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(p. 855) Subject Index

(p. 855) Subject Index

abash 39–41
abbreviation 27, 33, 42, 276, 420, 574
Academic Word List 573–5, 577, 578
Académie française 34, 40, 48, 441
acronym 160, 420, 427
adjective 121, 162, 175, 177–84, 186, 198–9, 265, 309, 347, 359–60, 419, 436, 457, 459–60, 469, 472, 546, 600–3, 626, 748
attributive 9, 600
comparative 259, 459
denominal 165
derived 132
predicative 9, 180–1, 195
superlative 186, 459
universality of 601
adlexification 435–6
adstratum 443, 452
adverbial particle 131, 132, 530
affect 310, 662–3 see also emotion
agglutination 162, 165, 268, 488, 729
alphabetical ordering 38–9, 49, 53, 54, 60, 61, 63, 418
alliteration 130, 133, 276, 589, 660, 665
Alzheimer’s disease 179, 509, 512, 726
ambiguity 30, 31, 56, 58, 126, 202, 257, 258, 334, 348, 362, 374, 586, 719, 720–1
amelioration, ameliorative 405, 426–7
anagram 19, 25, 318, 409, 642–3, 705, 707, 710–1, 714, 722–4
analogy 122, 275, 292
Anglocentrism 397
anomalous item 121, 122, 135–6
anomia 508, 510, 512, 517
antonym 16, 53, 62, 128, 130, 141, 305, 351, 354, 356, 358, 359, 360, 361, 363, 366, 695
direct 359–360
indirect 360
apostrophe 1, 85, 91
arbitrariness (of the linguistic sign) 15, 19, 90, 132, 158, 251, 264, 277, 284–6, 291
archaism 54, 130
artefact, words for 34, 380, 395–6
association norms 351, 257, 360, 361, 467, 477
assonance 276, 295
attribution 601
augmentative 301, 383, 659
Augustine, St. 305, 551, 553, 555–8, 748
authorship 98, 117
back-borrowing 421, 430, 434, 441
back-channelling 78, 85
baptism 609, 633
basic level 332–4, 326, 328, 329, 557, 602 see also subordinate, superordinate
bigram 104
bilingualism 433, 447, 494–507
compound 494, 496–7, 506
co-ordinate 494, 506
subordinative 494, 498, 506
binomial 130, 133, 138
biology 56, 314, 334, 335, 342, 381, 396, 629, 686
blend, blending 4, 14, 160, 276, 419, 420
BNC (British National Corpus) 3, 6, 50, 77, 78, 81, 151, 181, 186, 580
BoE (Bank of English ) 50, 122, 126, 127, 129, 135, 138, 186–7
borrowing 31, 34, 62, 79, 168, 275, 276, 282, 362, 369, 402, 403, 405–6, 410, 413, 414, 419, 421, 429, 431–44, 445, 447–61, 591 see also back-borrowing
(p. 856) Boston Naming Test 510
botany 334, 428–9, 575
bowdlerism 272
calque 434, 451, 454, 460
capitalization 32, 569, 651, 658, 662
catchphrase 135
categorization 191, 309, 310, 316–7, 552, 559–62, 565–6, 601–2, 627, 633
category membership 183, 189, 315, 316, 358, 570
graded 315
Cawdrey, Robert 39, 54, 56, 60
chemisty 30, 334, 340, 345, 686
chunk 138, 329, 365, 531, 544, 734, 741
circumlocution 276, 282, 510, 632
citation form 44, 728
classification 53–7, 59, 64–7, 289, 334–7, 342, 348, 422 see also taxonomy
classifier 191, 275, 626
click consonant 12, 289, 443
clipping 160, 276, 409–10, 419, 458
clitic 7, 9, 10, 14, 87, 91, 92, 162, 197, 208–12, 219, 220, 222, 224, 234–40, 254, 728, 729, 736
COBUILD (Collins Birmingham University International Language Database) 41, 46, 50, 141, 142
COCA (Corpus of Contemporary American English) 3, 9
code switching 79, 433, 495, 502, 649
