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date: 19 September 2018

(p. 683) Index

(p. 683) Index

Note: bold entries refer to figures and tables.

academic tenure 59
Acar, M 161, 166–7, 171, 313–4
accountability:
beliefs in benefits of 25
communicative nature of 4
concepts of 3–6, 30–3, 107, 207
contextual nature of 26–8, 30
costs of 43–4, 564–5, 567, 675
as cultural keyword 23, 24–5, 31, 33–4, 649
as cultural phenomenon 25, 30, 34–5, 649
definition of 7, 26–7, 31, 55–6, 160–1, 195–7, 243
as dialectical activity 269
etymological roots of 3, 27, 35n7, 421
expanded meaning of 269
extra-legal demands for 636–7
future research 17–8
growth in use of term 1, 23–4, 28, 55, 195
historical roots of concept 2–3
innovation in types of 677–8
meaningful accountability 676–81
minimal conceptual consensus 3–6
nature of actor’s obligation 12–3
nature of conduct 11
negative impacts of 197, 330, 560–1, 563–4, 604, 664, 674, 675–6
as normative value 198, 604
objects of 7
obsession with 24, 665
open processes of 7
preventing undesirable behavior 7–8
private forms of 6–7
social process of creating 635–9
sub-concepts 33
subjects of 10
synonyms for 26–7, 31–2
theoretical approaches to 13–5
types of 10–3, 499
usage of term 27–30
accountability agents 633
moral concerns raised by 638
responding to extra-legal demands of 637–8
stakeholders and affected interests 636
accountability cube 154
accountability deficits 16, 113, 154, 545, 557, 663, 674
absence of political control 545
accountability overloads 555
assessing significance of 553
as contested concept 546
contextual nature of 554
contracting out 549
decoupled government 548–50, 555–6
distinction from democracy deficits 546, 548
erosion of ministerial responsibility 548–9
European Union (EU) 552
executive agencies 548–50
focus on 673–4
in international politics 546–8
legal accountability 554
ministerial responsibility 552–3
multi-level governance 280–1
need for stable definition of accountability 552
networked governance 550–1
new public management (NPM) 327
normative disapproval of 545–6, 554
political accountability 553–4
positive view of 555–6
proliferation of 553
public-private partnerships 549
specification of 553
value perspectives on 554–6
widening concept of 552
(p. 684) accountability issue network 502
accountability overloads 16, 561, 604
accountability deficits 555
awakening syndrome 564
causes of 561–3, 567
cost-benefit analysis of accountability 566–7
costs of 565
default accountability 675
dynamic accountability 564
election campaigns and promises 569–70
negative effects of accountability 560–1
No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) (2002, USA) 562
pathologies of 560–
1
reducing pathologies of 566–9
reduction of 563, 570
timing as protection against 575
transparency 565–6
accountability regimes:
democratic accountability 46–8
dynamics of 116
evolution of 117
features of 574
ideological influences on 75–6
institutional approach to 119–21
institutional design 116–7
learning in 116–7
quantitative analysis of strength of 151
accountability studies 665
accountability space 665, 667
attention to processes of political change 657
conceptual vagueness 661–2, 666
contribution to accountability crisis 665–7
conventional wisdom in 663
creating unrealistic expectations 665–7
decreasing demand for accountability 664–5
failure to acknowledge theory/practice gap 666
focus on accountability deficits 674
focus on increasing supply of accountability 664, 674
fragmented nature of scholarship 2
future of 669–70
growth of 1–2
institutional ontology 650
nature of democratic politics 665–6
need for behavioral approach 656–7
ontological dilemma 649–50
pessimistic narrative of 666–7
prevailing rationalist approach 655–6
radical shift to Option-R (relational) ontology 651–2
reframing accountability 663–5
relational ontology 650–1, 668
role of academics 669–70
social relevance and impact of 668–70
systems approach to 657–9
understanding gap 669
accountant, original meaning of 27, 35n8
account-giving:
as ritual 112
stages of 9
accounting:
conception of accountability 4, 196
dual meaning of 2
etymological roots of 421
historical roots of accountability 3
non-financial activities 429–30
visual accountability 178
Ackerman, B 205
Acumen Fund 346–7
Adelberg, S 678
administrative accountability, forums for 11
administrative law:
global administrative law (GAL) 298–9
public administration accountability 218
adverse selection problems:
electoral accountability 94
principal-agent theory 92, 422–3
advice, citizen participation in accountability 264
advocacy coalitions, and post-crisis policy change 599
Aetna Insurance 580
affected rights and interests 636
all affected principle 40, 48
as basis for accountability 5
democratic accountability 40
Afghanistan 365
(p. 685) African National Congress (ANC) 535
agency strategies, and accountability 607
agency theory, and outcome accountability 79
AgencyStat 462
agenda-setting, and watchdog journalism 531
Alien Tort Claims Act (USA) 292
Al-Jazeera 536
Almond, G A 604
altruism, and experimental economics 137–8
ambiguity:
accountability under 107, 112–3, 119–21
de-institutionalization 109
as enemy of accountability 107–8
institutional sources of 110–1
as intrinsic to life 108
living with 115–6
as political necessity 112
politics of 111–3
pursuit of accountability 113–5
American Society of News Editors (ASNE) 528
Amnesty International 428, 483
Anechiarico, F 604, 664
anti-globalization movements 51
apologies:
crisis management 595
effects of 597
for slavery 579–81
Arceneaux, K 598
architecture 186
Arendt, H 669
Argyris, C 172–3
Arkes, H R 71
Arnold, P J 371
Arnold, R D 538n1
Arnstein, S, and ladder of participation 260–2, 266–70
Asian tsunami disaster (2004) 594–5
Askim, J 445–7
Assad, Bashar al- 536
Assange, J 226
association-based accountability 51–2
Aucoin, P 234–5, 330, 409
audience democracy 278
audit institutions:
critical role of 488
fire-alarm oversight 503
impact on policy making and implementation 501–4
influence of 502–4
police-patrol oversight 503
auditing:
accountability of auditors 434–5
accountability to whom? 428–9
audit explosion 56–7, 118–9, 327, 457, 492
audit society 10, 56–7, 435, 561, 565
audited financial statements 425–6, 437n3
auditors’ independence 433
civil service accountability 235
concerns over expanded scope of 492
corrupting effects of monitoring 57–8
European Union (EU) 118–9
evolution of 490–3
expansion in scope of 490
experimental research on accountability 132–3
external audits 489
financial accountability 421–2
generally accepted auditing standards (GAAS) 426
of governments 427
impact on morale 57
internal audits 489
micro empirical research 432
negative effects of 492
performance audit regime 491–2, 500–1
performance evaluation 490
political and policy role of auditors 492, 501–4
public administration accountability 218
quality of auditors’ reports 433–4
random checks 221, 677
Risk-Based Audit (RBA) 492–3
standards-setters 426
systems based/financial model 491
traditional/transactional model 490
types of audit 488–9
value-for-money auditing 427
Auel, K 6, 279
Austen-Smith, D 102n5
Australia 202, 497, 509
Austria 509
awakening syndrome 564
Bagley, P L 435
balanced budget requirements 577
balanced scorecard 345
Baldvinsdottir, G 182
Bandyopadhyay, S 532
Bangladesh 498, 501
banking deregulation 575, 577
Banks, J 94, 102n5, 102n8
Bannister, F 519
Barberis, P 327
Barker, P 431
Barro, R 102n4
Barthes, R 181–2
Basel Committee on Banking Standards 371
Batson, C D 678
Beattie, V A 181, 186
behavior of actors 8
Behn, R D 6, 57, 270, 329, 456, 460, 462, 464, 466, 500, 664, 675
Belarus 535
Belgium, Court of Accounts 494
Bellamy, R 663
benchmarking 345
benevolence, and trust 620–1
Benin 498, 501
Bentham, J 199, 507, 509, 606
Berger, J 181
Berle, A A 358, 428
Berlinski, S 598
Berlusconi, S 531, 534
Besley, T 62, 608
Better Business Bureau 346
Bhopal disaster (1984) 592
bias:
accountability bias 239, 456, 675
accountability effects 131, 137
de-biasing 132, 434
in media 249
negativity bias 597, 604, 608
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 347
Birkinshaw, P 510
Birkland, T A 599
Black, J 510
Blair, M 357
Blair, Tony 594
blame, and accountability 603
blame avoidance 276, 283, 415, 472, 549, 561
accountability-seeking/blame avoidance games 605–6
agency strategies 607
anonymous reporting 609–10
blame games 561, 606
blame games as discovery process 611–2
compared with accountability 605
crisis-induced accountability 593–4
cultural variations 612–4
dynamic balancing with accountability 606
in egalitarian cultures 614
elected politicians 608–9
enhancement of accountability 609–12
in fatalist cultures 614
good and bad blame games 612
in hierarchical cultures 613
immunity from prosecution 609
in individualist cultures 613
meaning of 603
ministerial responsibility 610–1
as mirror image of accountability 605–8, 612
negative connotations of 604
no-fault cultures 609–10
as outcome 604
policy strategies 607–8
presentational strategies 607
as process 604
protocolization of standards of conduct 611
social mechanisms underpinning 607
unintended effects 610
Bodin, J 509
Bohman, J 50
Boin, A 162, 590, 595–6
Bouckaert, G 146, 621
Bourdieu, P 162
Bovaird, T 265
Bovens, M 33, 196, 233–4, 238, 259, 282, 328, 408, 415, 511, 520, 550, 555, 561, 590, 612, 623, 627, 651, 663
Bradford and Bingley Bank 184
branding, and visual portrayal of 184
Brandsma, G J 148–9, 152, 154, 516
Brändström, A 594
Bratton, William 461, 464, 469n3
Brazil 537
(p. 687) Breaux, D A 14
Brehm, J 149, 153
Brennan, G 61–2
Brin, D 519–20
British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) 530
Brower, R S 170–1
Brown, D 663
Brown, J 565–6
Brunetti, A 532
Budget and Accounting Act (1921, USA) 490
Bueno de Mesquita, E 102n9
bureaucratic accountability 11–2, 243, 245
asymmetric information 95–8
autonomy of bureaucrats 100
bureaucrats as principals 100
citizen participation 260
common agency 100–1
concerns with lack of 95
Congressional dominance 96–7
control 378
delegation 97–9
democratic accountability 47
governance networks 245–6
multiple principals 100
obtaining direct reports (hearings) 98
policy discretion 97–8
principal-agent analyses of 95–101
quantitative analysis 153
representative bureaucracy 215
state capacity 42–3
Bush, George W 162, 562, 598
Busuioc, M 9
Büthe, T 277
calculus-based trust 622
Caldwell, C 619, 622
California 46, 565–6
Callum, A 266
