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date: 18 November 2018

(p. 907) Subject Index

(p. 907) Subject Index

The index was prepared by Steven Coyne

absences 542–62
examples of 542
materialism and 553–4
modelled as after-images 546–8
negative judgments and 548–52
as objective 558–9
as observer-relative 554–7
phenomenology of 552
achromatopsia 247
acquaintance 120, 559, 834, 839, 842–6
action 39, 44–5, 55–6, 59, 63, 88–9, 130–2, 140, 217, 225–6, 231–2, 244–5, 454, 668
attention and 587–9
perception and 96, 442, 524
perception of absences and 550
proprioception and 366–7
vision and 271–2
action-based accounts of perception, see enactivism
active perception 579–80, 827
of pain 579–80
adaptation, see evolution
affective experience 359–60
affordances 24, 146, 221, 341
definition of 218
after-images 47, 121, 546–7, 650
agnosia 7, 8, 17, 223, 235, 267, 374–5, 489, 493, 773
animacy 491–4
animal perception 17–18, 24–5, 188, 222, 381, 556–7, 569, 818, 836, 853–70
animal cognition and 570
animal conscious experience and 575, 732
Aquinas on 53–4
of balance 859
compared with human perception 582–3, 853
continuity of, with human perception 855–61
de se thought and 177
early Greeks on 31–3, 43
individuation of senses in 855
infrared reception as uniquely belonging to 862–6
magnetoreception as uniquely belonging to 866–7
pre-adult 815
anti-representationalism 154–5, 157–8; see also relationalism
appearances 36–7, 137, 139–42, 144, 147–8, 482–3, 587, 599
etymology of 238
Kant’s definition of 103
sense-data and 122, 128, 130–1
apotemnophilia 173
Aquinas 53–64, 314
on the bodily senses (e.g. smell) 314
on the distinction between sensibles per se and sensibles per accidens 53
on the process of perception, especially of colour 55–7
on the proof of God’s existence 51
on the reliability of perception 60–4
on the relationship between perception and reason 53
Aristotle 10–11, 13, 15, 17, 30, 33–5, 41, 43–52, 64, 294, 424–7, 429–30, 433–5, 853–6, 870
on colour 424–5
and criticism of Plato 44n50
on the criterion for individuation of the senses 575–7, 853
influence of, on medieval philosophers of perception 50
(p. 908) on perceptible properties 46
on perceptual content 47
on the causal theory of perception 44, 424–5
on the proper object of each sense 318, 424
art 147, 872, 880–2
mimetic theory of 880
attention 20–1, 379–80, 396–9, 587–99, 761–2
access vs. selective aspects of 385, 589–93, 597, 814, 820, 824
as altering the qualitative character of experience 587
as making attended properties more determinate 161–2
binding and 382, 596–9
blindsight and 588, 594
consciousness and 377
demonstrative thought and 837–8, 845–8
dispersed across multiple locations, in vision 398
divided into personal and information-processing streams 588–9, 591, 597
object-based 192, 817, 829, 832
and olfaction or smell 345–7
pain and 537–40
perceptual learning and 819–27
phenomenology of 144, 598–601
as providing knowledge 587–8, 593–6, 795–7
attentional blink 380
audition 10–11, 274–91; see also sound
compared with vestibular transduction 361
compared with vision 134n30, 275, 314, 345, 614
dominated by vision 32, 320, 610
introspective character of 575–7
location in 105, 281, 290n41, 291
non-linguistic 476, 478, 484–90
objects of 165–6, 274–5, 289, 484, 487, 777
physiological process of 284–5, 503–12, 614, 858, 860
processing of 286–7
representationality of 278–9, 286–9
auditory experience 274–6, 278, 286, 291, 343, 483, 579, 651
Austin, J.L. 23, 119, 123, 127, 129, 134, 202, 229, 269, 549, 594, 747
autoscopic illusions 518, 521–3
B-theory of time 466–9, 471
Bayesian models of perception 402, 694–714
as evidence against relationalism 703–4
as evidence for intentional psychology 705–6
inference in 701–2
mathematical description of 696–8, 710–3
as non-representational 698, 709
and phenomenal content 706–7
source of prior probabilities in 700–1
belief 5–6, 22–5, 70–1, 76–8,182–6, 246, 270, 550, 556–8, 568–71, 735, 767, 781–804, 844–51
basic 71, 807
cognitive penetration and 803–4
contents of 36, 156, 159–60, 790, 792–3, 798
de re 798
demonstrative 844, 846–7, 849–50
experience and 782
formation of 185, 569, 588, 747, 844
in information theory 745–6
tensed 468
Bergson, H. 461, 473, 548–52, 557, 562–3
against perceiving absences 548–52
Berkeley, G. 3, 70, 84–5, 87–94, 102–3, 111, 121, 131–2, 268, 276, 542
against the primary-secondary quality distinction 84
idealism of 91, 103, 542
puzzle of, about distance perception 89
binding problem 18, 20, 219, 382, 384, 596–9, 763, 838
in perceptual demonstrative thought 845–7
unconscious 382
blindness 413, 416–17, 645, 659, 663–4, 668, 671, 675
blindsight 223, 246, 267, 376–8, 382, 385–6, 568, 724, 800, 838, 854 588, 789, 795, 800
(p. 909) bodily movement 171, 221, 224–7, 232, 367, 402, 525; see also enactivism, perceptual constancy, proprioception
relation to perception in Merleau-Ponty 146–7
bodily perception, see interoceptive senses; vestibular system; proprioception
body image 173, 365–6, 370
definition of 365–6
body map theory of touch 294, 304–9, 366
definition of 294
