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date: 21 April 2018

(p. 847) Index

(p. 847) Index

abbeys 222, 223, 225, 227, 397
Abidjan 626, 632, 633, 634, 637, 638, 639, 640
population 623
Abu Salabikh 37, 42
Abu-Lughod, Janet 270–1, 345
Abuja 633
Acapulco 374, 499
Accra 627, 628, 637, 639, 779
population 623, 630
Aceh 352
Achaemenid empire 99
Acre 279
Addis Ababa 623, 626, 630
Adelaide 766
population 582
Aden 265, 271, 755
adulteration of food 537–8
advertising 319, 594, 725, 726, 730, 731, 750, 787
Afghanistan 83
Africa 2, 11
ancient cities 29, 66–82, 624–6
Central Sahara 72–5
colonial cities 626–9, 756–7
colonial structure 629–32
connectivity between cities 69
contemporary cities 622–41
crisis and reconstitution 634–40
hierarchy and heterarchy 68
Mau Mau movement 632
Mediterranean coast 71–2
metropolitan cities 771
Middle Niger 75–7
migration 676–9
Nile Valley 69–70
post-independence 633–4
pre-modern cities 216
property rights 638–9
Red Sea region 70–1
urban populations 77, 394, 458, 623, 624, 626, 628–30, 632–7, 639–40, 646–7, 653, 655, 689, 749
urbanization 12, 16, 66–8, 668, 675, 677
West African forest 77–8
African Americans 515–16
agora 165, 174, 198, 260
Agra 422, 562
agriculture 10, 134–7, 297, 468, 484, 508, 523, 529–31, 563–5, 587, 598, 608, 612, 633, 648, 653, 655, 687, 810, 841
Indus Valley 93
productivity 647, 651, 659
South Asia 97
urban 636
ahdâth 263
Ahichchatra 97
Ahmedabad 571
air traffic 596–7
air-conditioning 589
Aix 222
Aizu-Wakamatsu 339
Akra 98, 99
Aksum 69, 70–1
alameda 377
alcohol 413, 493, 692, 744
aldermen 233–4
Aleppo 231, 259, 261, 262, 265, 266, 267, 270, 272, 276, 277, 284, 614
urban growth 606
Alexander the Great 54–5, 99, 152
Alexandria 7, 52, 56, 57, 61, 152, 231, 260, 265, 271, 614, 770
governance 607
(p. 848) Alexandria (cont.)
population 623
urban growth 606
Algiers 265, 272, 431, 470, 609, 758, 767
Allahabad 567, 758
alternative culture 357
Amalfi 423
Amarna 188
Amasya 276
Amazon region 375
American Quota Acts 666
Amorites 149
Amoy, see Xiamen
amphitheatres 138, 175
Colosseum, Rome 204, 222
Amritsar 767, 831
Amsterdam 10, 398, 404, 406, 414–15, 448, 470, 809
population 456
ancient cities
Africa 29, 66–82, 624–6
China 30, 105–24
Indus Valley 6, 83, 87–96, 422
Mediterranean 49–65
Mesopotamia 6, 31–48, 392
regional maps 26–30
Ancient Mediterranean, see Mediterranean, Ancient
Andes region 366
Angkor Wat 584
animals 93, 134, 137, 205–6, 208, 209, 243, 321, 711, 713
decorative motifs 112
sacrifice 91, 109, 184, 190
waste from 41, 712
Ankara 276, 279, 287, 606, 614, 618
Annales School 2
anonymity 447–8
Antep 277
anti-urbanism 5, 17, 199, 412
Antigonia 152
Antigua 371
Antioch 7, 52, 152, 183, 190, 259
Antwerp 222, 246, 404, 406, 414, 423, 446
as creative city 722–3
town hall 440
Anuradhapura 96
Anyi 111
Aohanqi 106
Aomori 543
Apartheid 667
apartment blocks 209, 222, 477, 528, 555, 589, 610, 690, 833
Aphrodisias 61
apprenticeship 339, 410
aqueducts 176, 277–8, 371, 840
arca communis 235
Archaic Age 150–2
architects 198, 371, 440, 475–6, 514, 534, 552, 554, 615–17, 713, 725, 727–8, 758, 760, 761, 796, 814, 823
architecture 10–17, 34, 70, 73–4, 75, 83, 87, 88, 89, 92, 97, 99, 106–7, 110, 113–18, 120–1, 171, 175, 176, 184, 195, 204, 275, 354, 439, 475–6, 494, 497, 609, 610, 713, 722, 723–4, 726, 727, 730, 748, 809, 813, 814, 815, 822, 839