Campbell, D T 57, 185
Canada 202, 444, 509
Canadian Supreme Court, Quebec succession reference case (1998) 203
CARE International 372
Carman, J 149
Carpenter, D 100
cartoon faces 178
Caterham Barracks Community Trust (CBCT, UK) 265
Cauberghe, V 597
causality, and qualitative analysis of accountability 172–3
Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) 568
Chalaby, J K 529
Challenger accident (1986) 163–4, 171, 409
Chambers, S 66n1, 276
Chan, H S 237, 331
Chan, S 663
Chandler, G 236
Chang, E C C 531
change, in accountability studies 657
Chapman, R 277–8
Charity Navigator 343–4, 346
checks and balances 201
Cherokee language 3
childcare, and selection-based accountability 58
China 501
judicial independence 202
National Audit Office 495
nonprofit sector 340
rule of law 200
transparency 508, 516
watchdog journalism 530–1
choice agenda 447
impact on equity 450–1
Choudhury, E 622
Christensen, C 71
Christensen, M 501
Churchill, W 229, 239
CitiStat 462, 465
citizen participation in accountability:
accountability of citizens 266–7
advice 264
arguments in favour of 259
bureaucratic accountability 260
categorizing examples of 270
collaboration 264
co-responsibility 266
dual role of participants 266–7
(p. 688) citizen participation in accountability (Cont.)education 263
exit 259, 263, 265, 268
framework for 260, 262–5, 270
individual vs collective 268
involvement 263–4
joint ownership 264–5
ladder of participation 260–2
learning 266
levels of 260–3, 270
limitations of electoral participation 258
limited impact of increased transparency 514
limited studies of 258
network governance perspective 259, 262
new public management perspective 259, 262, 268
public services accountability 308
redistribution of power 262
scope of 267–8
tensions in 265
as virtue 258–9
voice 259, 265, 268
citizenship, and democratic accountability 114
civil service accountability:
administrative reform 234–5
analytical framework for 227–8
auditing 235
civil servants’ understanding of 232–3
civil service/government separation 231
conceptions of public interest 229–30
constitutional anchoring of 234
contraction of civil services 234
cross-national comparative studies 237
delegation 232
diagonal accountability 236
evaluation of 235–7
evasion of accountability to legislatures 239
external accountability 230
federalism 237–8
horizontal accountability 235–6
initiative of responsibility 239
internal accountability 230–1
legal accountability 230
multiple roles of civil service 226–7
nature of accountable civil service 231
paternalism 231
policy/administration dichotomy 227–8
power-sharing arrangements 226, 234
public judgment 237
reactivity of 239
research agenda 237–8
responsibility 231
responsiveness 232, 238
social accountability 238
standards 235
vertical accountability 235
in Whitehall (UK) 228–30
civil society organizations:
association-based accountability 51–2
democratic accountability 49
Claeys, A S 597
Clapham, S E 619, 622
Clarke, Lord Justice 595
coalitions 396
cognitive tuning 136
Cold War, end of 290–1
collaboration:
citizen participation in accountability 264
collaborative networks 316–7
interagency collaboration 314–5
intergovernmental 314–5
interlocal 314, 321n6
network 316–7
nonprofit sector 348–9
public service delivery 312–3
collateralized debt obligations (CDOs) 576–7
collective accountability 10
colonialism 43
colour, in financial reports 181, 186
Committee on Standards in Public Life (UK) 233
committees, and dynamic accountability 65
community benefit spending 351
community governance 265
competence:
empowerment 82
trust 620–1
competition, and public administration accountability 219–20
(p. 689) complex systems 659n2
compliance-control, and accountability 106, 112–3, 119–21
CompStat 461–2, 465, 468
Comptroller and Auditor General (UK) 490
concepts, definition of 31
Conference Board of Canada 49
conflict, and public administration accountability 215–6
Connecticut, University of 570
Connolly, R 519
Conradsen, I M 267
consequential accountability 6
Considine, M 243
constitutional law 195
accountability as normative value 198
arguments in favour of written constitutions 204–5
checks and balances 201
conception of accountability 5–6, 195–7
constitutionalism 202–3
democratic accountability 46–8
human rights movement 205–6
importance of remedies for violation of 203–4
judicial independence 201–2
liberal constitutionalism 203
ministerial responsibility 197–8, 548–9
political culture 204
proportionality principle 205–6
regionalism 206
rule of law doctrines 199–200
separation of powers 200–1
supranational constitutionalism 206–7
transnational courts 205–6
written constitutions 202–3
construal level theory 77–8
contingency theory of accountability, see social contingency theory
contracting out 166, 320n4
accountability deficits 549
challenges to effective accountability 312
formal accountability 311
informal accountability 311
public services accountability 311–2
contrition, and crisis management 595
contrived randomness 221, 677, 680
control:
accountability as 61
global governance organizations (GCOs) 378
institutional design 116–7
process vs outcome accountability 77–80
Coombs, W T 597
Cooper, S M 429–30
Corbin, J 160, 167
corporate accountability 10
accountability to whom? 428–9
changes in corporate objectives 362–3
corporate groups 356, 362
corporate social reporting 429–30
corporation as social institution 358, 360, 363
decision-making 358–9
environmental accounting 430
equitable accountability 359, 361–2
experimental research 130
external perspective on 354–5
governance structure 355–6
growth in use of term 28
human rights 361
importance of 354
insulation of parent companies from social accountability 362
internal perspective on 355
investor accountability 431
limited liability 356, 362, 422
managerial power 356
no automatic priority for shareholders 361
non-financial activities 429–30
object of accountability 366
owner-manager relationship 423
performance accountability 431
public demand for 632–3
responding to extra-legal demands 637–8
separation of ownership and control 356–8, 422
shareholder dominance 357
social accountability 358, 360–3, 366
sovereign stakeholders 359, 362–3, 365–6
stakeholder participation in defence of equitable interests 364–5
stakeholders as citizens 357–8, 360
(p. 690) corporate accountability (Cont.)stakeholders as property holders 357
strategic accountability 359–61
supervisory power 356
ultimate accountability 359, 362–3, 365–6
watchdog journalism 526
wider participation in strategic decisions 363–4
corporate social reporting 429–30
corporate social responsibility (CSR) 266–7, 421
ethical issues 185
corruption:
Madagascar 537
public administration accountability 212
South Africa 535
Syria 536
Uganda 537
watchdog journalism’s impact on 531–4, 537–8
Corwin, E S 204
Costa Concordia 609–10
cost-benefit analysis of accountability 566–7
Courtis, J 181, 186
courts:
engagement with regulatory issues 479–80
as independent regulators 479
Courty, O 161
credible commitment, and trust 620
Crick, B 665–6
crisis-induced accountability 599–600
accountability management 590
ad-hoc independent official investigations 592
blame (re)allocation 593–4
contrition 595
definition of crises 589
displays of empathy 595
effects of apologies 597
factors affecting perceived guilt 593
factors affecting survival of officials 596
forensic investigations 592
forums for 590–2
future research 600
impact on leaders 598
judicial investigations 592
manipulation of processes and procedures 595–6
media and internet coverage 590–1
policy change after 598–9
political and strategic nature of 590
politically-inspired investigations 592
post-crisis accountability processes 589–90
qualitative analysis 163
regulatory bodies 591–2
repercussions of inquiries 597–8
reputational threat 597
ritual 595
strategies 593
symbolic dimension of crisis management 595
technical investigations 591
critical theory, and visual semiotics 181
Croson, D C 626
Cuellar, B 430
cultural variation, and accountability 612–4
Curtin, D M 148
Dasgupta, P 618
Davison, J 182, 184, 188
Dawes, R M 71
Day, P 165
DeAngelo, L E 433–4
deception, in experimental research 135
Deci, E L 56–7
decision-making:
citizens’ use of performance information 447–50, 514
impact of forum preferences on 129–30, 133
micro-signals 73
outcome accountability 71, 78
politicians’ use of performance information 443–7, 450
process accountability 71–2, 77–8
risk 577
situated-identity theory 72–3
standardizing practices 77
decoy effect 71
default accountability 675–6
defensive medicine 607, 611
de-institutionalization 109
Dekker, S 596, 600, 622, 625
delegation 13–4
(p. 691) bureaucratic accountability 97–9
civil service accountability 232
hierarchical accountability 406–7, 409–10
multi-level governance 279
in parliamentary systems 406–7
in presidential systems 406–7
vulnerability to delegated power 40–1
DeLeon, L 443
Delhi, Declaration of (1959) 200
deliberative accountability 61, 64–5, 679–80
deliberative democracy 66n1, 269
prospective accountability 197
Delreux, T 148
Deming, E 563
democracy:
accountability’s relationship with 32, 39
definitions of 32
principal-agent relationships in 13–4
public accountability as precondition for 14, 39
democracy deficits 546
democratic accountability 29, 32, 39–40, 52, 107, 113, 274
absence in international relations 293
affected rights and interests 40
association-based accountability 51–2
assumption of informed citizens 113
bureaucratic accountability 47
citizens’ responsibilities 114
competing accountability claims 115
constitutions 46–8
costs of 43–5
democratic representation 41
direct democracy 45–6
electoral systems 48
elements of 40–1
empowerment 41
exit-based accountability 51
federal systems 48
global accountability 50–1
global democratic accountability 548
governance accountability 50
governance networks 246–7
government agencies 49–50
institutionalization of accountability mechanisms 46
in international relations 293–6
justification 41
learning 44
legitimacy-conferring characteristics of 295
living with ambiguity and conflict 115–6
mediated accountability 49
multi-level governance 275–82
new public management (NPM) 333
parliamentary systems 47, 49
presidential systems 47–9
principal-agent relationships 42–3, 49, 546
proximate and specific accountability 49–50
regimes of 46–8
sanctions available to citizens 47
trust 44
unitary systems 48
virtues of 295–6
voting 45–6