cognition 290, 310, 312, 317, 393, 558, 566
non-human 266
cognitive linguistics 132, 302, 313, 316–7, 349
colligation 14, 143, 148–50, 153
collocation 14, 55, 61, 62, 64, 85, 121, 124, 126, 137, 138, 142–53, 264, 350, 357, 366, 375, 377, 378, 531, 738, 740, 742–3
colour term 57, 317, 324, 326, 350–1, 366, 367, 369–73, 394, 395, 435, 449, 561–4, 742
communication 57, 59, 71, 81, 144, 247, 257, 261, 264, 267, 269, 311–3, 319, 334–5, 347, 349, 354, 440, 473, 510, 513, 514, 522, 525, 529, 534, 535, 553, 584–5, 689, 690, 692–3, 698, 726
animal 1, 15, 85, 247–8, 261, 264, 266, 284
ethnography of 381, 391
referential 327, 329
communication breakdown 81, 306–7
communication channel 81
communication code 73
communication disorder 509
communication goal 321–8,
competition 421, 429, 482, 483, 491, 494–5, 498, 500, 503–4, 506, 643, 657
complementizer 175–6, 178, 345
componential analysis 58–9, 276
composition, compositional 122, 124, 130, 133, 134, 135, 166–7, 203, 260, 295, 339 see also non-compositional
compound 4, 7, 9, 10, 30, 107, 117, 121, 159, 161, 164–7, 169–73, 196, 208, 212, 223, 229, 231, 247, 248, 287, 420, 432, 441, 451, 454, 487–92, 590, 714, 720–2
writing of 91–2, 703–5,
place names as 636, 646
computational linguistics 104, 363, 738, 739
computational model 470, 543–4
concept 312–17, 337–49 et passim
conceptual content 310, 471, 516
conceptual metaphor 125, 126, 132, 139, 354, 424, 513, 515
conceptual representation 317, 338, 348, 507
conceptual structure 65, 215, 248, 266–7, 337–8, 343, 347, 496–7, 507
concgrams 738, 742
conjunction 9, 173, 222, 345, 440, 442, 600
connectionism 292, 497, 511, 543
connotation 15, 126, 187, 276, 278–9, 311, 452, 470, 472, 502, 603, 604, 643, 653, 662, 663, 665 see also meaning, connotative
consonantal root 44, 160, 363
construction 6, 86, 137, 167, 187, 189, 199, 200, 202, 214, 258, 260, 264, 460, 743
construction grammar 265, 729, 733, 741
contiguity 331, 423, 434–5, 470, 556–8
contraction 5–6, 48, 85, 87, 223, 569, 642
conversion 167–8, 197, 198, 207, 420, 430, 601, 607–12, 615
coordination 67, 211, 336, 469–70
coprolalia 280
copyright trap 47
(p. 857) corpus linguistics 93, 141, 472, 581, 744
cotext 589, 742–3
coverage 18, 569, 571–4, 577–8
coverb 194–5
cranberry morph 11, 138, 166
creativity 5, 25, 125, 138, 652, 667–8, 684–6, 699
critical toponymies 648–9
crossword (puzzle) 19, 23, 43, 59, 702–22
cultural contact 421
cultural meaning 380–98
cultural script 385
cultural value 386, 393, 394
dative shift 460
decomposition 310, 488, 491
definiteness 176, 605, 607, 611, 612, 665
definition 38, 41, 44–5, 51, 53, 57, 59, 62, 272, 305–16, 338, 343, 355, 357–8, 382, 503–4, 587, 706–7, 715, 719 see also paraphrase
ostensive 306, 556
circularity of 64, 308, 314, 382
denotation 279, 352, 369, 422, 426–8, 470, 602–5, 610–11, 613
depiction 292
deponency 247, 260–1
derivation 3–4, 14, 30, 117, 159, 162, 165, 172, 196, 198, 199, 215, 360, 419, 430, 490, 583, 601, 610, 652, 661, 667, 728
diachronic, diachrony 41, 91–2, 116, 136, 236, 269, 294, 401–2, 411, 413, 422, 439–40, 446–8, 455–7, 635