body ownership 179, 518, 521–2
body schema 146, 149, 173, 365–7, 370
as multi-modal or proprioceptive 366
definition of 365–6
body template theory 294, 309
BOLD response 667
Boolean Map Theory 590
brain 84–9, 105, 227–30, 318–19, 535–41, 596–7, 662–4, 814–19
early theories of 32, 40, 53, 84–7
in a vat 200, 205, 787, 804
nineteenth century theories of 101, 105
role of, in vision 261–3, 266–7, 433–4, 838
of synaesthestes 652
Brain-Port 661
Brentano 23, 47, 111, 136–9, 142–3, 149, 298–9, 303–4, 310
against sense-data theories 137
distinction between judgment and presentation 137
Categorical Perception (CP) 20, 482–3, 488, 689, 763, 820, 826, 830
definition of 820
categorization of the senses, see classification of the senses
cats 735
causal theory of perception 34, 38–9, 272, 554, 800
in ancient writers 34–9
partial rejection by early modern writers 86–7
central nervous system (CNS) 156, 319, 354, 356, 524, 529
change blindness 228, 345, 373–4, 560–1, 592–3, 801, 806
and attention 592–3
as evidence for enactivism 227–9
as evidence for unconscious perception 374
in the perception of absences 560–1
chemical senses 269, 314–17, 319–49, 604, 666; see also olfaction; taste
and food 316
including some aspects of touch 315
cinematic account of perception 461–3, 468, 471
classification of the senses 296, 314, 356, 372, 375
Aristotle’s 317, 320
in Aquinas 56
cognition 30–1, 226, 398, 713; see also judgment
distinguished from perception 10, 30, 59, 93n80, 484, 633, 814, 844–6
extra-perceptual 475, 477, 479
cognitive encapsulation 612, 700, 758–61, 765–7, 771–4
cognitive penetration 544, 759, 766–7, 769–70, 772–3, 775, 777–8, 803–4, 813, 826–7, 831
arguments against 813
direct vs. indirect 813
of vision 777, 809, 831
rational belief and 803–4
cognitive processing 470, 845–6
colour 10–11, 20–2, 44–7, 55–60, 82–8, 209, 246–7, 374–7, 405–19, 575–6, 590–9, 629–31, 794; see also colour vision
early modern views of 83
early physics of 108–9, 427–9
Newton’s view of 428, 680–2
ontology of 83, 422, 435–6, 622
as perceiver-dependent 411–16, 423, 434
as perceiver-independent 416–17, 438
qualitative aspect of 410–14, 416–17, 682–3
and secondary qualities 405–19
(p. 910) colour constancy 109, 635–9, 751
colour space 681–6, 691–2
Munsell’s model of 683
Natural Colour System model of 684–5
Newton’s model of 681–3
opponency model of 682
shades in 691–2
colour vision 16–17, 33, 61, 94–5, 100–1, 261, 265, 422–36, 488, 498, 588, 641, 752, 766, 869
as necessary for vision in general 425, 434, 592
medieval views of 55–6
physiology of 110, 428–35
processing of 267–8, 423, 432–3, 437–8, 763, 766–7, 769
as serial 592–3
common sensibles 52–4, 61, 82, 318, 320, 489, 575, 605, 612
definition of 52
computational model of perception 708–12, 755
arguments against 220–1
concepts 25, 53–4, 61–2, 181–96, 534, 555–6, 593–5, 768–9, 825
acquisition of 188, 190
in ancient Greek thinkers 29–30, 47
capacity to use 181, 184–6, 188–9, 191, 194, 633
colour 181, 375, 588, 595
demonstrative 188–90, 595
empiricism about 218–20
first person 169, 177–9
individuation of 177–8
sortal 836, 841, 851–2
conceptualism 149, 181–6, 188–91, 193; see also nonconceptualism
and the argument from illusion 187–8
definition of 181–2
empirical argument against 186
epistemic argument for 184–5
Kant on 186
congruence, between different taste experiences 338–9
consciousness 9, 136–9, 142–4, 172–6, 193n3, 355–8, 372–86, 412, 416–17, 653, 719, 731–3, 746–7; see also unconscious perception
attention and 587–96
epistemology of 796–7
first-order vs. higher-order theories of 355, 731–2
olfactory background to 346
structure of 611, 615–16
unity of 41, 176, 561, 615–16
constancy of perception, see perceptual constancy
content of perception 33, 47, 140, 153–4, 156, 159–66, 170, 186, 188, 219, 569, 612, 647, 653, 752–3, 786, 793–5
according to Aristotle 46–7
first person 168–9, 171, 175–6
inferential 3
according to medieval philosophy 51
multisensory 612–15
non-conceptual 47n66 149, 183, 189, 220, 752, 754, 763, 810
object-dependent 204–5
according to Plato 40–1
as propositional 11–13, 29, 41, 160, 795–7
as restricted by conceptual capacity of the subject 181
visual 273, 809–10, 852, 884
cross-modal interaction 21, 320, 326, 329, 332–3, 605–9, 612, 614
between audition and number sense 609
distinguished from multisensory integration 608
between temperature and taste 333
between vision and audition 487–8, 604, 606, 608
between vision and proprioception 445
between vision and touch 604, 606–7, 608
defeasibility of perceptual experience 77
Democritus 14, 31, 34–7, 39, 47–9, 550, 553
demonstrative reference 186, 189–90, 806, 836, 840–1, 850–1
Husserl on 141
in audition 276–7
demonstrative thought, see perceptual demonstrative thought
demonstratives 17, 171, 189, 450–1, 798, 807, 833–5, 837–9, 841, 843–51
(p. 911) depth perception 3, 104, 111, 268, 669, 672, 712, 715
Descartes 1, 3, 67, 69, 71–4, 81–9, 91–9, 101–3, 405, 407, 424–6, 659
clear and distinct perception according to 72–3
on colour 425–6
compared with the Academics 73
on innate judgments 89
the limitations of sensory knowledge according to 102