vulnerability to delegated power 40–1
democratization, and empowerment of peoples 43
Denizin, N 160
Denmark 509
deregulation 482
descriptive norms 63
Dessein, W 98
Deutsch, K 392
Deuze, M 515, 528
developing countries, and Supreme Audit Institutions (SAIs) 498, 501
Dewey, J 644
diagonal accountability 236
Diamond, J 3
Dicey, A V 199, 203–4
Dickinson, J 568
direct democracy 45–6
discourse analysis, and qualitative analysis of accountability 168–9
discourses 29
accountability 29–30
discretion:
hierarchical accountability 409
policy discretion 97–8
restriction through performance standards 349
see also delegation
(p. 692) discussion, quantitative analysis of 149
distrust:
need for 617
sanction-based accountability 55, 57–8
diversity, visual portrayal of 184–5
Dixit, A 102n3
Dodd, E M 428
Domesday Book 3
Douglas, M 609, 613–4
Dowding, K 598
Dror, Y 521
Drucker, P 563
Dubnick, M J 12, 25, 164, 171, 173, 234, 237, 329, 409, 412, 499, 604, 613, 664–5, 667
due diligence 611
Dumont, G 236
Duncan, W J 461
Dunn, D D 152
dynamic accountability 59, 63–5, 564
committees 65
contrasted with short-term approach 564
European Union (EU) 63–4
key features of 63
network features of 65
preemptive self-criticism 64, 678–9
Eckert, A 267
Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC, UK) 190
economic voting 397
education:
citizen participation in accountability 263
citizens’ use of performance information 448, 451
No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) (2002, USA) 562
performance measurement 430–1
school exam crisis 594
effectiveness of accountability 678–9
efficiency, as governance-related keyword 34, 36n14
egalitarian cultures, and accountability 613–4
e-government 566, 570
Egypt 187
electoral accountability 113, 243, 389
adverse selection model 94
attention to public opinion 392–3
behavioral approaches 656
blunt nature of 389–90
centrality of political parties 390, 395–6
changes in policy demand 393–4
clarity of responsibility 397
congruence between voters and government 396
contextual variability 394
dynamic representation 393–4, 396–7
economic voting 397
evaluation of 391
evaluation of governing parties 390–1
federal systems 397
future research 400
impact of electoral systems 395–7, 400
importance of 399–400
institutions 395–7
issue salience 394
limitations of 258, 389–90
mandates 391–2
manipulation of 400
mass media’s role 399
moral hazard model 93–4
party attachment 398
politicians’ role 398–9
principal-agent analyses of 93–5
quantitative analysis 149, 153
responding to voters’ preferences 391, 393
responsible party model (RPM) 391–2
retrospective voting 153, 389, 609
second order elections 397
separation of powers 93–4
term limits 397
thermostatic model 392–4
timing of 574
valence issues 398
voter behavior 398
voters’ issue preferences 398
watchdog journalism 526, 531
electoral systems:
democratic accountability 48
hierarchical accountability 413
impact on electoral accountability 395–7, 400
Elliot, D 596
Ellis, R 594
(p. 693) emoticons 178
emotions 8, 63
empathy, and crisis management 595
empowerment:
competence 82
democratic accountability 41
democratization 43
factors promoting 80–2
impact 81
meaning 80–1
overcoming adverse effects of process and outcome accountability 79–80
principal-agent relationships 80
self-determination 81–2
Enron 435, 519, 526
environmental accounting 421, 430
environmental equity 582
Epstein, A M 451
equal employment opportunity (EEO) enforcement 75–6
equity:
environmental equity 582
impact of performance information 450–1
intergenerational equity 582–6
Erikson, R 398
Erkkilä, T 508–9, 513
Esmark, A 262
ethics, visual representation of issues 185
Etzioni, A 108, 514, 520
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development 151
European Commission 115
accountability deficit 280
enforcement powers 478
European Transparency Initiative 377
as supranational regulator 475
transparency 516
European Convention on Human Rights (1950) 205
European Court of Auditors 118, 475
European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) 205, 291
European Court of Justice (ECJ) 118
van Gend en Loos (1963) 203
European Financial Reporting Advisory Group (EFRAG) 277
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) 478
European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management 190
European Ombudsman 475
European Parliament (EP) 117–8, 196, 377
European Union Constitution 203
European Union (EU) 1
accountability deficits 552
audit explosion 118–9
comitology committees 170
concern with accountability 117–8
democracy deficit 546
dynamic accountability 63–4
evolution of accountability practices 118–9
financial accountability 118–9
independent regulators 474
legal accountability 118
ministerial responsibility 197–8
multi-level governance 273
multiplicity of accountability relationships 114
network industry regulation 476
Open Method of Coordination (EU) 277, 279
regulatory governance 373
regulatory networks 474
structural funds policy 278
subsidiarity 206
supranational constitutionalism 206
Eurozone crisis 576
evaluation of accountability regimes:
civil service accountability 235–7
quantitative analysis 153–4
Exchequer and Audit Department Act (1866, UK) 490
Exchequer and Audit Department Act (1921, UK) 491
executive agencies:
accountability deficits 548–50
democratic accountability 49–50, 333
evasion of accountability 198
hierarchical accountability 416
lack of accountability 207
power relations 334
existentialism 108
(p. 694) exit-based accountability:
citizen participation 259, 263, 265, 268
democratic accountability 51
public sector reforms 447
expectations of accountability 662, 664
social contingency theory 14
unrealistic 665–7
experimental economics 137–8, 139
experimental research:
advantages of 138
cognitive tuning 136
comparing accountability mechanisms 134–5
constructing task environment 134
content of accountability 131
contribution of 128
corporate accountability 130
deception in 135
difficulties in designing experiments 136
experiment design 132–4
experimental economics 137–9
experimental realism 134
external validity 127–8, 132–3
field experiments 139
formulating research question 132–3
future research 138–9
identifying antecedents of accountability 135–6
impact of forum preferences on actor’s behavior 129–30, 133
individual vs collective accountability 130
information processing 136–7
internal validity 127
personality traits 130
process vs outcome accountability 70–4, 131
random assignment 127
research questions 129–31
selecting participants 133
social contingency theory 128–9, 132
theoretical foundations 128, 132–3
time of formation of accountability relationship 131, 137
visual experiments 180–1
Ezzamel, M 162, 187
fairness:
accountability for 456–7
trust 620
Falaschetti, D 664
Fard, H D 625
Farrel, C M 163
‘Fast and Furious’ 569
fatalist cultures, and accountability 614
Fearon, J 94
Federal Emergency Management Agency (USA) 462
Federal Reserve System 576
federalism:
civil service accountability 237–8
democratic accountability 48
electoral accountability 397
multi-level governance 273, 275
FEMAStat 462
Ferejohn, J 35n5, 93
Ferraz, C 537
Finan, F 537
financial accountability 11, 422, 456
accountability for what? 429–30
accountability of auditors 434–5
accountability to whom? 428–9
audited financial statements 425–6
auditors’ independence 433
behavioral expectations 457
environmental accounting 430
European Union (EU) 118–9
financial statements 421, 429, 437n3
generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) 426
growth in use of term 28
House of Commons 196
micro empirical research 432
nature of accountability problem 422–3
non-financial activities 429–30
nonprofit sector 342–4, 425, 427
owner-manager relationship 422–3
quality of auditors’ reports 433–4
relationships of in government/nonprofit organizations 425, 427
relationships of in public companies 423–6
standards-setters 426
systems based/financial model of auditing 491
traditional/transactional model of auditing 490
(p. 695) visual accountability 187–8
visual analysis of financial reports 182–4
visualization of financial reporting 177–8, 181, 185–6
Financial Reporting Council (UK) 190
fine art, representations of accountability in 178
Finer, H 56, 216, 221, 231–2, 378, 520
Finland 509
Fiorina, M 95
fire-alarm oversight 503, 512–3, 516
Flinders, M 307, 665, 667
Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) 371, 374, 380
formal accountability:
collaborative networks 316
contracting out 311
direct service delivery 310
partnerships 313
public services accountability 308
Forrer, J 313
forums:
account-giving to 9
impact of preferences on actor’s behavior 129–30, 133
nature of actor’s obligation to 12–3
for public accountability 10–1
Foucault, M 34
Fox, J 102n7, 516–7, 663
France 509
Court of Accounts 493–4, 497
responsabilité 197
separation of powers 200–1
Frederickson, H G 25, 237
Freedman’s Bureau (USA) 579
Freedom House 530, 532–3, 536
freedom of information 49, 390, 508–9, 514, 606, 635
see also transparency
Frey, B S 57
Frey, K 445–6
Friedman, G 565
Friedrich, C J 56, 216, 221, 231–2, 279, 378, 520
Friends of the Earth 515
Fukuyama, F 520
functionalism, and social contingency model 14
Fung, A 266
Furubotn, E G 618
Gailmard, S 98
Galbraith, S 594
game theory, analysis of principal-agent models 91
Gandhi, I 202
Gates, S 149, 153
Gelfland, M J 133
gender, and visual representations 179
General Accounting Office (GAO, USA) 49, 458, 490–1, 497–8, 500
general welfare 564
general will 564
Geneva Conventions 289
Gerber, A S 63, 139
Germany 202–3, 449, 494
Gibbins, M 434–5
Giddens, A 41, 659n1
Gilardi, F 478, 480–1
Gilbert, M 239
global accountability 50–1
Global Accountability Report 145, 151
global administrative law (GAL) 298–9
global civil society 291, 300
global financial crisis (2008) 51, 576–7, 658
suspension of market accountability 577
global governance:
demand for accountability in 292–3
democratic standards of accountability 295–6
difficulties applying democratic accountability 293–4
global administrative law (GAL) 298–9
global civil society 300
global democratic accountability 548
growth of 290, 301
human rights as accountability standard 296
lack of democratic accountability 293
mechanisms of accountability 293
problems with non-democratic accountability 294–5
quantitative analysis of accountability 145
surrogate accountability 299–300
transgovernmental networks 297–8