dictionary 29, 37–52, 53–62, et passim
bilingual 39, 40, 139, 394
etymological 402, 406
historical 45, 406, 414
learner’s 40–1, 141, 583
synonym 54, 60–1, 436, 418
diglossia 448–9
diminutive 301, 605, 671
disambiguation 354, 666, 739
discourse marker 121, 222
distributed feature model 497
Domesday Book 635, 642
double articulation 247, 267 see also duality of patterning
dual coding theory (of word learning) 588, 591, 593
duality of patterning 247, 254
dysphemism 271, 272, 274, 278, 426
egocentrism 327–9
ellipsis 183, 276
embodiment 313, 317, 470, 471–2
emotive 177, 280, 422, 426, 427
English Place-Name Survey 634
entailment 359, 374, 378
entitative 612–3
entropy 72–5, 77, 82–6, 87, 97
epenthesis 228, 231, 232, 237
esquivalience 47
ethnobiology 289, 394
ethnocentrism 397
ethnography 54, 302, 381
of communication 381
etymology 26, 39, 40, 44, 46, 277, 401–15, 428, 433, 441, 457, 570, 599, 600, 606, 635, 641, 642
euphemism 270, 275–9, 282, 426
evaluation, evaluative 121, 126, 127, 178, 279, 311, 360, 383, 421, 427, 662–4
evidentiality 162, 292
evocation 361
expletive 8, 176, 273–4, 622
expressive 288, 292, 296, 300, 310
extensive reading 585, 586
facilitation 330, 473, 482, 484, 486, 489–91, 494–9, 503–5
fairness 388–9
false friend 495, 505, 584
family resemblance 316
fashion, role of in lexical borrowing 453, 454, 457;
in lexical change 429–30, 447–9;
in name choice 670, 690
feature, grammatical 162, 254–6, 258–9, 268;
morphosemantic 255, 256;
phonological 589;
semantic 308
(p. 858) fieldwork 283, 398, 646, 749
figurative 49, 121, 124, 125, 127, 130, 276, 318–9, 387, 410, 425, 428–9, 430, 611
filler (conversational) 115–6, 730
filler (word game) 711–12
fixedness 122, 123, 125
form-meaning pair 358, 417
formulaic language 125, 134–9, 531, 744
fossilized form, fossilization 121–2, 133, 136, 414, 732
frame 134, 137, 148, 392, 731, 733, 741 see also construction
frequency distribution 6, 13, 68, 81, 94, 96–8, 101, 102, 204, 106, 117, 476
frequency profile 6, 92, 740
frozen, frozenness 87, 122, 124, 133
fuck 47, 274, 276, 277, 282
function word 82, 173, 178–9, 222, 230, 268, 438, 572, 728, 729, 746, 747
fusional languages 162, 268
General Service List 572, 573–4, 580
gender (biological) 272, 273, 277, 361, 445, 547, 560, 622, 662
in naming 623, 628, 653, 664, 667, 672, 677, 684–6
gender (grammatical) 164, 192, 254, 282, 504, 506, 522, 603
generalization (semantic) 275, 422, 423, 425
generative grammar 59, 125, 141, 264, 345, 381, 708, 737
gerund 183–4, 188, 189, 190, 192, 206, 265
gesture 232, 282, 290, 291, 302, 525, 529, 534, 748
gloss 37–9, 54–5, 339, 370, 377, 394, 587
glossary 54–5, 339
graded reader 572, 580, 586
gradience 179–85, 187–8, 190, 292
grammaticalization, grammaticization, 87, 172–4, 236, 268
grapheme 84, 90–3, 106, 111, 496, 734
Great Vowel Shift 402–4
Grimm’s law 408–9
hapax legomena 68, 74, 75
hard word 39, 43, 593
headword 28, 31, 44, 414, 569, 572, 574, 706, 707, 715
historical comparative method 406
homograph 735, 739
homonym 412, 414, 565, 584
homonymy 9, 15, 30, 336, 352, 401, 411
hyperbole 121, 426–7