on three grades of sensory response 88
on visual processing 86
three skeptical arguments by 72–3
descriptivism 839–40
de se content 169–72, 175–9
possibility of perception without 170
determinates 147, 160–2, 202, 304, 483, 680, 743, 874
direct perception 53, 57, 60, 82, 112, 269, 459, 463–4
discrimination tasks 21, 47n65, 377, 720, 813, 826, 830
disjunctivism 23–4, 148, 198–207, 209–11, 213–15, 217, 714–15, 808
arguments against 212
about the contents of experience 204–5
definition of 198
epistemological 187, 206–7
metaphysical 209–10, 213, 799
negative 202, 211, 213
about objects of experience 201–3
about perceptual evidence 206–7
positive 211–13
dispositionalism 410–11, 413–16, 426, 436
dispositions 83, 134, 194, 239, 275, 278, 409–11, 414, 426–7, 435, 447, 452–3, 698, 746
distal attribution 669–71, 673
dogmatism 76
domain specificity 758–9, 774–6
dorsal stream 156–7, 221–5, 265, 272, 382, 764
ears 279, 281, 290, 292–3, 307, 489, 499, 579–80, 662–4, 827–8; see also audition
Empedocles on the structure of 33
physiology of 284–5, 503–12, 614, 858, 860
embodied cognition 221, 546
echolocation 666–8, 855, 857
egocentric space 453, 455
Empedocles 31–4, 48
emotions 30, 229–30, 232, 316, 328, 345, 354, 359, 368–9, 473, 537, 570, 586
empiricism
in Locke and Berkeley 90
enactivism 24, 154–5, 158, 218, 225–6, 228–9, 546; see also affordances
contrasted with behaviourism 226–7
contrasted with computational or representational approaches 218, 225–6
contrasted with relationalism and representationalism 154–5
empirical evidence for 222–5
epistemic access, immediate 407–8, 410–11
epistemology, see justification; belief; evidence
Evans, G. 176–7, 179, 182, 194, 367, 446–7, 450, 452–5, 834–7, 840–1, 843, 852
on individuating the senses 575
events in perception, see listings for individual senses (e.g. sounds, sights, smells)
evidence 51, 239, 289–90, 569, 594, 764
in Bayesian theory 610, 696–8
conditional 63
in signal detection theory 722–6
in skepticism 77, 205–7
evolution 308, 325, 329, 577, 582, 766, 826, 856–9, 865
in animals and humans, compared 557, 859
of audition 15, 286, 496, 501, 504–6, 508
in Empedocles 33
of information detection in organisms 740–1
of modularity of perceptual functions 757–8
of multimodal perception 607, 613
(p. 912) of object recognition 400, 403
of pain perception 536
perceptual learning and 816, 818–19, 827–8
of sensory substitution 665, 667–8
of vision 15, 109, 426
of warpings of perceptual spaces 689
experience 6, 132, 139–48; see also consciousness
content of 143, 183–9, 191–4, 204–5, 226, 271, 483, 794
Husserl’s definition of 139
Intentionalism about 208–9
Kant on the limits of 103
objects of 201–4, 873
structure of 82, 88–9, 119–20, 141, 202, 208, 210
temporal extension of 4
transparency of 599, 808
exosomesthesia 306–8
externalism 77, 785
eyes 630–4, 863–5; see also vision
animal vs. human 582–3, 863
Aquinas’ theory of 56–7
Descartes on the physiology of 85–90
Kepler’s observations about 85
movement of 105, 179, 297, 469–71
nineteenth century developments on the physiology of 104–5
physiology of 258–64
Plato’s theory of 39–40, 42
Presocratic theories of 30–4
factive states 797–9
feed-forward sweep, see FFS
FFS (feed-forward sweep) 191–2
figure and ground segregation 394–5
first person 71, 171–5, 177, 179, 325, 431, 781
and embodiment 171
and illusionary experience 176
and intention 184–5
and perception 168–9
flavour perception 4, 18, 317, 320–1, 323, 327, 332, 335–41, 578–81
flavour 4, 18, 44–5, 81–2, 87–8, 320–1, 323–31, 333–41, 347–9, 351–2, 585–6
components of 578–80
contrasted with the object of taste or gustation alone 317
contribution of pleasure to 338–41
divided into constitutive and causally affecting 337
empirical definitions of 337
in Democritus 35
as psychological 340–8
multisensory perception of 348, 581–3
Fodorian modules 612, 758, 770–2
foundationalism 70–1, 785, 786n16
frame of reference 441–2, 446, 448–57, 521, 525
and proprioception 366
and touch 294, 304, 308–9
functionalism 641, 653–7, 665, 673
Galileo 69, 82–4, 98, 101, 405, 407, 425, 429
generality problem, for reliabilism 800–1, 805–6
geometric properties 35–6, 39, 425
Gestalt psychology 8, 101, 112–13, 144, 394, 398, 562, 817, 821
Gestalt switches 552
Gorgias 32, 34, 48
gustation, see taste
hallucinations 4, 24, 127–9, 148, 154, 198–202, 206, 208, 210–15, 546, 548, 595, 644, 651, 797–9
as having sense-data as their objects 200–1
autoscopic 518–19, 528
definition of 200
demonstrative thought and 839
justification and 797–9
relation to representationalism 154–5
partial 200–4, 209–10
Hamilton, W. 100, 103, 111
haptic touch 296
harmony 20, 502, 511–12
harmonic structure 280, 285, 288
hearing, see audition
heautoscopy 517–19
hedonic tones 345, 347
helical model 510–11
(p. 913) Helmholtz 7, 104, 106, 109–12, 114–15, 227, 424, 429–31, 435, 633, 682, 695, 715
on unconscious inference and perception 695
Heraclitus 31, 546
hierarchy of the senses, see classification of the senses
HMI (Human Machine Interface) 660
HMTC (Hybrid Medium Transducer Criterion) 577–9, 581
Hobbes, T.