(p. 696) global governance organizations (GCOs) 290
access and openness 383
accountability failures 381
accountability framework 376–7, 383
accountability problem in 376, 382
authority without normative legitimacy 381
balancing legitimacy and authority 380–2
cartel model 380, 382
classical model 379–80, 382
club rule-making 375
composite 375
contextual conception of accountability 380–1
control 378
conventional 375
creation of global rules and norms 370–1
demands for accountability 292–3
enforcing adherence to rules 375
forum rule-making 375
functions of 372–3
global administrative law (GAL) 298–9
global concertation 376
hybrid structure 374
impact of technological change 383
interest group participation 375–6
lack of awareness of role of 371
lack of democratic accountability 293
lack of democratic legitimacy 370
liability 377
mechanisms of accountability 293
multiple accountabilities disorder (MAD) 379
narrow subject focus 370–1, 373
organizational design 373–4, 379
pragmatic authority 381
problems with non-democratic accountability 294–5
pursuit of collective goals 371
responsibility 378–9
responsiveness 379
rule-making 373–5
structural variations 373–4
symbiotic model 380, 382
traditional structure 373–4
transparency 377, 383
typology of 372
globalization, and global accountability 50–1
goal displacement 675–6
Goddard, A 161–2, 167–8
Goetz, A M 663
Golden, M A 531
Goodhart, M 548
Goodin, R E 57, 59, 107, 280, 332, 390
Goodnow, F J 378
governance:
accountability 649, 651
changing practices of 6, 16, 34
concept of 242
discourses and narratives of accountability 29–30
governance accountability 50
relationship with accountability 167–8
governance networks 246–7
accountability deficits 550–1
accountability of 243, 551
bureaucratic accountability 245–6
citizen participation 259, 262
closed nature of 248–9
coordination problems 242
definition of 242, 273
democratic accountability 246–7
emergence of 242–3, 247
forms of accountability in 243–4, 551
fragmented accountability structure 248
horizontal accountability 247, 251–2
hybridity of accountability mechanisms 250
inclusion problem 215
institutional design 251–4
institutionalization of 252
legal accountability 245–6
negative externalities 248
network management 242, 244, 278–9
opening-up of decision-making 274
political accountability 246
power-sharing 243
problem of many hands 65, 248–9, 276, 550
process design 251–2
process management 252
professional accountability 245–6
public services accountability 316–7
quality of accountability 252
research themes 254–5
social accountability 245–6, 252
(p. 697) standards of accountability 243, 250, 252
tensions between forms of accountability 246
transgovernmental networks 297–8
types of accountability in 244–7
types of networks and accountability 244
under-institutionalization of 249–50
variety of accountability mechanisms 250–1
vertical accountability 243, 253–4
weak visibility of 276–8
government agencies, see executive agencies
government organized NGOs (GONGOs) 340
Government Performance and Result Act (USA) 330–1
governmentality 34
Grant, R W 294–5, 408, 547
graphs, financial 177–8, 181, 185–6
Gray, R 430
Greece 494
Grimmelikhuijsen, S G 515–6, 518, 619, 621, 623, 625
Grossman, G 102n3
grounded theory, and qualitative analysis of accountability 167–8
groupthink, and multi-level governance 282
Guidestar 346
Gulf of Mexico oil spill 591
Guo, C 161
Gustavsson, S 663
Habermas, J 206
Habitat for Humanity 373
habitus 162
Hackman, J R 461
Halachmi, A 564, 624
Halliburton 151
Hamilton, A 205
Hamilton, G 267
Hammer, M 146–7
Hanitzsch, T 529
Hankey, M 229
Hanretty, C 149
Harkins, S 466
Hassel, L 430
Hawkins, M A 107
Hay, C 666
Hayek, F 612
Heald, D A 512, 520, 664
healthcare, citizens’ use of performance information 449, 451
Healy, P M 426
Heclo, H 95, 502
Heintzman, R 330
Heitzman, R 234–5
Held, D 293, 663
Helpman, E 102n3
Hendry, J 431
Hennessy, P 228
heuristics 656
Hewlett Foundation 347
hierarchical accountability 10, 152, 405–8, 416–7, 499
ambiguity in literature on 408–9
chain of accountability 406–8, 410
chain of delegation 406–7, 409–10
civil service 411–3
clarity of accountability 410, 414
convergence of mechanisms of 411
criticized as anachronistic 405–6
debates on defining characteristics of 409
discretion 409
electoral systems 413
executive agencies 416
forums for 11
fundamental feature of 410
future research 417–8
importance of 416–7
inappropriate applications of 416
lack of transparency 415
legitimacy of 410, 414–5
national variations 414
nested relationships 415
performance assessment 413–4
public administration 217–8
in public and private organizations 410–1
public services accountability 308
solution to problem of many hands 408
strengths of 414–5
variations of 411–4
weaknesses of 415–6
hierarchical cultures, and accountability 613
Hill, S J 531
Hitler, Adolf 204
Hoffman, E 137
Holzer, M 624
honesty, and trust 620–1
Hood, C 217, 221, 508–9, 513, 516, 593, 596, 664, 677
Hooghe, L 275
Höpfl, H 185
horizontal accountability 58–9
civil service accountability 235–6
governance networks 243, 247, 251–2
informal accountability 308–9
public services accountability 308
transparency 512, 515
Hosmer, L T 618
hospital performance data, citizens’ use of 449, 451
House of Commons 196
ministerial responsibility 197–8
Public Accounts Committee (PAC) 196
Hoxby, C M 567
HUDStat 462
human rights:
consensus on 290
corporate accountability 361
impact on constitutional law 205–6
independent regulators 476
international law 291
regional mechanisms 291
as standard of international accountability 296
Human Rights Watch 49, 530, 535–6
Hummel, R 161
Hupe, P 24, 651
identification-based trust 622
ideology, influence on accountability regime preferences 75–6, 138–9
implementation, and public administration accountability 211
impression management 177, 181, 185–6
incentives:
accountability 29–30
principal-agent theory 91–2
sanction-based vs trust-based accountability 56–7
independent regulators 472–3, 484
accountability of 481–2
appointment of 476
crisis investigation 591–2
de facto independence 478–9
dispersal of power 472–3
effects on public accountability 480–1
emergence of 473–4
enforcement powers 478
European regulatory networks 474
human rights protection 476
independence of 473–4, 478–9
insulation from political interference 476
ministerial accountability 480
monitoring democracy 482
network industries 476
non-majoritarian character of 482
ombudsman schemes 475
oversight of government 474–5
as part of good governance 475–6
policy making role 479
private regulators 475, 483
proliferation of 473–5
promotion of public confidence 476
reasons for growth of 474
research agenda 482–4
strengths of 472
supranational organizations 475, 483
transparency 477
variety in powers of 477–8
weaknesses of 472–3
Independent Sector 346
India 197, 202
Indian Supreme Court 202
individual accountability 10
individualist cultures, and accountability 613
informal accountability:
collaborative networks 316–7
contracting out 311
direct service delivery 310
nonprofit sector 168
partnerships 313–4
public services accountability 308–9
trust 309
information overload 626
information processing, and experimental research 136–7
(p. 699) information provision, quantitative analysis of 148
initiatives 45–6
injunctive norms 63
innovation:
accountability overloads 561
impact of performance reporting 452
process vs outcome accountability 77–80
institutional design:
blame designation 594
control through 116–7
governance networks 251–4
time element 575
institutionalization:
of accountability 29, 109–11, 114–5
democratic accountability 46
governance networks 252
meaning of 109
institutions:
accountability 109, 114–5, 119–21, 650
evolution of 117
ordering effect of 109
as sources of ambiguity 110–1
intelligence analysts, and process vs outcome accountability 75
interdependence accountability, and multi-level governance 281–2
interest groups 373, 375–6, 379–80
intergenerational equity 582–6
government accountability 586
government commitment to 585
Lockean approach to 583
maximin principle 583
population growth 584
problem of identifying who is accountable 584–5
technological change 583–4
utilitarianism 583
intergovernmental collaboration, and public services accountability 314–5
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 1
Internal Revenue Service (IRS, USA) 340, 343
International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) 277, 373, 378, 380
International Accounting Standards Committee Foundation 277
International Atomic Energy Agency 151
International Civil Aviation Organization 381
International Commission of Jurists 200
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966) 205
International Criminal Court (ICC) 292
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) 291
International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) 291
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 375
International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) 151
international financial institutions (IFIs), and demands for accountability 292–3
international governance organizations, see global governance organizations (GCOs)
international humanitarian law 291
International Labour Organization (ILO) 374
international law:
accountability of states 289
ending impunity for crime against humanity 291–2
global administrative law (GAL) 298–9
international relations 291
lack of enforcement mechanisms 289
universal jurisdiction for serious crimes 292
International Maritime Organization 376
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 290, 293
International Network for Visual Studies in Organizations 190
International Olympic Committee 151
International Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions (INTOSAI) 496
international organizations:
functions of 372–3
typology of 372
international relations 300–1
accountability deficits 546–8
accountable global governance 292–5
brief history of accountability in 289–91
conception of accountability 5
demand for accountability in 292–3
democracy deficit 546
(p. 700) international relations (Cont.)democratic standards of accountability 295–6
difficulties applying democratic accountability 293–4
ending impunity for crime against humanity 291–2
global administrative law (GAL) 298–9
global civil society 291, 300
global democratic accountability 548
human rights as accountability standard 296
international governance organizations (IGOs) 290