hyperonym 167, 355, 715, 719
hyphen, hyphenation 1, 6, 30, 91, 92, 121, 705, 722, 728
hypocoristic 614, 651–6, 658–60, 666
hyponym 64, 65, 141, 352, 355–6, 359, 360, 361, 363, 366, 707, 714, 715, 716, 718, 719, 721 see also subordinate, superordinate
iconicity 167, 288–9, 290, 292, 590
identification 66, 427, 604, 606, 610–5, 630
ideophone 176, 251, 286, 289, 290, 292–3, 296, 299–301
idiom 121, 123–9, 138, 272, 411, 414, 421, 429
idiom variation 128–34
idiom principle 738
idiomaticity 124–5, 129
immersion 151, 501
incidental learning 579, 584
incorporation 161, 206, 212
noun incorporation 197, 208, 212–18, 256, 237
individuation 618, 625–33
information theory 71, 72, 105
infix 297
inhibition 280, 490, 494, 505–6
initialism 661, 666
inside 50
institutionalization 122, 125–6
intensification 132, 180, 181, 274, 383, 393
interface 169, 219, 246–9, 260, 265–7
syntax-semantics 210–11
interference 496, 498–9, 501, 504, 505, 585, 593 see also picture-word interference
semantic 486, 499
L1 494, 595
interjection 78, 176–7, 274, 280, 288, 309, 392, 527
IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) 45
isolating languages 161, 268
Johnson, Samuel 24, 28, 38–40, 42, 45, 142, 414
keyword method (of word learning) 591–2
language family 142, 406–7, 409–10, 421, 439, 440, 591, 636, 732
language of thought 311–3, 317, 471
amodality of 313, 317
language origins 248, 266–8, 302
language planning 635
language universals 248, 261–8
lemma 2, 20, 31, 90, 94, 96, 107, 143, 467, 473, 483, 490, 504–6, 569, 570, 583
levels of processing 588–9
lexeme 2, 27, 44, 158–60, 246–51, 359, 384
phrasal 121
lexical access 483–92, 495, 496, 548
bilingual model of 496
lexical bundle 124 see also n-gram
lexical category 3, 175–95, 251, 354–5, 358, 361 see also parts of speech
lexical decision task 3, 471, 474, 483, 484, 494, 495, 499, 500
lexical field 58, 64, 66, 366–71, 376–9
lexical gap 366, 421
lexical matrix 354
lexical merger 411–14
lexical priming 149–51
lexical split 402, 411–14
lexical storage 576, 579, 740
lexical stress 18, 91, 237, 456, 539–40, 543, 548
lexical universal 384
lexicalization 174, 248, 266, 267, 350, 351, 361, 485, 497, 503
lexicalization pattern 351, 361, 497
lexicalized sentence stem 125
lexicogenesis 419–21
lexicography 38, 39, 42, 50, 55, 59, 60, 65, 124, 355
lexicology 38, 381, 418, 419
lexicon 81
lexis123, 139, 141, 404, 409, 646, 729
linking element 165, 459, 705
lipogram 25
loan translation 421, 454
loanshift 434
loanword 397, 401, 409, 410, 413, 421, 431–44, 591 see also borrowing
Locke, John 367, 551, 552, 555, 558, 748
lumping 188–90 see also splitting
malapropism 441
markedness 263, 268, 601
meaning 305–19 et passim
connotative 121, 350, 502, 603
guessing from context 585–6, 592, 596
literal 121, 126, 127, 130, 310, 318, 365, 515
referential 370
meaning change 416–30
meaning potential 417, 418
meaningless morph 164, 258–9
memorization 588–94, 596, 614, 726
memory 75, 110, 172, 263, 279, 313, 316, 318, 328–30, 333, 354, 361, 498, 531, 544, 584, 587, 588, 590, 593–6, 731, 743
episodic 365, 471, 480
semantic 466, 470