criticism by, of Descartes 72n24
on the mind-dependence of colours and sounds 83
on the primary-secondary quality distinction 405–7
human machine interface, see HMI
Hume, D. 174–5
distinction of, between ideas and impressions 103
on attending to oneself 168, 174–5
on individuating the senses 575
on the necessity attending visual experience 275
on representationalism 275
as a sense-data theorist 130
and skepticism 103, 121, 550–1
Husserl, E. 23–4, 136, 138–44, 148–50, 364, 546, 551, 563
arguments of, against Brentano 142
and demonstrative thought 140
as an externalist 143
general approach of 139
and the noema of an action 140
on own-body experience 142
on perceiving after-images 546
phenomenology of 562
Hybrid Medium Transducer Criterion, see HMTC
hylomorphism 59
iconic memory 374
ideas 14, 645–9
contrasted with impressions, in Hume 103
divided into acts and representations by Descartes 91
Locke on 407–10
as objects of perception 82, 91–4, 407–8
relationship of, to objects 87, 91
relationship of, to sense data 22, 120, 128–33, 201, 596
illumination 12, 14, 20, 259, 429, 435, 580, 628, 630–2, 697–8, 704, 707, 795
illusion 155, 199–204, 209–10, 251, 797
in art 882–3
in audition 290, 487
autoscopic 518, 521–3
argument from 22, 127–9
in Bayesian theory 695–6, 700–5
definition of 199
in Aureol 54–5
interoceptive 357, 364
olfactory 344
and representationalism 154–5
rubber band, see rubber band illusion
tactile 305, 307
taste 332, 344
of time 460, 469–72
in vision 156, 209, 219, 224, 268, 625–8, 772–3, 804
images 2–3, 16, 84–6, 113, 219–20, 258, 260–1, 264, 400–2, 468–70, 521, 660–2, 875, 877, 883
formation of 258, 260–1
inflected 878, 880, 882
optical 2–3
receptoral 2–4
two-dimensional 86, 105–6, 111
imagination 791
inattentional blindness 228, 377, 379–80, 385, 560–1, 592–3, 796
indeterminacy of experience 130–1, 144–5
individuation
of emotions 359–61
of objects 192
of perceptual states 159, 304
of shades of colour 681, 692
individuation of the senses 294, 297–8, 567–83, 604, 641, 648, 664, 666
Aristotle’s criterion for 575–7
on the basis of experience 568, 572, 574
on the basis of sense organs 659, 664
as conventional 574
from homeostatic systems 569–72
(p. 914) Hume’s criterion for 575
sensory vs. perceptual 578–82
infants 111, 188, 231–2, 399, 482, 490, 559, 606, 613, 812, 830
inference, in perception 5, 695–6, 702
in Agrippa 70
infrared light
perception of, in animals 862–6
processing of 157, 318, 386, 462, 572, 588, 596–8, 668, 815
information
Dretske’s definition of 735
nesting of 742
objectivity of a definition of 738–9
primary and secondary 742–4, 747–8
semantic theory of 734, 736–7
information-theoretic account of perception 734–51
consciousness and 746–7
Millikan’s criticisms of 740
objects of perception and 747–9
representationalism and 745–6, 749–50
role of perceptual constancy in 748
inner perception 19, 52, 63, 142, 531
contrasted with outer perception in Brentano 138
intentionality 145–7, 177, 217, 229–32, 386, 454, 612, 729
definition of 136
intentional content 169, 174–8, 251, 612–13, 650–1
intentional objects 294–6, 299, 496, 552, 650
internal perception, see inner perception
internalism 796–7, 804
access 789
Husserl’s view of 149
interoception 8, 353–61, 365, 369–70, 604, 648
as tracking many kinds of properties 355–6
considered as one or multiple sense modalities 354
definition of 353
representationality of 357–8
introspection 83, 108, 162, 198, 205, 209n33, 211, 433, 572, 595–6, 615, 793
phenomenology of 574, 576
reliability of 270–1
itches 19, 121, 353–8, 540
Ishihara test 592
James, W. 100, 112, 303–5, 359–60, 363, 550, 569, 587–8, 599
on attention 588
JND (just noticeable difference) 106, 685, 718
judgement 12, 63, 88–9, 131–2, 137–42, 177–9, 223–4, 765–6
Aristotle on 56–7
learned vs. innate 89
negative 549–51, 556
positive 63, 549
and perception in Brentano 138
and perception in Descartes 88
and perception in Husserl 141
vs. presentation 137, 142
and sensation in Reid 89
justification 5, 70–1, 75–6, 126, 154, 182, 184, 187, 725–6, 777, 781–3, 785–802, 804–10, 848, 851
a priori 788–9, 806
attention and 795–7
basic normative notion of 783–5
bootstrapping and 788–9
defeaters to 785
experience as sufficient for 786
immediate 76, 785–9, 794–5, 800, 807, 809
mediate 785–6
phenomenal character and 789
propositional vs. doxastic 783–4, 796
structure of 70, 787
just noticeable difference, see JND
Kant 103, 172, 314, 546
Husserl and 144
on conceptualism 186
on congruence 442n3
on intuitions 185
on negative judgments 549
Kepler 2–3, 85, 101, 260, 264
knowledge 3, 5, 13, 51–2, 74–7, 93–5, 176–80, 559, 801–2
action and 587–9, 593–6
closure and 206n23, 207
(p. 915) Descartes on 100–3
first-personal 169, 176–80
information and 739
Plato on 38, 41–3
propositional 559, 587, 593–4
role of justification in 801
role of sensitivity in 801
safety condition on 179
language 218–19, 250, 475–84, 490–1, 557, 819, 821, 851–2; see also phonemes
lateral geniculate nucleus, see LGN
learning, see perceptual learning
Leibniz 87, 90–1, 98, 102–3, 605, 640, 656
on the similarity between touch and vision 90
LGN (lateral geniculate nucleus) 261, 264, 267, 432–4
light
spectral composition of 108–9
listening, see audition
Local Sign Theory 106, 294, 303–4, 443
location 260, 266, 269, 398–9, 422–5, 448–51, 496–7, 534–5, 589–90, 816–17
A vs. B types of, in touch 308–9
Locke 69, 82–5, 87, 90, 93–8, 101–3, 116–17, 120–1, 131–3, 405–11, 414, 419–20, 426–7, 435, 633
on ideas 103
on resemblance 94, 121
on the reliability of the senses 95
as a sense-datum theorist 120