colonial cities 757–63 see also specific building types
archives 32, 33, 170, 172, 175, 182, 235, 357, 365, 372
Ardulis 70, 71
arenas 189, 222, 299
Arezzo 228, 232
Argentina 377, 484, 491, 497, 510, 696, 796
population 487
services 494
Arles 222
armies 129, 135, 243, 263, 272, 299, 304,562, 651; see also military towns
Arras 225, 226, 423
arsenals 117, 118, 173, 261
art 235, 319, 448, 450, 722, 730, 841
China 112, 115
India 100
Japan 337
Mesopotamia 37, 44–5
art galleries 440, 475, 478, 511, 514, 725, 730
Arthashastra 97, 98, 99, 100
artists 249, 338, 339, 370–1, 377, 445, 450, 721, 725–8, 730, 731, 743; see also art
Arusha 627
Asian Crisis (1990s) 589
assembly, places of 59, 169, 174
assimilationist strategy, French colonial 759–60
Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) 582, 597
associations, voluntary 5, 320–2, 414, 430, 473, 505, 568, 679, 765
clubs and societies 318, 320, 321 see also philanthropic societies; philanthropy
Assur (Ash Shirqat) 137, 167
Asunción 490
asylum seekers 670
Athens 19, 51, 52, 54, 151, 465, 467, 470, 839
Acropolis 170, 186
as city-state 59–60
communal institutions 169
demes 56, 59–60
Panathenaia 186, 190
population 151
Propylaia 186
Atlanta 508, 517
Augsburg 231, 252
Australia
air traffic 596–7
contemporary cities 581–602
metropolitan cities 771
urban governance 592
urban hierarchy 593–4
urban populations 463, 582
urbanization 590 see also South-East Asia
automobiles, see cars and car use
autonomy, civic 431, 433
decline of 432
Avignon 447
ayan 282
Ayas 270
Aydhab 265
Aztec civilization 10, 365, 389, 483; see also specific cities
Babylon 34, 38, 41, 149–50
city walls 183
Marduk Temple 187
palaces 36
population 150
processions 185
Baghdad 9, 259, 263, 265, 275, 276, 387, 392, 395, 422–3, 439, 447, 614, 770
Jewish population 605
urban growth 606
Bahrain 614, 619 n.17
Baku 819
Ballarat 757
Baltimore 507
Bamako 631, 779
Banawali 84, 91
Bandung 582
bandwagon cities 733
Bangalore 19, 571, 720, 732–3
Bangkok 505, 581, 588, 592, 812, 841
dynamics 595
pollution 711
population 582
Bangladesh, urban populations 570
banishment 234
bankers 315, 409
banking and financial services 132, 340, 391, 509–10, 594, 657, 658, 722, 723, 730, 732
Bantam 352
Banten 352, 355
Barcelona 429, 466, 470, 720
urban reconstruction 474
Bareilly 563
barracks 298, 472
Barranquilla 497
basilica 174, 222
Basra 392, 606, 614
Batavia, see Jakarta
baths 88, 89, 92, 175, 201, 205, 206, 222, 277–8, 318
hammams 175, 266, 287
Bauchi 636
bazaars 278, 440, 441
Beauvais 232
beggars 235, 316, 450, 451, 608
Begram 99
(p. 850) Beijing 310, 311, 316, 318, 445, 448, 770
Five Pagoda Temple 440
Tiananmen Square 441, 531
Beirut 613, 614
governance 607
urban growth 606
Belgium 464, 466, 467, 470
urbanization 669
Belgrade 467
Belo Horizonte 490
Bendigo 757
Bengazi 470
Benin 623
Berenike 70
Bergamo 234
Bergen 226
Berlin 19, 247, 393, 396, 465, 466, 467, 470, 472, 477, 505
as creative city 723–5
film portrayal 739–40
migrants 473
Potsdamer Platz 479
revolts 473
slums 472
Beyrouth 272
beys 282, 287
Béziers 222
Bhilai 575
Bhir 85
Bhita 85, 98
Bhopal 758
Bhubaneswar 575
Bhuddism 88–9, 99, 115, 117, 119, 121, 297, 298, 304, 320–1, 329, 346, 440
Bhutan, urban populations 570
bicycles 531, 536, 587, 710, 738, 785