mental lexicon 17, 75, 206, 351, 361, 365–8, 370–80, 481–92, 703, 710, 711, 715, 716, 731, 743
Menzerath–Altmann Law 111–6
merger 411–14, 429
meronomy 16, 141, 352, 356, 359, 361, 363 see also relation, part-whole
metalanguage 317, 721 see also Natural Semantic Metalanguage
metalinguistic 135, 305–7, 315, 556, 589, 590, 609, 721–2
metaphor 24, 27, 28, 58, 87, 88, 123, 127, 137, 293–4, 298, 302, 313, 317–9, 354, 369, 387, 405, 414, 420, 422–5, 428, 508, 513–7, 599, 745
conceptual 125, 126, 132, 139–40, 354, 424, 513–5
metonymy 126, 129, 137, 318, 353, 354, 403, 404, 405, 414, 422–5, 661
mimetics 287, 289, 290–2, 296, 297, 300
minimality constraint 225, 228, 229, 231–2, 235, 237
modification 191, 275, 626
modifier 142, 144, 169, 177, 214–5, 256, 323
mora 90, 93, 94, 234, 244
morpheme 44, 87, 91–3, 111–3, 157, 219, 257, 284–5, 339, 365, 454, 487–91, 703, 729, 732, 737 et passim
bound 10, 157, 159, 162, 256, 268, 363, 365, 373, 383, 384, 438
cranberry 11, 138, 166
free 487, 534
length 112–3
morphological structure 36, 102, 157–9, 166, 169–72, 225, 236, 408, 488–9
non-concatenative 159, 161, 287, 291, 296
morphosyntax 200, 211, 219, 224, 232, 247–56, 267, 346, 459–60, 556, 653, 656
Mountweazel 47
multiword 31
multi-word expression 86, 253, 254, 740, 741
multi-word item (MWI) 120–40, 594–5
multi-word phrase 575, 654, 660
multi-word string 729, 738, 741
multi-word unit 341, 348,
n-gram 85–7, 102, 104 see also bigram
name
as proxy for person 618, 620, 626
commemorative 644, 647
island 646–7
place 277, 600, 614–5, 634–49, 667 see also toponym
proper 601, 603, 605–6, 611, 614, 656, 665, 669, 706, 707 see also noun, proper
settlement 614, 635–41
transferred 641, 642, 649
name change 618, 620, 627–8, 629, 643–4, 649
name-giver 599, 610, 669–86
natural kind 54, 396
Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM) 59, 314, 377, 382–5
necrolexicology 428–30
negation 6, 122, 716
negative (form) 122, 128, 177, 178, 198, 235, 522
neologism 43, 351, 419, 420–1, 430, 440–1, 454
neologizer 441
nickname 309, 614, 618, 620, 625, 627, 629, 632, 633, 650–68, 669, 680–1
nonce word 43, 420, 456
non-compositionality 122, 124–6, 130, 132, 136, 137, 139, 233, 260
non-word 47, 330, 483
nomination 608–10, 613–4
noun
plural 158, 161, 443, 612
proper 78, 355, 571, 574, 577–8, 601–2, 605, 650, 652, 669, 722 see also name, proper
noun class marker 193
obscenity 272, 273, 274, 289, 689
OED (Oxford English Dictionary) 28, 30, 40, 41, 43, 46, 47, 50, 51, 53, 55, 56, 57, 59, 60, 61, 141, 248, 272, 384, 403, 410, 414, 428, 435, 628, 702, 707, 715
onomasiology, onomasi ological 418, 419–21, 426, 428, 429, 430
onomastic geography 644–5
onomasticon 609–10, 613, 614
onomastics 616, 644–9, 650
onomatopoeia 78, 285, 286, 289, 291, 294, 297, 298, 369, 420
reverse 289
ordinance, ordnance 413–14
orthography 4, 7, 27, 121, 346, 703, 731–7 see also spelling
orthophemism 270
palindrome 19, 709, 710, 722
paraphrase 146, 159, 309, 310, 376, 384
part of speech 44, 175, 246, 256, 264, 324, 339, 341, 347, 354, 355, 444, 469, 516, 569, 586, 600–2, 605, 610, 612, 613, 739, 749 see also lexical category