international law 289, 291
lack of democratic accountability 293
mechanisms of accountability 293, 547
non-governmental organizations (NGOs) 290–1
post-Cold War period 291–2
problems with non-democratic accountability 294–5
sanctions 292
surrogate accountability 299–300
transgovernmental networks 297–8
International Standardization Organization (ISO) 277, 375
International Telecommunications Union (ITU) 370
internationalization, implications for accountability 5
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) 371–2, 374, 383
interpersonal interactions, and informal accountability 308
Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC, USA) 473
interviews, and qualitative analysis of accountability 166–7
Iran 625
Iraq 291
Iraq War 575
Isett, K R 273
J P Morgan Chase 580
Jacobides, M G 626
Jacobs, J B 604, 664
Jannette, J 465
Japan 204
Jarvis, M 409, 413
Jenkins, R 663
Jenkins, S 663
Jin, G Z 449
JobStat 462
Johnsen, A 445
Johnson, Andrew 579, 581
Johnson, C 446
Johnson, Samuel 35n7
Johnston, J 163, 166, 172
joint ownership, and citizen participation in accountability 264–5
Jones, M J 181, 186
journalism, see media; watchdog journalism
judicial appointments, and selection-based accountability 58–9
judicial independence 201–2
courts as independent regulators 479
juridicization of accountability 29–30
JurisdictionStat 462
justification, and democratic accountability 41
Kang, W T 598
Kant, I 199
Karlsson, C 663
Kasperson, R E 618
Katrina, Hurricane 162, 591, 598
Kaufman, H 165, 171, 411–2, 651
Kaufmann-Kray indices 533
Keane, J 555
Kearns, K P 341
Kelsen, H 199
Kelvin, Lord 563
Kennedy, J 132, 137, 434
Keohane, R O 294–5, 408, 547
Kim, S E 620, 623
Klein, R 165
Klijn, E H 242
knowledge-based trust 622
Koenig-Archibugi, M 299, 663
Koning, P 451
Koop, C 148–9, 151–2
Koppell, J G S 276, 502, 604, 626, 664
Koppenjan, J F M 242
(p. 701) Korthagen, I 249
Kosovo 291
Kriesi, H 278
Kuipers, S 594
Kuwait 291
Lako, C J 449
Lamothe, M & S 149
Lang, J 610
Lang, K & G 526
Langhe, B 71
language games:
discourses and narratives of accountability 29–30
use of term accountability 28–9
languages, development of 3
Latané, B 466
Latin America, and watchdog journalism 529
Law, J 163
leadership, visual portrayal of 184, 188
League of Nations 289–90
learning:
citizen participation in accountability 266
through accountability 116–7, 222
trust 627
Lederman, D 532
Leeuw, F L 329–30
legal accountability 12, 499
accountability deficits 554
crisis investigation 592
European Union (EU) 118
forums for 11
governance networks 245–6
nonprofit sector 339–42
slavery 580
tort law 634
watchdog journalism 526
legal cases:
Marbury v Madison (USA, 1803) 201
Quebec succession reference case (1998) 203
van Gend en Loos (ECJ, 1963) 203
legalism 480
Legge, J S 152
legitimacy:
construction of 643–4
consultation 644
democratic accountability 295
fiduciary responsibilities 642
global governance organizations (GCOs) 370, 380–2
as idealist concept 641
promotion of social accountability 642–3
as psychological judgment 641
social legitimacy 640–2
utilitarian perspective 642
Lehn, B 14
Lerner, J S 130
Lijphart, A 396
limited liability companies 356, 362, 422
Lincoln, Y 160
Lindblom, C 612
Lindstedt, C 515–7, 532
Linhorst, D 267
Lio, M C 532
Lipsky, M 651
Lisbon, Treaty of (2009) 196
Liu, M C 532
Lloyd, R 146–7
Loayza, N V 532
local government, and direct service delivery 309–10
Locke, John 583, 607
logic model performance strategy 345–6
Lord, A T 134
Los Angeles Department of Public Social Services 462
Louwerse, T P 153
Lowi, T 95
Luhman, N 618, 659n2
Luxembourg 509
Lyman, S 168
McCubbins, M 96–7, 503
Macdonald, K 299
Macdonald, T 299
McGraw, K M 149
McGregor, D 56
McGuinness, M 596
Machiavelli, N 594, 607
McIlwain, C H 202
MacIntyre, A C 34
McIntyre-Mills, J 663
MacKuen, M 398
(p. 702) McLean, C 162
McPhail, K 185
Madagascar 537
Madison, J 201
Maggetti, M 478–9
Magna Carta 196
Maitland, F W 196
Majone, G 373, 474
Majumdar, S 102n6
Mali 498, 501, 537
managerial accountability:
aims of 326
forums for 11
new public management (NPM) 326–7
quantitative analysis 145
watchdog journalism 526
mandates, and electoral accountability 391–2
mandatory accountability 12
Manin, B 278
Mansbridge, J 604, 608
many hands, problem of 65, 248–9, 275–6, 408, 550, 626
Maple, Jack 461
March, J G 328, 626
market accountability 281
contracting out 311
new businesses 578
new public management (NPM) 328
suspension in global financial crisis (2008) 577
Marks, G 275
Marnoch, G 446
Marschke, G 161
Marshaw, J L 574
Marx, K 358
Mathur, N 249–50
Matilal, S 185
Mattli, W 277
Maynard-Moody, S 651
meaning, and empowerment 80–1
Means, G C 358
mechanism, accountability as 8–10, 29, 30, 33, 41, 144, 147–51
media:
changes in news provision 249, 529–30
crisis coverage 590–1
data-journalism 515
economic pressures on 529–30
lack of scrutiny of multi-level governance 277–8
role in accountability 249
role in electoral accountability 399
transparency increases oversight by 515–6
mediated accountability, and democratic accountability 49
Meijer, A J 148, 512, 515, 517
methodologies:
study of public accountability 15–6
visual accountability 179–82
Mexico Declaration of SAI independence 496–7
Michels, A 512
ministerial responsibility 117, 197–8, 228, 548–9
accountability deficits 552–3
blame avoidance 610–1
new public management (NPM) 326, 328
Mitchell, W J T 181
Moe, T 100
Moneva, J 430
monitoring:
corrupting effects of 57–8
negative effects of 74
performance measurement 443
monitoring democracy 108, 482, 555
Montesquieu, Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de 47, 200
Mookherjee, D 663
moral hazard problems:
electoral accountability 93–4
principal-agent theory 92, 422
morality, and accountability 33
Morris, E 594
Moser, C 511
motivation:
contingency theory of accountability 62
sanction-based vs trust-based accountability 56–7
selection-based accountability 59–60
(p. 703) muckraking 525
Mukand, S 102n6
Mulgan, R 195, 269, 410, 442
multi-level governance 6
accountability deficits 280–1
accountability networks 282–3
administrative discretion 279
decoupling from representative democracy 275, 278–81
deparliamentarianism 278
divorce of power and accountability 282–4
effects of multiple accountability forums 283
examples of 274
federalism 273, 275
groupthink 282
horizontal and vertical interdependencies 273–4
horizontal peer accountability 281–2
informal networks 276
insufficient network pluralism 276
joint-decision trap 275
lack of media scrutiny 277–8
lack of political oversight 279
length of delegation chain 279
marginalization of elected politicians 278–9
meaning of 273
mutual accountability 281–2
network management 278–9
privatization of governance activities 277
problem of many hands 275–6
rent-seeking 282
requirements for democratic anchorage of 274–5
technocratic traits 279
Type I governance 275
Type II governance 275
undermining of democratic accountability 274–84
weak visibility of governance networks 276–8
multiple accountabilities disorder (MAD) 379, 502, 626, 664
Musheno, M C 651
mutuality, and public administration accountability 218–9
narrative accountability 61
narratives 29
accountability 29–30, 196–7
nation state, challenges to, 108
National Audit Office of the People’s Republic of China (CNAO) 495
National Audit Office (UK) 196, 497
National Center for Charitable Statistics 346
National Health Service (NHS, UK) 330, 451
National Performance Review (NPR) 492
NATO 291
natural disasters 589
Naurin, D 515–7, 532
Naurin, E 400
Netherlands 509, 677
citizens’ use of performance information 449, 451
Court of Audit 494–5, 497
politicians’ use of performance information 444
transparency 511
network accountability 58–9, 161
public services accountability 316–7
network governance, see governance networks
network industries, and independent regulators 476
Neu, D 430–1
new public management (NPM) 232, 344, 628
accountability as driver of reforms 325
accountability dilemmas 328–9
accountability gap 327
ambiguity of accountability 328, 331–2
audit explosion 327
autonomy of public sector 329
centralization/decentralization 325
challenge to sovereign hierarchical state model 328
characteristics of 324
citizen participation 259, 262, 268
democratic accountability 333
dichotomy between policy-making and management 329
focus on individual accountability 325
fragmentation of public sector 329, 331
(p. 704) new public management (Cont.)hybrid character of 325
inconsistency in 332
market accountability 328
ministerial responsibility 326, 328
nature of accountability in 325–6
objective of reforms 326
performance and accountability 329–31, 441
performance auditing 491
politicians’ role 326–7, 331
post-NPM reforms 333–4, 628
research challenges 334–5
standards of accountability 332
tensions between managerial and political accountability 326–7
theoretical foundations 325
undermining of political accountability 331–2
New York City Human Resources Administration 462
New York City Police Department (NYPD) 310, 461
New Zealand 497, 509
Newman, J 245, 250
news:
changes in media provision of 249, 529–30
data-journalism 515
Newton, J D 434–5
Nieman Foundation 526
Nilsson, H 430
Niskanen, W 95
Nixon, Christine 595
No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) (2002, USA) 562
no-fault cultures 609–10
Nolan, Lord 511
Noll, R 96–7
non-electoral accountability 299–300
non-governmental organizations (NGOs)
concerns about 300
in international relations 290–1
lack of accountability 280–1
promotion of democratic accountability 300
quantitative analysis of accountability 145
use of transparency 515
nonprofit sector 339
balanced scorecard 345
benchmarking 345
boards of directors 341–3
charity rating agencies 343–4, 346
collaboration 348–9
community benefit spending 351
community representation and engagement 347–9
control of fundraising expenses 343–4
corporate structure 340
executive salaries 341
financial accountability 342–4, 425, 427
governance 341
hybrid social enterprises 341
impact investing approach of funders 346–7
income generation 341
incorporation 339–40, 342–3, 427
informal accountability 168
informal groups 342
internal accountability 342
internal financial controls 343
legal accountability 339–42
life-cycle of organizations 344
logic model performance strategy 345–6
loss of membership and community focus 348
membership 341–2
negative impact of increased accountability 428
non-distribution of profits constraint 340–1, 427