Biervliet 226
birds 205–6, 321, 329, 337
Birka 223
Birmingham 464, 475, 513, 831–2
bishops 227
power of 222, 232
Bloemfontein 640
Boeotian confederacy 57
Bogotá 485, 497, 499
population 490
Bolivia 499
employment 493
population 487
poverty 496, 685
services 494
Bollywood 19, 577, 748–9; see also cinema
Bologna 228, 423
Bombay, see Mumbai
books 262, 296, 299, 319, 378, 511
guidebooks 444, 452
booksellers 270, 319
boom-burbs 799
Bordeaux 470
borgo franco 228
Boston 11, 389, 505–6, 507, 701, 756
bouleuterion 174
boulevards 109, 116, 478, 610, 745, 758, 760, 753, 819
bourgeoisie 18, 130, 252–4, 354, 378, 432, 450, 478, 488, 512–15, 526, 550, 632, 794, 798, 802, 803
Brabant 246
Braudel, Fernand 2, 345
Brazil 368, 372, 376, 378, 483, 484–5,488, 499
employment 493
favelas 690
in fiction 379
population 487
Brazzaville 626, 635, 757
Bremen 227, 813
Brescia 234, 446
Breslau 465
bridges 115, 135, 201, 297, 332, 333, 336, 546
Brisbane 582
Britain 469, 477
philanthropic societies 473–4
Broach (Lata) 96, 98
brothels 201, 304, 512, 528
Bruges 222, 226, 232, 234, 423, 444
Brussels 467, 470, 473
population 456
Bucharest 465, 467, 470
Buda 275
Budapest 467, 473, 841 (p. 851)
migrants 666
slums 472
Buddhism 346
Buenos Aires 15, 485, 486, 488, 491, 496–8, 510, 684, 692, 703, 710, 731, 796
population 373, 490
Bugia 265
building developers 534, 538, 554, 617, 797, 798
building industry 589
building regulations 526, 558
built environment 13, 38, 176, 181, 186, 188, 230, 251, 339, 516, 589, 700, 705–7, 712, 713, 715, 783, 802, 810, 815, 825, 837, 839–40; see also housing
Bukhara 262
bureaucracy, urban 55, 175, 247, 297, 336, 350, 396
burghers 231–2
Burgos 228
Bursa 264, 276, 277, 283
buses 548–9
business areas 270, 725
Butembo 639
Byzantine empire 8, 9, 258, 263–4
Caffa 271
Cahokia 366
Cairo 9, 16, 19, 231, 259, 261, 265, 267, 271, 272, 276, 284, 395, 422, 423, 441, 447, 606, 614, 615, 676
design 758–9
Madinat al-Awqaf (Muhandisin) 610
population 623
urban growth 606
urban renewal 608
waste disposal 607
water supply 607, 702
Calais 226
Calcutta (Kolkata) 562, 563, 565, 566, 571, 573, 674, 754, 755, 759, 763, 809
East India Company 429, 811–12
Grand Trunk railway line 756
migration 675–6
water supply 702
calendar, Roman 185
Calgary 517
Cali 497
Callao 374
Cambrai 232
Canada, see specific cities; North America
canals 40–1, 507, 509, 813, 818
Canberra 592, 593, 835
Canton 810, 813
caoshi 295
Cape Town 11, 629, 639, 640, 755, 763, 841
population 623
social segregation 691
capital cities 11, 14, 43, 112, 120, 128, 149, 156–9, 164, 170, 172, 176, 204, 242, 247, 250, 259, 296, 298, 301–4, 310, 323, 365, 387, 388, 389, 391, 393, 395–6, 408, 423, 442, 467, 469, 488, 491, 547, 574, 575, 584, 588, 591–3, 606, 614, 633–4, 636, 709, 729, 757, 758, 761, 779, 792, 793, 796, 798, 800, 820, 829, 837; see also individual cities
Caracas 484, 486, 497, 694, 702, 703, 710
caravanserais 266
Carcassonne 222
Cardo Maximus 198
cars and car use 466, 467, 516–18, 587, 709–10
pollution 712
Cartagena 374, 376, 755
Carthage 71, 168
Casa de Misericordia 352–3, 357
Casablanca 607, 760, 761
population 623
Casanare 376
Casas Grandes 365–6
casbah (qal’a) 266, 758, 767
castle towns 11, 115, 280, 323, 327–8, 333, 339–40, 542, 548
castles 51, 116, 165, 177, 278–9, 286, 331–2, 334, 338, 355, 356, 358, 397
