- Overview of terminology and findings
- The prevalence of synesthesia: The Consistency Revolution
- The Genetics and Inheritance of Synesthesia
- Synesthesia in Infants and Very Young Children
- Synesthesia in School-Aged Children
- Synesthesia, Alphabet Books, and Fridge Magnets
- Numbers, Synesthesia, and Directionality
- Synesthesia, Sequences, and Space
- The “rules” of Synesthesia
- Colored Alphabets in Bilingual Synesthetes
- Synesthesia, Meaning, and Multilingual Speakers
- Synesthesia in Non-Alphabetic Languages
- Synesthetic Personification: The social world of graphemes
- Individual Differences in Synesthesia
- The Role of Attention in Synesthesia
- Revisiting the Perceptual Reality of Synesthetic Color
- Synesthesia and Binding
- Synesthesia, Eye-Movements, and Pupillometry
- Synesthesia, Incongruence, and Emotionality
- Synesthesia in the Nineteenth Century: Scientific origins
- Synesthesia in the Twentieth Century: Synesthesia’s renaissance
- Synesthesia in the Twenty-First Century: Synesthesia’s ascent
- Synesthesia in Space Versus the “Mind’s eye”: How to ask the right questions
- Synesthesia: A Psychosocial Approach
- Synesthesia and Functional Imaging
- Synesthesia, Hyper-Connectivity, and Diffusion Tensor Imaging
- Can Gray Matter Studies Inform Theories of (Grapheme-Color) Synesthesia?
- Synesthesia and Cortical Connectivity: A neurodevelopmental perspective
- The Timing of Neurophysiological Events in Synesthesia
- The Use of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in the Investigation of Synesthesia
- Synesthesia, Mirror Neurons, and Mirror-Touch
- Synesthesia and Creativity
- Synesthesia in the Visual Arts
- Synesthesia in Literature
- Synesthesia and the Artistic Process
- Synesthesia and Memory
- Synesthesia and Savantism
- Synesthesia, Imagery, and Performance
- Weak Synesthesia in Perception and Language
- Audiovisual Cross-Modal Correspondences in the General Population
- Cross-Modality in Speech Processing
- Magnitudes, Metaphors, and Modalities: A Theory of Magnitude Revisited
- Sensory Substitution Devices: Creating “Artificial Synesthesias”
- Synesthesia, Cross-Modality, and Language Evolution
- Synesthesia: A First-Person Perspective
- Synesthesia and Consciousness
- What Exactly is a Sense?
- What Synesthesia isn’t
- From Molecules to Metaphor: Outlooks on Synesthesia Research
- Synesthesia Where Have We Been? Where are We Going?
- Author Index
- Subject Index
Abstract and Keywords
We begin this chapter with a review of the history of synaesthesia and a comparison of what we consider to be either genuine or inauthentic manifestations of the phenomenon. Next, we describe the creation and development of synaesthetic consistency tests and explore reasons why assessing consistency became the most widely used method of confirming the genuineness of synaesthesia. We then consider methodologies that demonstrate synaesthesia's authenticity by capitalizing on properties other than consistency. Finally, we discuss how together, consistency tests and other methodologies are helping researchers determine prevalence and elucidate the mechanisms of synaesthesia.
Donielle Johnson is a graduate studen in the Department of Developmental Psychiatry, University of Cambridge.
Carrie Allison is Research Manager, Autism Research Centre, Department of Developmental Psychiatry, University of Cambridge.
Professor Simon Baron-Cohen, Autism Research Centre, Psychiatry Department, Cambridge University.
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