as obstacles to citizen engagement 348
performance measurement 344–7
professionalization 343, 348
relationships of accountability 425, 427
rethinking approach to accountability 350–1
social capital 347
Social Return on Investment 346
street-level workers 349–50
(p. 705) surveillance and oversight 340
tax status 340
venture philanthropy 347
weakened representative role 348
norms:
descriptive norms 63
injunctive norms 63
political accountability 5–6
Norway 445–6, 509
Nozick, R 33
Nyquistc, S 430
Obama, Barack 1, 508, 510, 562, 565
O’Connell, L 145, 161
Oliver, R W 511, 519–20
Olsen, J P 328, 626
O’Malley, Martin 462
ombudsman schemes 475
Omidyar Network 347
One World Trust 145, 151
O’Neill, O 57, 519–20
ontological challenge for accountability studies 649–50
bridging ontological options 651
institutional ontology 650
radical shift to relational ontology 651–2
relational ontology 650–1, 668
Open Government Directive (USA) 510
Open Method of Coordination (EU) 277, 279
open norms 680
O’Reilly, M 169
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 474
Recommendations on Regulatory Policy and Governance 475–6
organizational learning:
accountability as obstacle to 676
tension between exploitation and exploration 76
trust 627
see also learning
Osterloh, M 145
Ostrom, E 251, 662–3
O’Toole, L 316
Ou, Y P 532
outcome accountability, see process vs outcome accountability
Owen, D L 429–30
ownership, as basis for accountability 5
Page, M 190
Paine, T 204–5
Palfrey, C 146
Palumbo, A 663
panopticon 509
Papua New Guinea 537
parenting, and accountability 578
Paris Principles relating to the Status of National Institutions 476
Parker, C 596, 600
Parker, L D 177
Parker, M L 107
parliamentary systems:
delegation in 406, 407
democratic accountability 47, 49
financial accountability 196
judicial independence 202
ministerial responsibility 197, 228, 548–9
trust in 621–2
participatory action research 173
partnerships 161
formal accountability 313
informal accountability 313–4
public services accountability 313–4
Pasquier, M 516
paternalism 231
path dependency 575
Pattberg, P 663
Patty, J 98
peer networks, and dynamic accountability 63–4
Peerenboom, R 200
Pennington, J 134
Pentagon Papers 525
performance measurement and reporting:
absence of specific performance standards 458
accountability and evaluation of 8
accountability for performance 457
attack politics 452
audit society 56
availability of information 441–2
(p. 706) performance measurement (Cont.)awakening syndrome 564
balanced scorecard 345
benchmarking 345
choice of performance indicators 459
citizens’ use of performance information 447–50, 514
comparison standard 459–60
conservative nature of 452
corrupting effects of monitoring 57–8
direct accountability to users 442–3
dysfunctional effects of 452, 563–4
education system 430–1
effects of 442–3
effects on accountability 443
external accountability 442
formal accountability 308
hierarchical accountability 413–4
hospital performance data 449, 451
impact on equity 450–1
incentivization of accountability 29–30
increased power of standard-setters 452
information asymmetries 446
information overload 626
internal accountability 442
internal effects of 451–2
limited impact of 450
logic models 345–6
motivating effects of targets 461
new public management (NPM) 329–31
nonprofit sector 344–7
performance audit regime 491–2, 500–1
performance evaluation 458–9
performance management doctrine 442
performance management systems 442
performance paradox 329–30
performance-target ethic 460, 468
personnel evaluation 452
political accountability 330
political decision-making 443–4
politicians’ use of performance information 444–7, 450
public administration accountability 218, 220, 222
public services accountability 310, 320n3, 441–2
regression to the mean performance level 469n1
risk aversion 452, 492
school performance data 448, 451
short-termism 563–4
Social Return on Investment 346
targets and monitoring 443, 611
trust 617
PerformanceStat 462, 677–8
centrality of leadership 465
defining performance targets 468–9
definition of 462
diversity in application 468
leadership behaviors 463
leadership practices required for 466–7
motivating effects of 464
principles of 463–4
reasons for abandonment of 464–5
significance of 464
as strategy not system 464–5
time commitment 464
personality traits, and coping with accountability 130
personalization agenda 447
personnel evaluation, and performance measurement 452
Persson, T 93–4, 663
Peters, T 563
Pew Research Center 528
Philippines 537
Philp, M 57, 651, 658
photographs and pictures:
in financial reports 186
visual accountability 178
Pierre, J 282
Pina, V 148
Pinochet, Augusto 291–2
Pires, G 181
planning, as governance-related keyword 34
Polanyi, M 467
police-patrol oversight 503, 513
policy drift 211
policy making, impact of audit agencies 501–4
policy strategies, and accountability 607–8
political accountability 5, 12, 499
accountability deficits 552–4
aims of 326
defining feature of 47
forums for 11
(p. 707) governance networks 246
new public management (NPM) 326–7
norms of 5–6
quantitative analysis 145, 149
political change, and accountability 657
political parties:
centrality to electoral accountability 390, 395–6
party attachment 398
in proportional representation systems 395
in single member plurality (SMP) systems 395
Political Risk Services 533
political science:
conception of accountability 5
relevance of 669
political systems, accountability in 14
politicization of public administration 216, 218–9
politics:
ambiguity in 112–3
nature of democratic politics 665–6
pursuit of accountability 113–5
role in accountability 112
Pollitt, C 24, 270, 330, 444, 603
Ponting, C 229
Popper, K 519–20
population growth, and intergenerational equity 584
portraiture, and visual accountability 188
Posner, Judge R 580
Poter-O’Grady, T 107
Powell, G B 396
Power, M 56, 435, 457, 492, 500, 561, 565, 568, 604
power-sharing:
civil service accountability 226, 234
governance networks 243
preemptive self-criticism, and dynamic accountability 64, 678–9
presentational strategies, and accountability 607
presidential systems:
accountability in 14
delegation in 406, 407
democratic accountability 47–9
press freedom:
democratic accountability 49
impact on corruption 531–4
measurement of 532–3
South Africa 535
Syria 536
Preston, A M 187–8
principal-agent theory 90
adverse selection problems 92, 422–3
agency loss 92–3
bureaucratic accountability 95–101
common agency 100
contracts 91
costs of accountability 43–4
delegation 97
democratic accountability 42–3, 49, 546
electoral accountability 93–5
as family of models 91, 101
flexibility of 99, 101
game theory analysis of 91
gaming of system 161–2
incentive compatibility 92
incentive structuring 91
limitations of 14, 91–2
moral hazard problems 92, 422
optimal behavior of the principal 99
overview of 91–3
participation constraints 92
public accountability 13–4, 102n1
selection-based accountability 58
voting 45
privacy, threatened by transparency 519
private corporations:
lack of accountability 281
public demand for social accountability 632–3
process design, and governance networks 251–2
process management, and governance networks 252
process theory of causality 172–3
(p. 708) process vs outcome accountability 678
agency theory 79
balancing control and innovation 77–80
benefits of outcome accountability 71
benefits of process accountability 70–1
choice between 69
competence 82
construal level theory 77–8
debates over 69–70
decision-making 71–3, 77–8
empowerment as means of overcoming adverse effects 79–80
equal employment opportunity (EEO) enforcement 75–6
experimental research on 70–4, 131
factors empowering agents 80–2
hybrid systems 79
ideological influences on views of 75–6
impact 81
integrative framework for studying 76–82
intelligence analysts 75
meaning 80–1
methodological limitations of laboratory studies 71–4
micro-signals 80
real-world debates over 74–6
regulatory focus theory 77
self-determination 81–2
social-identity signals 76
social-relational signals 72–4
teacher performance 75–6
tension between exploitation and exploration 76
trust 75–6
professional accountability 12, 499
forums for 11
governance networks 245–6
Program Assessment Rating Tool (USA) 330–1
Progressivism 34, 36n14, 490, 525
Project on Government Oversight (PGO) 568
proportional representation:
democratic accountability 48
electoral accountability 395–7, 400
government formation 395
levels of trust 622
proportionality principle 205–6
proprietorship model of business 422
prospective accountability 197
Protess, D L 531
proximate accountability 49–50
Przeworski, A 56
Public Accounts Committee (PAC, UK) 196
public administration accountability:
administrative law 218
administrative/political conflict 211, 215–6
auditing 218
competition 219–20
conception of 4–5
enforcement of 213–4
excessive action 213
hierarchical accountability 217–8
inaction 213
individual and organizational level 213
instruments for 217
learning opportunities 222
multiple stakeholders 219
mutuality 218–9
neutral and responsive competence 216
parallel hierarchies 218–9
performance measurement 218, 220, 222
policy drift 211
policy implementation 211
politicization of public administration 216, 218–9
poor performance 212–3
problem of 211
random assessment by external actor 221, 677
reasons needed 211–2
redundancy 219
representative bureaucracy 215
responsibility 214
responsiveness 214–5
transparency 221–2
types of administrative errors 212–13
public choice theory, social consequences of 666
public companies:
accountability for what? 429–30
accountability to whom? 428–9
accounting for non-financial activities 429–30
actors and their accountabilities 424–5
(p. 709) audited financial statements 425–6
auditors’ independence 433
environmental accounting 430
financial statements 429, 437n3
governance of 424–5
investor accountability 431
means of accountability 423–4
nature of accountability problem 422–3
performance accountability 431
public accountability environment 425–6
quality of auditors’ reports 433–4
relationships of accountability 423–6
Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB, USA) 426
public expenditure, and financial accountability 196
public goods, and direct service delivery 309
public interest, competing conceptions of 229–30
public opinion:
accountability agents 633
court of 633
creating court of public opinion 643–4