Edo (Tokyo) Castle 331–2, 334, 338, 339
Çatal Höyük 148
Catholicism 221, 228, 352, 426
and civic representation 442
patron saints 442
pilgrimage towns 442
welfare services 473–4
Cawnpore (Kanpur) 756
Cebu 582
(p. 852) cemeteries 43, 71, 72, 75, 94, 105–7, 110, 154–5, 173, 223, 279, 357, 713, 754
censorship 739, 741, 836
census, population 157, 169, 336, 372, 373
Central Place theory 4, 75
Central Sahara 72–5
ceramics industry 10, 41, 43, 129, 136, 296
ceremony and ritual 8, 36, 61, 70, 76, 88, 89, 91, 92, 105, 107–10, 113, 115–7, 120, 128, 131, 149, 167, 173, 177, 181–96, 203, 266, 269, 284, 292, 294, 298–9, 318, 319, 329, 341, 349, 358, 365, 376, 427, 430, 439, 442–4, 451–2, 631
Ceuta 265, 268
chain migration 147, 413, 670
chambers of commerce 323, 433, 524, 526
Chan Chan 364, 483
Chandigarh 575
Chandruketugarh 98
Chang’an 7, 110, 112–14, 118–19, 157–8, 160, 203, 296, 301–4, 422, 425, 770
planning 203–4
Vermillion Bird Road 302
charity see philanthropy
Charleston 11, 505, 506
Charsadda 98, 99
charters, civic 232, 234, 236, 330, 331, 363, 367, 370, 421
Chartres 251
Chatanooga 505
Chavin de Huantar 364
Chefoo (Yantai) 813
cheng 105
Chengdu 115, 157, 296, 300, 525, 527
Chengzhou 156
Chengziya 107
Chennai 571, 572
Chicago 505, 507, 514, 515, 803
Chicago School 2
Chichén Itzá 365, 829
Childe, Gordon 49, 86, 131, 139, 166
children 152, 154, 205, 280, 300, 316, 336, 424, 472, 473, 487, 492, 510, 512, 536, 538, 636, 671–2, 678. 691, 744, 757, 759, 803
Chile 499
employment 493
population 487
poverty 496
services 494
Chillán 497
China 6, 10, 390–1
Age of Disunion 8, 115–19
ancient cities 30, 105–24
association-building 320–2
Bronze Age cities 109–10, 156
chengguo zhi ren 293
cinema 740–1
commercialization 294–7
Communist Party 652–3
contemporary cities 522–41
Cultural Revolution 530–1, 653
early cities 105–24
elites 649–50
Great Divergence 3, 13, 14, 645–50
great houses (dafangzi) 107
Great Leap Forward 530
guilds 300, 312, 318, 321–3, 410, 413, 415, 430, 433
Hall of the Ancestors 202–3
Household Responsibility System 655
huiguan 673
hukou system 523, 530, 533, 534, 538, 653, 667, 674
imperial cities 112–15, 117, 176, 294, 303, 315, 404
Maoist era (1949–1978) 528–31, 652–4
market socialism 654–6
marketization 294–7
Ming Dynasty 309–11
Mongol empire 9, 264–5, 309–11
‘New Policies’, Qing 523–4
overpopulation 787
pollution 711
port cities 813–14
post-war reconstruction 17
pre-modern cities 292–326
600–1300 292–308
1300–1900 309–26
public sphere 322–3
religious uprisings 650–1
rural-urban gap 314–15
second commercial revolution 311–13
Special Economic Zones 17, 531–2
(p. 853)
Tang-Song transition 294–7
Township and Village Enterprises (TVEs) 655, 656
urban capitalism 651–4
limits on 656–7
urban citizenship 672–4
urban culture 318–19, 528–9, 539
urban planning 199–201, 203, 538
urban populations 112, 114, 117–18, 120, 293, 294–5, 298, 301, 304, 310–17, 391, 403–20, 422, 523–5, 529, 531, 535, 538
urban resurgence 10–11
urban society 297–301, 315–17
urban spaces 301–5
urbanization 7, 12, 14–15, 16, 18, 155–8, 296, 405, 523–8, 531–5, 668, 675
walled cities 105–6, 108, 119
Warring States period 111, 424–5
western impact 314–15
work units 528
Zhou cities 110–12
Chinatowns 318, 817, 823
Chio 271
cholera 471, 605, 701
Cholon 591
Cholula 374, 483