participle 177, 185, 192
passive 197–208
present 173
partonomy 377, 378
passivization 122, 198, 296
pejoration, pejorative 272, 277, 278, 295, 405, 426–7, 662–3
periphrasis, periphrastic 137, 254, 255, 258, 260, 276, 460
phonaestheme 287, 295, 675–7, 680–3
phoneme inventory 102, 112, 114, 285
phonotactic constraint 18, 231, 286, 443
phonotactic generalization 225, 228, 230–1, 232, 237
phonotactics 114, 243, 268, 285, 544, 547, 548
phraseme 121, 383
phraseology 120–40
picture naming 484–6, 489–90, 498, 503, 510
picture-word interference 482, 485, 489, 490, 503–4
planning unit 489, 492
Pluto (verb) 46
pointwise mutual information 357
poke 414
polarity 128, 177
polysemy 9, 14, 43, 53, 56, 63, 103, 107–8, 111, 131, 317–9, 339, 348, 352–4, 358, 360, 362, 377, 384, 401, 418, 425, 500, 584, 739
regular 53
polysynthesis 161, 237, 240, 263, 384
power law distribution 70, 77–81, 88
pragmatic function 120–2, 134–6, 191–2, 222
pragmatics 63, 257, 385
of early language use 524–6
predication 191, 206, 252, 257, 601, 608
prefabricated sequence 86, 124, 125, 138–9
prefabs 120, 138–9
preferential attachment 81, 477
preposition 7, 9, 86, 91, 132, 137, 173, 178, 182, 188, 207, 222, 230, 262, 263, 309, 434, 442, 460, 504, 522, 554, 600, 607, 610, 613, 642, 651, 654, 726, 737
prepositional particle 131, 460
prepositional passive 199–200, 206, 207
prepositional phrase 122, 177, 180, 184
priming 295, 330, 473–4, 485, 490–1, 500 see also lexical priming, semantic priming, translation priming
production (speech, language) 472, 481–7, 4889, 492, 509, 546, 560, 582
productive 4, 13, 122, 124, 134–7, 161, 168, 229, 351, 353, 361, 368, 419, 421, 436, 440, 442, 459, 488, 580, 644, 733
productivity 122, 132, 569
pronoun 16, 177, 178, 184–5, 189, 210, 212–3, 220, 223, 254, 255, 282, 600, 602, 658, 735
deictic 610, 612, 613
demonstrative 188, 252, 606, 607, 612–3
interrogative 177
personal 188, 603, 607
possessive 186
propositional content 268, 310
prosodic hierarchy 226–7, 234, 238–44
prototype 7, 9, 10–11, 20, 63, 975, 180, 184, 191, 201, 219, 222, 265–6, 316, 323, 343, 347, 396, 425, 431, 600, 608, 613, 615, 649, 681, 726, 736, 745, 748–9
prototype category 7, 9–11
prototypicality 180, 425, 615
proverb 23, 24, 120, 124, 130–1, 134, 139, 281, 386, 392
punctuation 1,, 7, 31, 91, 153, 703, 728
purism 440–2, 459
quantifier 186, 383
queer 410–11
Quine, W. V. O. 551, 554, 555, 557, 558, 559, 748
readability 90, 118–9
reanalysis 206, 263, 269
reconstruction 405–10, 646
reduplication 108, 159, 176, 243, 258, 259, 276, 287, 296, 300, 661
reference 208, 210, 212–5, 309, 327, 369, 370, 422, 564, 608, 609, 619, 653–7
definite 213–4, 606–8
register 64, 77, 101, 118, 352, 387, 435, 445, 457, 459, 526, 645
rehearsal 588
relation
conceptual–semantic 351–2
instance 355, 356
ISA 355 see also hyponym
lexical 350–63
morphosemantic 360
paradigmatic 141, 168, 353, 355, 361, 362, 366, 369
part-whole 337, 343, 352, 353, 356, 424 see also meronymy
taxonomic 343, 422, 469–70
troponymic 359
relexification 435
repair strategy 306–7, 315