loudness 274–5, 479, 482, 484, 488, 491, 496–7, 512, 648, 661, 679, 686, 718
definition of 497
Malebranche 81, 83, 85, 87–90, 92–9
on the distinction between natural and free judgments 88
material change 43n49, 45, 59, 406
Maximum Likelihood Estimation, see MLE
McGurk effect 320, 487, 576, 578, 608–10, 612, 614
mechanical philosophy 82–7, 91, 404–7, 409–10, 414, 418
melody 6, 146, 463, 502, 511–12
memory 192, 570–1, 583
as an intermediary between the senses and cognition 570–1
mental paint 592, 599–600
Merleau-Ponty 23, 136, 143–50, 364, 446–7, 452–3, 546, 563
on attention 144
compared with Husserl 143
on orientation in visual perception 446–7, 452–3
on own-body perception 145, 364
on perceiving after-images 546
on the visual field 144–5
metacognition 360, 549, 556
metamerism 35, 415
micro-modularity 772
microstructures 34–7
mind–body problem 86, 383, 591, 751
misperception, see non-veridical perception; illusion; hallucination
MLE (Maximum Likelihood Estimation) 610
modularity 268, 490–2, 560, 611, 614–15, 755–9, 761–3, 765, 768–74, 774–8, 827
arguments against, from cognitive penetration 761–2, 765–9
arguments against, from multisensory integration 612, 769–70
arguments against, from synaesthesia 771
computational model and 757–8
Fodor’s model of 758–9
micro- 772–3
non-conceptual content and 763
physiology of 764–5
Molyneux’s Problem 90, 132, 605–6, 613–14
Moore 78–9, 118–21, 201, 206–7, 546, 548, 593, 795, 808, 810–11, 852
on common sense 74–5
on sense-data 122–3
motion 5–8, 94, 224, 263–5, 379–80, 490–1, 512, 827
absolute 444
(p. 916) as a primary quality 69–70, 82–8
laws of 296–8
modular perception of 8
perception of 5, 700–1, 815
sound and 281–2
motor system 219, 226–7, 367, 456, 498
Muller-Lyer illusion 128, 219, 760
multidimensional scaling 412, 693
multiple realizability 220, 648
multisensory integration 8, 21, 157, 317, 319, 323, 333, 337, 339–41, 348–50, 517, 519, 521, 577, 603–5, 607–16, 769–71, 776, 778, 834
arguments against 318
between vision and audition 608–9, 614–15
between vision and touch 608, 614
distinguished from cross-modal interaction 608
dominance of one sense over another in 610–1
as evidence against modularity of the senses 612
and the representationalist/anti-representationalist debate 157
in taste 317, 336–41, 578–9
visuomotor 222, 517
multisensory interaction, see multisensory integration; cross-modal interaction
music 4, 6, 287, 495–513, 686, 693
definition of 495
phenomenology of 495–6, 498–9, 509–12
qualities of, see loudness; timbre; pitch; rhythm
and vision 512–13
Myth of the Given 185–6
naïve realism 199, 203, 207–14, 251, 601
definition of 112
natural geometry 89
natural kinds 366, 368–9, 641, 831, 854
nesting 742–3
Newton 101, 298
on colour 426–9, 435, 681–2
non-veridical experiences 198–201, 206–7; see also illusions; hallucinations
and synaesthesia 643–4
definition of 199
in audition 290–1
nonconceptual content 178–9, 181–3, 185–7, 189–91, 193–7, 219, 361, 794, 807, 810
as a Russellian proposition 183
as a set of possible worlds 183
as structured 194
nonconceptualism 181–5, 188–91, 193; see also conceptualism
arguments for 188–91
concept vs. state 182
definition of 181–2
nonhuman senses, see animal senses
number sense 571–2
object files 192, 194, 289, 399, 403–4; see also binding
objective threshold approaches 727–8, 731
objectivity of perception 109, 179, 301, 318, 321–2, 335, 337–8, 375, 381, 559, 562, 622, 739, 778, 805
and first person thought 175–7
and subjecthood 175–7
object perception 393–403, 747–9
evolution of 403
individuation of objects in 395–6
recognition of 194, 265, 381–2, 393, 400, 830
relation to perception of scene 394–5, 400
stability of 393
and visual processing 400–2
objects 3, 86, 88, 191, 223, 512, 841, 874; see also object perception
definitions of 393, 297
mind-independent 217, 275, 301, 446, 546, 649
odour 343–4, 347
relation of, to properties in perception 53, 160–3
as relations in Aureol 54
proto- 192, 398, 403
(p. 917) objects of perception 19, 22, 44, 54, 320, 323, 393, 461, 464, 484, 488–9, 747–8
contrasted with object perception 393
in Aristotle 44
in early modern philosophy 82–4, 91–3
in Husserl 140
as ideas 91
own bodies as 516, 523
in speech 484–9
occasionalism 87
odours 40, 44–5, 47, 52, 82–3, 94, 162, 315, 324–5, 327–30, 333, 336, 338, 341–5, 347; see also olfaction
as the object of olfaction or smell 344
olfaction 18, 82, 133, 162, 278, 315, 319, 324–9, 333, 335–6, 341–3, 345, 347, 765
active vs. passive 342–3
as a dual process across orthonasal and retronasal pathways 324–30
function of 343
location in 342
processing in the brain of 343–6
role of attention in 345–6
and spatial awareness 343
opponency, colour 434, 682, 684
orientation 220–3, 265, 361–2, 466, 513, 599, 607, 735, 761, 815
as an intrinsic property in perception 443–6
as linked to recognition rather than initial perception 451
as linked to behaviour disposition 453–4
as a mode of presentation in perception 446–9
of the visual field 19, 147, 442–4, 448–53
out-of-body experiences 363, 518–27, 614
and failure to synthesize experience from different modalities 521
neurophysiology of 519–21
own-body perception 515–27
contrasted with bodily self-experience 515
as distinct from perception of external objects 172–4
in Husserl 142
and self-location 515–23, 526
and sensorimotor integration 524–5
pain 19, 32–3, 121–2, 133, 299, 307, 352–4, 372, 530–41, 572–5, 578–80, 595–6, 754, 785, 793
folk theory of 530–2
individuation of, within the senses 572
introspection of 595–6
localization of 133n29, 530–2
physiology of 535–8
as partly unconscious 372
as representational 533–4