demand for corporate social accountability 632–3
distinction from public judgment 643
thermostatic model of electoral accountability 392–3
public relations, and effects of apologies 597
public services accountability 307
alternatives to direct service delivery 310–1, 319–20
best practices for 318–9
challenges in 309–10, 312, 314–5, 317–8, 320
citizens’ use of performance information 447–9, 514
collaboration in service delivery 312–3
contracting out 311–2, 320n4
costs of 318
direct accountability to users 442–3
direct service delivery 309–10
diversity of systems 317
formal accountability 308, 310–1, 313, 316
future research 318
informal accountability 308–11, 313–4, 316–7
interagency collaboration 314–5
intergovernmental collaboration 314–5
interlocal collaboration 314, 321n6
motivation behind 317
network collaboration 316–7
partnerships 313–4
performance measurement 310, 320n3, 441–2
politicians’ use of performance information 444–7
variety of delivery arrangements 307
public-private partnerships 166
absence of elected politicians 278
accountability deficits 549
legal accountability 245
public services accountability 313–4
punishment, accountability as 5–6, 55–6
Putin, V 340, 594
Putnam, R D 347–8, 520
qualitative analysis of accountability 159
ambiguous nature of accountability 160–1
case studies 164–6
causal explanations 172–3
comparative case studies 165
deductive research 166
defining qualitative research 159–60
discourse analysis 168–9
emergent nature of accountability 161–2
features of 160
gaming of system 161–2
generalizability 164–5
grounded theory 167–8
interviews 166–7
mixed methods 169–70
network accountability 161
participatory action research 173
practitioner reflection 173
role of theory 170–2
sample size 167
sampling scope 166–7
suitability of approach 160–4
theoretical sampling 162–3
use of existing information 165
(p. 710) quantitative analysis of accountability 143–4, 154–5
accountability crises 163
accountability definitions 144
bureaucratic accountability 153
causes of accountability 155
comparative studies 155
comparing accountability of actors 151–2
comparing actor-forum relationships 152
comparing changes over time 152–3
comparing scores between subjects 151–2
comparing strength of forums 152
consequences of accountability 155
discussion/debate between actor and forum 149
electoral accountability 149, 153
Global Accountability Report 145, 151
indicators of accountability as mechanism 150–1
indicators of accountability as virtue 146–7
information provided to forums 148–9
intangible nature of accountability 162
judgment and consequences 149
limitations of studies 155
longitudinal studies 152–3
managerial accountability 145
measuring accountability as mechanism 147–51
measuring accountability as virtue 145–7
mixed methods 169–70
non-elected organizations 145
normative evaluations 153–4
obtaining honest information 162–3
political accountability 145, 149
research gaps 155
scarcity of 143
strength of accountability regimes 151
transparency 148–9
quasi-voluntary accountability 12–3
Quattrone, P 187
Quinn, A 130
Radin, B 330
Railways and Canals Commission (UK) 473
rational choice theory, social consequences of 666
Raunio, T 279
Rawls, J 583
Raz, J 200
Realo, A 133
rechtsstaat 199
Recovery Act (USA) 1
Red Cross 289, 372
redundancy, and public administration accountability 219
referendums 45–6
regional government, and direct service delivery 309–10
regionalism 206
regulatory agencies, see independent regulators
regulatory focus theory 77
regulatory governance 373
regulatory state 472, 474
reinventing government 344
relationality, and accountability 3–4, 6, 650–2, 667–8
Renaissance 187
Renner, K 358
rent-seeking, and multi-level governance 282
reparations, for enslavement 575, 579–82
Reporters Without Borders 530, 532–3, 535–6
representative bureaucracy 215
reputational accountability 570
respect 73, 82
responsibility:
as accountability 197–8
civil service accountability 231
distinction from accountability 26, 31, 41, 214
global governance organizations (GCOs) 378–9
public administration accountability 214
responsible party model (RPM), and electoral accountability 391–2
responsiveness 238, 269
civil service accountability 232
democratic problem with 215
global governance organizations (GCOs) 379
public administration accountability 214–5
public services accountability 308
representative bureaucracy 215
(p. 711) retrospective accountability 6, 196
retrospective voting 153, 389, 609
rhetoric, and visual rhetoric 182
Ricci, D 669
Rich, S 565–6
Richter, R 618
Rigaud, Eudes de 3
risk, and decision-making 577
risk assessment 677
risk aversion, encouraged by performance reporting 452, 492
risk-adjusted return on capital (RAROC) guidelines 79
Risk-Based Audit (RBA) 492–3
Roberts, A 508–9, 514–5, 517, 519–20
Roberts, J 428–9, 431
Robinson, M 526
Robson, K 162
Rogers, T 63
Roland, G 93–4
Romzek, B S 12, 161, 163–4, 166–8, 171–2, 409, 412, 499, 651
Rosenau, P 449
Rosenbloom, D 237, 331
Rost, K 145
Rostamy, A A 625
Rourke, F E 216
Rousseau, J J 509
Roy, J 400
Royal Dutch Shell 362
Royo, S 148
Rubenstein, J 284, 299
Ruggie, J G 586
rule of law 47, 199–200
thick definition 199–200
thin definition 199
Russia 340
Russo, J E 133
Sabel, C F 63–4
sanction-based accountability 55–8
audit explosion 56–7
contextual factors 56–7
as control 61
corrupting effects of monitoring 57–8
democratic accountability 47
factors affecting adoption of 59–61
impact on morale 57
in international relations 292
performance measurement 56
punishment 56
trust undermined by 57
Sanderson, P 431
Sarbanes-Oxley Act (USA, 2002) 426, 433
Sartori, G 661
Saward, M 280
Scharpf, F W 275
Schick, A 491
Schillemans, T 154, 171, 233–4, 236–7, 328, 416, 555, 561, 612, 626–7
Schlenker, B R 130, 133–4
Schneider, E C 451
Scholten, L 137
Scholtes, E 510
school performance data, citizens’ use of 448, 451
Schwartz, R 163, 165, 172, 599
Schwartz, T 503
Schweiker, W 428
Scotland, politicians’ use of performance information 446
Scott, C 281–3
Scott, M 168
Sebeluis, K 568
second order elections 397
Securities and Exchange Act (1933, USA) 611
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC, USA) 426
securities commissions 425
security sector, limited transparency in 517
Sedikides, C 136
Segur, P 197
selection-based accountability 58–61
academic tenure 59
advantages over sanction-based accountability 59
childcare 58
deliberative form 61
factors affecting adoption of 59–61
judicial appointments 58–9
motivation 59–60
narrative form 61
principal-agent relationships 58–9
self-determination, and empowerment 81–2
self-interest 63
self-regulation 12
(p. 712) separation of powers 47–8, 200–1
checks and balances 201
electoral accountability 93–4
Sequoyah (Cherokee Indian) 3
Shapiro, I 669
Shearer, T 428
Shell Group 362
Sherman, William Tecumseh 579–81
short-termism 121, 502, 561, 563–4
Shotts, K 102n7
Shu, S B 181
Siegel-Jacobs, K 131
Siggelkow, N 170
Simonson, I 131
Sinclair, A 428
Singapore 537
single member plurality (SMP) systems:
democratic accountability 48
electoral accountability 395–7
situated-identity theory 72–3
Skelcher, C 249–50, 278–9, 281
Skocpol, T 348
Skoll Foundation 347
Slack, R 185
Slaughter, A-M 297–8
slavery:
forms of accountability for 581–2
reparations for 575, 579–82
Smith, M 181, 249–50
So, S 181
Soares, R R 532
social accountability:
accountability agents 633, 636
civil service accountability 238
construction of legitimacy 643–4
corporate accountability 358, 360–3, 366
court of public opinion 633
creating court of public opinion 643–4
economic and social regulation of organization 634–5
extra-legal accountability demands 636–7
forums for 11
governance networks 245–6, 252
legal structure of external accountability 634–5
mandated transparency 635
moral issues raised by 638
private corporations 632–3
promotion through legitimacy 642–3
responding to extra-legal demands 637–8
risks and opportunities of 638–9
social legitimacy 640–2
voluntary nature of 12
social capital 347, 618
social contingency theory 13, 55, 61–3, 66, 128
differences among individuals 61–2
experimental research 128–9, 132
impact of forum preferences on actor’s behavior 129–30, 133
insulation of parent companies from 362
motivation 62
public accountability 14–5
time of formation of accountability relationship 131
social enterprises/entrepreneurship 341
Social Innovation Fund (SIF, USA) 347
social legitimacy 640–2
construction of 643–4
consultation 644
promotion of social accountability 642–3
social media, impact on watchdog journalism 530
social psychology, conception of accountability 4, 14
Social Return on Investment (SROI) 346
social sciences, relevance of 669
socialization, organizational 77
Söderman, J 511
Somalia 498
Sontag, S 181
Sorensen, A T 449
Sørensen, E 274–5
South Africa 197, 535
South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) 535
Soviet Union 204
Spain 206
Sparks, C 531
Spira, L F 190
Spreitzer, G M 80
standards of public accountability 12
(p. 713) civil service accountability 235
governance networks 243, 250, 252
standard-setting:
financial accountability 426
increased power through performance reporting 452
International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) 277
International Standardization Organization (ISO) 277
performance reporting 458
Stanton, J 181
Stanton, P 181
Stapleton, P 162
Stark, A 594, 599
state capacity, and bureaucratic accountability 42–3
Staw, B M 131
Steets, J 330
Stein, R M 598
Stephenson, M 102n9
Stevenson, D G 449
Stewart, R B 206
Stimson, J 398
Stoker, G 666
Stokes, S C 5
Stone Sweet, A 205
Stop Trading on Congressional Knowledge Act (2012, USA) 673
Strauss, A 160, 167
street level bureaucrats, and responsiveness 214–5
Strøm, K 13–4, 149, 406
subsidiarity 206
Sulitzeanu-Kenan, R 163, 165, 172, 597, 599
Sumerians 3
Sundaram, R 94
sunshine laws 49
Sunstein, C 282
supranational constitutionalism 206–7
Supreme Audit Institutions (SAIs) 475
Collegiate Body model 494–5, 497
Court of Accounts model 493–4, 497
degree of independence 497–8
developing countries 498
evolution of audit 490–3
financial independence 497
functional independence 496–7
as Government department 495, 497
hierarchical SAIs 501
independence from government 496
independence of 496–9
informal organizational factors 498
legal SAIs 501
Legislative Audit office model 495, 497
limits on independence of 498
Mexico Declaration of SAI independence 496–7