retrieval 328–9, 467, 476, 478, 483–4, 516, 523, 588, 590–2, 702, 718 see also lexical access
Revised Hierarchical Model (of bilingual memory) 498
rhyme 230, 233, 244, 277, 470, 589, 660
rhyming 456, 665
rhyming slang 273, 276
Roget, Peter Mark 53–5, 58–66, 355, 358, 476
routine 125, 392, 528
saying 124, 139–1, 135, 272, 392, 389
Science Word List 574, 577, 578
Scrabble 19, 23, 30, 43
segmentation 124, 374, 536–49
selectional preference 357
selectional restriction 128, 222, 459
semantic analysis 314, 382, 385, 387, 388
semantic bleaching 87, 742
semantic blocking 498
semantic depletion 132, 136, 137
semantic domain 59, 95, 332, 366, 368, 370, 391, 461, 532
semantic field 49, 366–9, 435, 438, 444, 449, 451, 454, 516
semantic memory 466, 470
semantic narrowing 63, 278, 404–5, 422, 454
semantic prime 375, 376, 383–5, 397
semantic priming 150, 466–7, 497–8, 501, 718
semantic representation 317, 484, 497, 502
semantic structure 165–9, 396
semasiology, semasiological 418, 422–7, 430
SETI (search for extraterrestrial intelligence) 85
sign language 229, 232, 237, 268
simile 123, 130, 133–4, 137
simulation 316–7, 470, 471–2
slang 27, 43, 48, 273, 276, 278, 352, 410, 411, 414
slogan 135
slot-and-filler 179
small world network 13, 79–81, 82, 88, 467, 476–8
smurf 430
sociolexicology 429
socio-onomastics 649
sound change 297, 434, 451
regularity of 402, 404–5, 408–9, 415
sound symbolism 251, 277, 284–302, 590
specialization (semantic) 422–3
speech act 151, 610, 613, 691
speech act verb 391
speech error 483, 489
speech event 391, 743–4
spelling 35, 36, 40, 43, 44, 78, 153, 221–2, 276, 288, 350, 357, 358, 401, 410, 411, 414, 320, 457, 488, 569, 583, 589, 590, 593, 623, 625, 649, 657, 659, 684, 705, 730, 735, 747
semi-literate 733, 734, 749
splitting 188–90 see also lumping
spreading activation 88, 467, 473, 476–9, 497
statistical learning 545
stenography 70, 71
structuralism 93, 121, 308, 366, 418
subcategory 176, 195, 710
sub-lexicon 445, 460–1
subordinate 58, 322–5, 329, 355–6, 360, 366, 422, 447, 470, 527, 528 see also superordinate; basic level
substantive 383, 600–2 see also noun
substratum 124, 433, 446–7
supercategory 190, 194
superordinate 58, 322–5, 327, 352, 355–7, 360, 366, 378, 422, 470, 485, 527, 528 see also subordinate; basic level
superstratum 447
suppletion 204–6, 219, 259, 265
supralexification 435–6
suprasegmental 288, 443
Swadesh word list 433–40, 444
swearing 273, 274, 730
swear words 47, 272, 273, 274, 730
synchronic, synchrony 41, 112, 116, 244, 263–4, 294, 411, 445, 447–8, 450, 454–60, 635
syncretism 200–1, 206, 260, 265
synonym 53, 56, 60–3, 131, 141, 187, 282, 332, 338–9, 344, 346, 351–8, 366, 418, 565, 590, 706, 714, 715, 716, 719
cognitive 352
near 16, 62, 469, 485, 590, 719
set see synset
synset 352, 355–62
tadbhava 434
tatsama 434
taxonomy 57, 58, 65, 67, 298, 335–6, 422, 469, 470, 699 see also relation, taxonomic
teknonym 632–3
term of address 391–2, 609, 614, 616, 618, 620–1, 626–8, 652–6, 663, 666
theory of mind 307, 555, 556
thesaurus 13, 16, 38, 39, 52, 53–67, 338, 355, 358, 418, 468, 476