as sense-data 532
Study of Pain definition of 531
subjectivity of 531, 533, 537–8
perceiver-accessible criterion 574–5, 579
perceptible properties 34–6, 39, 44–8, 405, 418, 735, 746
Aristotle’s theory of 44–5
perception, embodied 169, 171–2, 177, 179–80, 306–7, 2, 359, 524–7, 614
perception of space, see spatial perception; orientation
perception of time, see time
perceptual constancy 14, 20, 108, 136, 148, 179, 344, 622, 625, 630, 632–5, 637–8, 695–6, 700–1, 714, 748, 760, 845
cognition and 632–4
of colour 429, 433, 621, 625, 628–34, 695, 760
computational models of 630–2
in Husserl 139
illusions and 695
in Merleau-Ponty 143
models of, in information theory 747–8
of odour 344
vs. perceptual contrast 624–8
of position 442, 448, 454–6
as a relation between stimulus and sensation 112, 117
of size 106–8, 624, 634
of shape 634
of sound 621, 624
perceptual demonstrative thought 188, 196, 204, 809, 833–51
acquaintance theory of 842–3
audition and 276–8
attention and 837–9
belief formation and 844
comprehensiveness of link underlying 835
(p. 918) definition of 833
descriptivist theory of 840–2
directness of link underlying 834–5
non-veridical cases of 839
role of reliability in 847–51
sortals and 836–7, 840
perceptual learning 21, 111, 133, 343, 668–9, 803n55, 812–32
as driven by attention 819–21, 824
as driven by cognition 813–15, 826–7
associative 570–1, 748, 828
in audition 816
in colour vision 823–5
composition and chunking as an example of 821–3
differentiation of complexes as an example of 823–5
definition of 813
examples of 814–15
functional evidence for 815–7
intentional 826–8
neurological evidence for 815–16
and speech 475, 477, 481–3, 491
in taste 6
in vision 813, 816–20, 822–3, 826
perceptual organization 394, 817, 825
Perceptual System Criterion, see PSC
perceptual verbs 24, 237, 251–2
three kinds of 238–41
peripheral vision 161, 267, 297, 561, 837–8, 841–2, 851
phenomenal consciousness 355, 590–1, 732, 747, 750
phenomenal experience 40, 59, 193, 377, 379, 591, 857
non-representational 248–9
phenomenology 21–3, 136–49, 300, 378–80
disjunctivism and 210
as encompassing more than experience 376
phenomenal character of experience 208, 477–80, 484, 783, 790, 803
of attention 599, 601
of colour 428–30, 434, 498
decomposition 323, 328–9
explanation of approach in 136
of flavour and taste 317, 331, 337
of music 495–8, 509, 511–12
of pain 534
reflected in perceptual reports 245–51
representational 248–50
of smell 346–8
of speech perception 475–8
of time 460, 472–3
and unity of experience 139
phonemes 6, 9, 20, 480–3, 485–8, 576–7, 608, 614, 689, 773, 821, 826
definition of 6, 480
photoreceptors 258, 261–3, 863, 866
pictures 134, 871–8, 880–4
absences and 552–4
formal syntactic 708–10
Goodman’s theory of 874
as objects of experience 873–80
representationality of 873, 877
pit organs 863–4
pitch 11–12, 20, 105–6, 274–5, 287–8, 479, 482, 484, 488, 496–7, 502–3, 507–9, 512, 679–80, 682, 686–90
definition of 502
numerical vs. topological models of 506–12
relation to ear structures 503–6
spaces 686–7
plasticity of perception 606–7
Plato 11–12, 29, 37–48, 50, 81
as a causal theorist 38–40
on the content of perception 40–2
on meta-perception 42
presentism 460–4
definition of 461
and time lag 460–4
Presocratics 30–7, 47
pressure 11, 14, 17, 162, 158, 294–306, 308–9, 317, 330, 336, 399, 429, 577–8, 604, 612, 614
direct perception of 297–9
location of 303–4
perception of 17, 298–9, 353
primary colours 33, 35, 110
Democritus on 33, 35
(p. 919) primary qualities 69, 82–4, 94, 405–11, 415, 425–7, 435, 544
as resembling their objects 94
compared with common sensibles 82
defined in terms of perceiver-independence 409
examples of 405
Locke’s definition of 83, 407–9
compared with mechanical properties 407
prior probabilities 401, 631, 697–700, 702–3, 706
priority 55, 300, 557, 722–3, 872–5
time-lag 460, 463–4
vampire bat 865–6
proper sensibles 11, 17, 52, 60–1, 82, 402, 418, 490, 575, 605
definition 52
properties 245–9, 405–19; see also objects; flavour; size; colour; odour; position; primary qualities
disjunctive 415, 417
explanation of perceptibility of 58, 60–2, 82, 84
hallucinations and 207–9
mechanical vs. non-mechanical 406–7
in medieval philosophy 51–5
as part of sense-data 120–2
perceptible 39, 318, 341, 488, 594
relation of, to objects in perception 36, 88, 140, 160–3
sortal 841
propositional attitudes 159, 204, 228, 594, 664–5, 766
propositional content, see content of perception
proprioception 19, 82, 169, 176, 296–7, 309, 353–6, 361–8, 445, 517, 520, 523, 532, 607, 642
relation to touch 296–7
sources of 364
prototypical sense modalities 354, 358, 362, 364, 367
PSC (Perceptual System Criterion) 581–2
psychophysics 106, 109, 266, 331, 333, 358, 415, 431, 433, 436–7, 628, 682
Fechner’s three methods of 107
Pure word deafness, see PWD
PWD (pure word deafness) 483, 489, 493
qualia 36, 48, 383–4, 386, 412–16, 418
qualities, see properties
rationality 783, 804, 857
in animals 10, 569–70
reason, see cognition
Receptoral Image Model, see RIM
reception 863, 866
vs. detection 863
receptors 3–4, 15–16, 18, 32, 295, 315, 329, 331, 333, 355–6, 428–31, 577–8, 631–2, 864, 866
kinds of, within the body 355–6
recurrent processing, see RP
reference 23–4, 169, 172–8, 189–90, 277, 594–5, 836–7, 840–1, 850
in Brentano 137, 140
of colour terms 411, 416
egocentric frame of 441, 446–57, 521, 525
frame of 304, 308–9, 362–3, 366, 603
inscrutablity of 833n2
reflectance properties 409, 415, 496
Reid, T. 74, 83, 87, 89–91, 94–5, 102–3, 111, 424, 605
arguments of, against Descartes 86
relationalism 154–5, 158, 703–4
