of all.

Keywords: anti-Semitism, Holocaust, shoah, Romans 9–11, kananuxis, curse, hardening, supersession, Israel, suffering

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