tip-of-the-tongue 351, 483, 510
tone, tonal 160, 225, 229, 242–3, 288, 300, 443
toponym 614, 615, 634–49, 665–6
toponymicon 646, 647
translation 16, 38, 82–3, 139, 336, 380, 381, 386, 421, 430, 438, 452, 454, 493, 497–504, 506, 554, 588–90
equivalent 396, 498, 499, 500, 502, 589, 590
loan 421, 454
priming 498–9
recognition 498–9, 501
truncation 160, 651–2, 659–65
univerbation 14, 172–4
universal language 56–60
usage-based theory 557
usual utility, level of 322, 323 see also basic level
verb
auxiliary 203, 209, 212, 223, 253, 260, 442
cognitive 392, 393, 394
delexical 87, 746
ditransitive 127, 504
intransitive 127, 132, 217, 411–2, 504
light 186, 187, 194–5, 237, 440, 442
motion 530
phrasal 29, 39, 124, 130–2, 358, 459
strong 411–12
transitive 60, 127, 132, 195, 218, 411–2, 504
Verner’s law 409
visual word recognition 474, 494, 496, 503, 506
vocabulary
core 31, 33, 39, 81, 282
general 419, 422, 730
specialized 28, 43, 75, 78, 80, 345, 347, 348, 429, 435, 445,
vocabulary development 477, 546–8, 571, 580
vocabulary size 2, 18, 27, 473, 529, 532, 547, 548, 570–1, 575–9, 583, 726
estimates of 27–8, 473
learning 501, 568–9, 571, 578, 580, 582–96
test 576
vocalization 10–11, 298, 409, 529
animal 285
vocative 608–10, 612–3, 653, 656
vowel harmony 223, 224, 228, 229, 237, 286, 296, 728
Vygotsky L. 551, 552, 555–9, 748
Wanderwörter 440
Webster’s Third New International Dictionary 47, 48, 49, 272
Wilkins, John 60–1 65
Wittgenstein, Ludwig 309, 551, 553, 555, 556–8, 748
word
abstract 64, 276, 309, 324, 369, 395, 474, 497, 499, 588, 591, 593, 727
concrete 324, 325, 337, 474, 497, 499, 588, 590, 591, 593, 727, 748, 749
dummy 178, 183, 292
high frequency 3, 5, 6, 70, 75, 82, 83, 86, 87, 328, 455, 571–2, 573–80, 583, 595, 628, 665
learnèd 56, 450
low frequency 33, 75, 76, 79, 81–3, 86, 87, 570, 572, 574–5, 579
mid frequency 572–4, 577, 580
phonological 7, 8, 15, 91, 106, 170, 224, 226, 239, 267, 302, 484, 728–33
prosodic 221–45 see also phonological word
prototypical 7, 9–11, 219, 222
simplex 139, 157, 166, 170–2, 351, 358, 487, 722
technical 75, 575–6, 577
universality of 246–69, 727–30
(p. 864) word associations 142, 351, 361, 465–80, 497, 683, 718
word boundaries 7,, 8, 18, 85, 86, 146, 147, 149, 211, 233, 442, 536, 538–48, 563, 728, 732–3, 747
word competitions 25
word division 9, 85, 732–3
word family 360, 569–74, 576–80, 583, 728, 729
word fragment 78
word frequency 6, 13, 18, 68–88, 95, 107–9, 328, 330, 467, 474, 476, 572
word learning
paired-associate 589–91
word list 11, 23, 27, 54, 96, 568–81
word origin 44, 233, 458 see also etymology
word space 5, 6, 7, 91, 704, 739
word structure 44, 162, 164–72, 210, 245, 543
word token 1–2, 18, 560–3, 565–6, 572 et passim
word type 1–2, 18, 68–9, 74, 83, 241, 561, 569–70, 579, 730 et passim
wordhood 7, 8, 10, 213–5, 219, 222, 703, 727, 732, 735, 736–7, 739, 747, 748, 749
WordNet 16, 356, 358–63, 473, 477
World Wide Web 79, 80, 81, 87, 476, 477
xiào ‘filial piety’ (Chinese) 389–90
Zipfian distribution 13, 18, 31, 74, 75, 76, 85, 86, 328, 583
Zipf’s law 68, 70, 71, 75, 80, 86, 107, 473, 568