Bayesian arguments against 703–4
contrasted with representationalism and enactivism 154–5
definition of 154
relativism about perception 69–70, 77
reliabilism 76–7, 207, 799–802, 806, 810
arguments against 800–2
definition of 799
reliability of perception 11–13, 52, 60, 62, 71, 76–7, 82, 271, 300, 782, 792, 799, 801, 804, 807, 848, 851
in early modern philosophy 94–7
(p. 920) in medieval philosophy 60–4
in Plato 38
role of, in demonstrative thought 847–51
representationalism 153–6, 158–9, 217, 706–12
about audition 287–91
arguments in favour of 155–9, 245–51
contrasted with relationalism and enactivism 154–5
definition of 153
Descartes on 153–6
about interoception 357–8
about pain 534
and synaesthesia 649–51
representations 23, 102, 171, 703, 705, 743–6, 749–51, 872–4
Bayesian model of 702, 704
compared with art 872–4
perceptual and non-perceptual 159–60
iconic 220
in Plato 42–3
in Spinoza 87
unconscious 381–4
and veridical experience 208, 213
representative realism
definition of 112
resemblance 306, 558, 562, 744n19, 828, 874,
between ideas and objects 87, 90, 94, 120–1, 408–10, 426
between ideas of primary qualities and those qualities 408
response bias 718–20, 724
retina 2, 7, 260–4, 429–33, 437–9, 621, 694–5, 698, 702, 706, 709
Kepler’s model of 85–6
nineteenth century empirical evidence about 103–5
physiology of 191–2
retinal image 2–3, 6–7, 20, 85–6, 89, 101–2, 104–5, 111, 258, 261, 263, 429, 432–3, 436, 438
retronasal olfaction 18, 323–30, 335, 337, 341, 578–9
rhythm 5–6, 495–8, 512
and pattern 512–3
definition of 498
RIM (Receptoral Image Model) 2–5, 9, 12
RP (recurrent processing) 192
rubber hand illusion 8, 172–3, 179, 305–7, 487, 515–18, 522, 527, 529, 608, 614
definition of 516
Russell, B. 74–5, 111–12, 120–1, 442–4, 532, 613–4, 638
on the content of propositions 154, 156, 160, 162, 183, 702, 711
on the orientation of spatial perception 444
secondary qualities 14, 69–70, 82–4, 94–6, 101, 109, 355, 405–21, 426–7, 435, 544, 746
arguments for colour being one of the 411–16
compared with proper sensibles 82–3
early account of, in Sextus Empiricus 69
examples of 405
extended to apply to non-visual modalities 417–19
Locke’s definition of 83, 407, 410
selection 222, 589–93, 597–8
sexual 315, 345, 496
self-consciousness 367, 515–16 515, 518, 523, 528
self-knowledge 42, 808
self-location 171–2, 515, 519, 522–3, 525–7
self-ownership 172–4
sense-data 22, 119–24, 127–9, 132, 134–5, 137, 201–2, 239, 393, 532–4, 538, 596, 833
compared with the notion of an idea 119
compared with the notion of an appearance 130
and pain 532–4
problems with theory of 129–34
as relative to the observer 120–4
three views of 119
sense organs 44n46; see also ear; eyes; nose
sense organ account 659, 664
sensible species 56–9, 84, 424–5, 429
definition of 57
sensorimotor integration 516, 524–5
(p. 921) in Merleau-Ponty 147
sensory processing 84, 96, 577–8, 662, 664, 770, 816, 821
sensory substitution 21, 577, 660, 662–3, 665–6, 668–70, 672
as allowing detection but not reception 664–5
brain responses in 666–8
and echolocation 666
as replacing the substituted sense 668–72
sensory substitution devices, see SSDs
Sextus Empiricus 14, 69–70
shadows 393, 397, 402, 429, 434, 436, 542, 548, 559, 561, 631
shape 606, 613
signal detection theory, 717–32
consciousness explained within 726–32
distinction between noise and signal in 720
early developments in 717–19
outline of calculations in 720–5
as non-binary 720, 724–5
similarity
as a property detected by the senses 41
relations 20, 174, 491, 679–80
surface–scene 878–80
similarity spaces 444, 679–93
colour, see colour space
defined qualitatively 683–4
defined on the basis of physical characteristics 682–3
defined on the basis of averaged judgments 684–5
hierarchical definition of 680
pitch 686–7
warpings of 687–91
skepticism 4–5, 13–14, 21–2, 64–5, 78–9, 94, 99, 121, 199, 205, 379–80, 414, 786–8, 802, 809
Descartes’s response to 71–3
in Academic thought 67–8
dogmatic response to 76
externalist response to 76–7
Moore’s response to 75
relationship to perceptual relativity 69–70
in Stoicism 66, 68
smell 319–49; see also olfaction
distinguished from olfaction 316
social perception 218, 229–33, 513
and mirroring 230–2
sortals 837, 841–2, 850
sounds 4, 14–17, 19–20, 82–6, 237–40, 274–93, 335–8, 405–7, 460–2, 477–89, 491–7, 499, 501–3, 505, 512, 576–8, 680
as events 281–4, 287–8
instrumental 499–500
non-linguistic 476–7, 479–80, 484, 489–90
non-speech 477–9, 490
non-veridical 290–1
relation to vibrations 279–81
as temporally extended 275
space 103–4, 142–4, 305, 307–10, 441, 443–7, 449–53, 466–7, 519, 521–3, 525, 546, 553, 687–8; see also perception of space
empty 308, 401, 543, 553
extra-personal 517, 519
oriented 442–3, 447, 450
peripersonal 221, 308, 617
structure of 102–4, 260–1, 265, 844
spatial experiences 142, 169, 466, 643
spatial perception 88, 90, 99–101, 104–7, 361, 441–3, 446, 456, 673
cross-modal 444
as egocentric 453–5
inverted 444
phenomenology of 443, 449, 451
as tied to a frame of reference 441–3
of three-dimensional objects 88
Special Properties Criterion 575–8
species theory of perception
Descartes’s arguments against 84
Hobbes’s arguments against 85
speech 6, 16–7, 286, 320, 479–83; see also phonemes; speech perception
across different languages 477–8, 481–2
compared to other sounds 17, 485–7
motor theory of 230, 493
sinewave 477–9
speech perception 477–92, 820
contents of 478–84
as cross-modal 487
(p. 922) disorders of 483
in infants 482
mimicking and 24
modularity of 490–1, 763–4
motor theory of 230
objects of 484–9
phenomenology of 477, 479