organizational independence 496
performance audit regime 491–2
political SAIs 499–500
professional SAIs 500–1
responsibility for external audit 489
Risk-Based Audit (RBA) 492–3
systems based/financial model of auditing 491
traditional/transactional model of auditing 490
typology of 493, 499–500
surrogate accountability
international relations 299–300
multi-level governance 283–4
Suzuki, Y 490
Svensén, B 31
Sweden 278, 509
Switzerland, politicians’ use of performance information 445–6
Syria 530, 535–6
Syria Accountability Act (2003, USA) 7–8
systems approach to accountability 657–9
systems theory 657
‘t, Hart, P 233–4, 555, 561, 627
Tabellini, G 93–4
tacit knowledge 467
Talbot, C 446
Tamir, Y 57–8
Tan, Y 516
teacher performance, and process vs outcome accountability 75–6
technological change, and intergenerational equity 583–4
Teitel, R G 206
(p. 714) term limits, and electoral accountability 397
Tetlock, P E 4, 14, 64, 75–6, 83, 128–9, 138–9, 432, 434
Teubner, G 266
thermostatic model of electoral accountability 392–4
public opinion 392–3
Thiel, S Van 329–30
third parties, accountability demands of 5
Thomas, P 146
Tilly, C 32
time and accountability 586
in electoral politics 574
as element of institutional design 575
protection against overload 575
timing of accountability 574–5
time lags, and accountability 586
current effects of historical actions 575
distinguishing policy mistakes and accountability failures 576–9
forms of accountability for slavery 581–2
future effects of current actions 575–6, 582
global financial crisis (2008) 576–7
intergenerational equity 582–6
limiting future risks 577–8, 582
privileging present over the future 582–3
reparations for enslavement 575, 579–82
time lags between decisions and effects 575–6
uncertainty over outcomes 578
Tocqueville, Alexis de 49, 201
Tomkins, A 198
Tong, J R 531
Torfing, J 274–5, 278
Torres, L 148
torts, law of 634
Townsend, C 181
transgovernmental networks 297–8
transnational corporations (TNCs):
demands for accountability 292
lack of democratic accountability 293
transnational courts 205–6
transparency:
accountability overloads 565–6
active publication of government information 510
ambiguity of concept 510
arguments against 509, 519–20
benefits of 518–9
Bentham’s influence on idea of 507
conditions for facilitating accountability 518
costs of 565–6
definition of 510–11
enhancement of government accountability 508
erosion of trust 519–20, 625
facilitating horizontal accountability 512, 515
fire-alarm oversight 516
forms of 507
freedom of information 49, 390, 508–9, 514
global governance organizations (GCOs) 377, 383
hierarchical accountability 415
historical roots of concept 508–10
increase in media accountability 515–6
independent regulators 477
as institutional relation 511
limitations on 517
limited impact on citizen accountability 514
limited value of proactive transparency 516–7
mandated transparency 635
negative effects of 519–20, 563, 566
public accountability 7
public administration accountability 221–2
quantitative analysis 148–9
reduces need for accountability 513, 517
reinforcement of accountability 518
relationship with accountability 508, 512–4, 518
as sanction 513
security sector 517
stakeholder accountability 515
strengthening vertical accountability 512–3, 516
as system 511
third-party transparency 517
threat to personal privacy 519
as virtue 510–1
worldwide increase in 508
written constitutions 205
Transparency International 483, 511, 533, 535
Tritter, J Q 266
(p. 715) trust:
benevolence 620–1
bureaucratic trust in citizens 621
calculus-based trust 622
competence 620–1
as consequence of accountability 623–5
credible commitment 620
definitions of 618
erosion through transparency 519–20, 625
factors affecting trust in government agencies 620–1
fairness 620
future research 628–9
honesty 620–1
identification-based trust 622
informal accountability 309
knowledge-based trust 622
levels of institution-based trust 619
national and cultural differences 621
objects of 619
organizational learning 627
in organizational theory 618
organizational trust 618–9
organizational trustworthiness 620
in parliament 621–2
performance measurement and reporting 617
personal trust 618
political trust 617
as prerequisite for accountability 626–7
process vs outcome accountability 75–6
public governance 617–8
relationship with accountability 617–8, 622–5, 628
system trust 618
undermined by accountability 44, 57, 624
unrelated to accountability 627–8
visual representation 185
volatility of political trust 619–20
trust-based accountability 55, 57
contextual factors 56–7
Tsai, L 163–4, 169, 651
Turkey 340
Turpin, C 198
Tushnet, M 201
Uganda 537
unelected bodies, accountability of 655–7
Union Carbide 592
unitary states, and democratic accountability 48
United Kingdom:
audit explosion 56–7, 457, 492
civil service accountability 228–30
democratic accountability 47
financial accountability 196
mediated democratic accountability 49
ministerial responsibility 197–8, 228
multi-level governance 278
politicians’ use of performance information 446
United Nations (UN):
accountability deficits 547
accountability mechanisms 547
founding of 290
United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) 151
United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples 365
United Nations Human Rights Committee 475
United Nations Human Rights Council 378–9
United Nations Security Council 291
United Nations Voting Accountability Act (USA) 8
United States:
audit explosion 492
citizens’ use of performance information 449
courts’ engagement with regulatory issues 479–80
democratic accountability 47–8
economic pressures on media 529–30
legalism 480
mediated democratic accountability 49
nonprofit sector 340
Open Government Directive 510
regulatory agencies 473
watchdog journalism 528
United States Congress:
budget approvals 96
Congressional dominance 96–7
financial accountability 196
principal-agent analyses of bureaucratic accountability 95–101
(p. 716) United States Constitution:
checks and balances 201
influence of 204
judicial independence 201
separation of powers 47–8, 201
United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) 568
United States Department of Housing and Urban Development 462
United States Justice Department 569
United States Supreme Court 201, 344
Marbury v Madison (USA, 1803) 201
United Way 344
Universal Postal Union 370, 380
utilitarianism, and intergenerational equity 583
Uzbekistan 535
Van de Steeg, M W 148–9, 152
Van de Walle, S 146, 621
Van der Meer, T 621–2, 625
Van Dooren, W 445, 661, 667
variance theory of causality 172
Vavreck, L 399
venture philanthropy 347
vertical accountability 12
civil service accountability 235
governance networks 243, 253–4
public services accountability 308
transparency 512–3, 516
videomalaise 526
Vietnam 196
Vigoda, E 146
Villeneuve, J P 516
virtue:
accountability as 7–8, 32–3, 41, 144, 294–5
citizen participation in accountability 258–9
measuring accountability as 145–7
transparency as 510–1
visual accountability 177–8
analysis of WPP’s annual report 182–4
ancient Egyptian temples 187
architecture 186
brief history of research on 178
colour in financial reports 181, 186
contemporary annual reports 187–8
diverse forms of 178–9
ethical and legal obstacles to research 189
ethical issues 185
financial graphs 185–6
financial reporting 177–8, 181–4
growth of research on 189–90
importance of visual media 177, 188–9
impression management 185–6
Italian Renaissance 187
photographs 178, 186
pictures 178, 186
research methods 179
visual content analysis 179–80, 183
visual elicitation 180, 183
visual experiments 180–1, 183
visual portraiture 188
visual portrayal of diversity 184–5
visual portrayal of intangibles 184
visual rhetoric 182
visual semiotics 181–4
visual turn 177
voice-based accountability:
citizen participation 259, 265, 268
public sector reforms 447
voluntary accountability 12
voter behavior:
behavioral approaches 656
electoral accountability 398
issue preferences 398
party attachment 398
valence issues 398
voting:
democratic accountability 45–6
direct democracy 45–6
weakness as accountability device 45
Wachovia 580
Waisbord, S R 529
Waldo, D 34
Wang, X 148
watchdog journalism:
agenda-setting 531
in autocratic regimes 530–1
Brazil 537
conditions limiting 537
corporate accountability 526
critiques of reality of 527
(p. 717) defining features of 538
diversity in journalists’ attitudes towards 528–9, 537
electoral accountability 526, 531
framing role 531
functions of 525–6
historical roots of 525
impact of 531, 538
impact of economic pressures on media 529–30
impact of new media 530
impact on corruption 531–4, 537–8
legal accountability 526
Madagascar 537
managerial accountability 526
political restrictions on 530
in practice 529–31
primary role 525–6
priming role 531
public attitudes towards 528
secondary role 526
social media’s impact on 530
South Africa 535
strengthening of accountability 526–7
as surrogate for the public 526
Syria 535–6
Uganda 537
Watergate 515–6, 519, 525
Weaver, K 608
Weber, M 42–3, 227–8, 239, 410, 607
Weder, B 532
Weibel, A 145
Weigold, M F 133
Weiler, J 206
Weimar Germany 204
Weingast, B 96–7, 102n8
Weiss, R S 173
Welch, E W 148–9
Westminster model of government:
judicial independence 202
ministerial responsibility 117, 197, 228, 548–9
Whalen, J M 426
whistleblowers 516
Whitehall, and civil service accountability 228–30
Widmer, T 445–6
Wiel, K Van der 451
Wigram, R 229
WikiLeaks 519
Willems, T 661, 667
Williams, K D 466
Williams, R 23
Williamson, R M 563
Willis, J 477
Wilson, J 411–2, 414
Wilson, W 227–8, 378
Wise Giving Alliance 343
Wittgenstein, Ludwig 28
Wong, W 148–9
words:
cultural keywords 23
language games 28–9
World Bank 1, 290, 373, 379, 537
accountability of 294
criticism of 294
lack of democratic accountability 293
social accountability 238, 294
World Governance Indicators 330
World Economic Forum 533
world federalist movement 290
World Health Organization (WHO) 371, 375, 380
World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) 370–1, 380
World of Journalism 529
world politics 290
World Trade Organization (WTO) 202, 371, 378
authority of 381
organizational design 380
regulatory oversight by 475
WPP, visual analysis of annual report 182–4
written languages, development of 3
Wyne, A 498
Yang, K 161, 163, 618, 621, 623, 627
Yankelovich, D 643
Yates, J F 131
Zeitlin, J 63–4
Zimbabwe 530, 535
Zucker, L G 623–4