processing of 489–91
spiritual change 56
SSDs (sensory substitution devices) 659–60, 664–5, 668, 672–3; see also vOICE; Brain-Port
capabilities of users of 661–2, 668–9, 672
state nonconceptualism 182–4
stability 624, 629–30
of behaviour dispositions 453
of visual experience 193, 227, 593
Stoics 10–13, 29, 34, 67–8, 72
streams, ventral 156, 221–5, 265, 267, 272, 382
subjective probabilities 696, 700, 709
subjective threshold approaches 728, 731
subjectivism 321–2, 338, 340–1, 411, 414–15, 549, 559
in the Presocratics 35–6
subpersonal level 455–6
substitution of the senses, see sensory substitution
sweetness 18, 59, 328, 331–5, 338, 578, 679
synaesthesia 21, 147, 604–5, 617–18, 640–58, 771, 775, 777–8, 830–1, 854, 862
of audition and vision 641, 650
definitions of 640, 643
distinguished into lower and higher kinds 642–3
as non-veridical 643–5
of number and location 642
as partly mind-dependent 648–9
processing of 651–2
and its relationship to its component experiences 645–7
of taste, space and touch 642
tactile-visual sensory substitution, see TVSS
taste 18, 316–18, 321–48, 578–80
as a crossmodal or multimodal experience 331–2, 578–9
as the product of inputs from the tongue, touch, and smell 317
as triggering tactile sensations 642
divided into basic tastes 18, 323, 330–1, 333–4
experienced in the tongue or oral cavity 323
influenced by prior taste experiences 333
location of 325, 332
people with extraordinarily sensitive 644
perceptual reports about 237–8, 240, 252–4
Plato on 40n37
psychological contributions to 334–6
role of 316
subjectivity of 321, 333
vs. gustation 316
taste receptors 4, 323, 330, 332, 336, 572
temperature 45, 295, 299, 316, 333, 335–7, 339, 341, 355, 357, 532, 578, 604, 864
temporoparietal junction, see TPJ
thalamus 263–5, 326, 328, 432, 535–7
Theophrastus 30, 33, 35–7, 48–50
thermoreceptors 355, 357, 578, 863–5
timbre 16, 20, 274–5, 479, 482, 484, 486, 488, 496–9, 501–2, 512–13, 648
definition of 499
time 304–5, 459–74
audition and 274–5, 280
causal theory of 467–71
contrasted with space in perception 466
demonstrative thought, across 836
as directional 461, 465, 467–9
illusion of 460, 469–73
objective passage of 460, 465–8, 472–3
as ordered 465, 467–9
phenomenology of 461, 468, 472–3
tongue 4, 18, 30, 36, 39–40, 316–17, 322–5, 328, 330, 332–4, 336, 572, 582, 661–2, 664–6, 675
and the basic tastes 330–1
as a detector of electrical current 665
total hallucinations 200–2, 209–14
as differing in content from partial hallucinations 202
(p. 923) as having no content 203
touch 294–309, 578–82, 604–5
active 145, 148, 578, 580–1, 604
Aristotle on 44n54
bipolarity of 300–2
compared with the interoceptive senses 353, 356, 365
distinguished from other senses by its relation to the body 294, 296–7
localization of 223n5, 302–3, 306, 308–9
moisture as an object of 45
as multisensory 579, 853
objects of 294–5
objectivity of 300–1
and olfaction 18
passive 325, 578, 581–2
perceiving absences through 542–3
Plato on 38, 39, 41
pressure theory of 297–301
spatiality of 304, 308
taste or flavour and 317, 330, 335–7, 578
template theory of 295–7
compared with vision 89, 90, 111, 308, 487, 517
tracking 171–2, 357, 364, 398–400, 582, 632, 671, 755
TPJ (temporoparietal junction) 519–23
training, see perceptual learning
transparency 130, 132, 269, 358, 593, 595, 600, 651
TVSS (tactile-visual sensory substitution) 582, 669, 671
types, formal syntactic 708–9
unconscious perception 19, 158, 371–87, 569, 726, 728–9, 733, 782, 789, 792
arguments against the existence of 378–80
as unavailable to executive processing 384–6
contrasted with conscious perception 383
evidence for 373–7
extent of, in vision 381–3
perceptual learning and 826
signal detection theory, and 719
varying grades of 374–7
unique hues 685, 692
unity of consciousness 41n42, 616, 775
value 22, 871–2, 874–5, 880–2
aesthetic 881–2
artistic 872, 881–2
hedonic 316, 338
veil of ideas 57, 91–3
relation to skepticism 91
veridical perception 22–4, 60, 124, 169–70, 172, 175, 187–8, 190, 198–213, 208, 210, 285, 291, 423, 425, 462, 599–600, 704, 707, 800
definition 199
vestibular sense 353–4, 361–3, 365, 525
definition of 361
phenomenology of 363
representationality of 361–2
vibrations 15, 17, 275, 279–85, 291–2, 295, 299, 335, 427, 487, 604, 661, 864–5
of objects 280–1
relation to sounds 279–81
vision 257–74; see also colour vision
and absences 543–4, 546–8
binocular 105, 263–4, 692
divided according to anatomical area and function 381
divided into dorsal and ventral streams 221–2, 265–6
divided into action-guiding and object recognition processes 367
as dominant over proprioception 517
as dominant over touch 517, 610
intromissionist theories of 260
as the model for the other senses 257
objects of 269, 88–9, 269, 398, 444–5, 582, 761, 849–50
physiology of 104–6, 112–13, 258–61; see also eyes
processing of, in the retina 262–4
processing of, in the brain 22, 191–4, 218, 221–5, 261–8, 379–82, 394–6, 433, 437, 663–8, 767, 771, 773, 838
sensorimotor account of 674
stereoscopic 105, 263–4
visual representations 17, 379, 381, 521, 762, 764, 778
(p. 924) unconscious 381–2, 659
visual cortex 7, 222, 318, 607, 662–3, 666–8, 674–5, 815, 829
vOICe 661, 669
vomeronasal sex detection, see VSD
VSD (vomeronasal sex detection), 573–4
arguments against its membership in the senses 573–4
warmth 11, 45, 47, 405–7, 418–19, 572, 863, 865
as a perceptible quality 45
warping 687–90
Wittgenstein 19, 119, 122, 129, 134, 443–5, 448–9, 453, 544, 760, 778
on the perception of orientation 444–6, 453
Young-Helmholtz theory of colour perception 429–31