Chongqing 315, 321, 323, 527, 782
Christaller, Walter 52
Central Place theory 4
Christianity and Christians 56, 189, 262, 269, 279, 434, 513
chronicles, 446
Church
bishops 222, 227, 232
Byzantine 263–4
Catholic, see Catholicism
churches 223, 263, 279, 440, 760
Cincinnati 504, 507
cinema 19, 577, 610, 737–52
Bollywood 19, 577, 748–9
Hollywood 741–3
Nollywood 19, 749
social problems in city space 743–6
vernacular modernism 739–41
Citará 376
cities and towns
administration 56, 281–6, 298
ancient, see ancient cities
as artefacts 439–43
atypical 170–1
central power 170, 171, 397, 431, 607
contemporary, see contemporary cities
and countryside, see countryside, relations to cities
cyclical history 829–31
decline and death 141–3, 835
definition of 3–4, 128
depopulation 9, 229–30, 271
early modern, see early modern cities
economic structure 7–8, 44, 147, 173, 428–30, 466, 678
film portrayal, see cinema
ground plans, see town plans
growth of 2, 4, 6–7, 9, 10, 11 et passim
ideal 443–9
linear history 831–2
market-oriented 386–8
medieval, see medieval cities
migration, see migration
origins of 6, 50–2; see also pre-modern cities
planning, see planning
post-industrial 58–20
pre-modern, see pre-modern cities/towns
religion, see religion; religious
revolutionary history 832–4
social stratification 133–4
social structure 253, 449–51
spaces, see urban spaces
citizenship 8, 128, 152, 155, 164–80, 234, 254, 336, 413, 414, 421, 530, 569, 613, 664–7, 679, 672–4, 676, 678, 679
barriers to 666
city excavations, Mesopotamia 32–3
city quarters, see mahalles
‘city of the riders’ 265
city-regions 2, 4, 13, 20, 313, 465, 470, 509, 586, 593, 595, 597, 657, 709, 772, 773, 776, 778, 780, 782, 788, 800, 801, 832
(p. 854) city-states 51, 59–60, 74, 95, 107, 110, 128, 138, 141, 150
and landowners 5, 33, 92, 127, 131, 223, 225, 245, 247, 248, 336, 408
Mesopotamia 31, 32, 34–5, 43–4, 129, 132, 136, 148
polis 55, 59–60, 150
and power 68 see also individual city-states
civic unrest 279, 473, 530–1, 650–1, 693–5
food riots 317
riots and risings 189, 317, 450, 512, 515, 568, 650, 693, 694, 746
social conflict 471–3
violence 317, 692–3
civil wars 10, 115, 330, 372, 390, 528, 563
class conflict 832–3
clergy 449
bishops 222, 227, 232
Cleveland 513, 706
climate change 598
coal industry 466
Cobá 364–5
Coen, Jan Pieterszoon 354, 358
coffee-houses 318, 432
Cold War 470
Cologne 222, 397, 428
Colombia 10, 366, 483, 486, 488, 491, 499
crime 692, 693
employment 493
population 487
poverty 496, 685, 687
services 494
Colombo 563
Colonia Claudia Victrix (Colchester) 60
colonial cities 20, 449, 753–69
decolonization 166–7, 767–8
design of 757–63
governance 763–5
Latin America 366–71
North America 756
ports 20, 755; see also port cities
pre-modern 754–5
spread of 755–7
colonialism 689
colonization 71, 147, 150–1, 225, 358, 405
urban 20
commerce, see trade and traders
commercialization 138, 294–7, 316
communes 232, 233–4, 426–7
communications 285, 318, 375, 484, 593, 687, 707, 709, 721, 729, 777, 827; see also networks and networking; transport
Communism 652–3, 833
commuting 555
company towns 819
Conakry 623
concert halls 242, 440, 478, 728, 731
coniurationes 426
conquistadores 11, 367, 370, 376, 389
Constantinople, see Istanbul
consumerism 251, 252–3
consumption 10, 127, 142, 236, 240, 247, 250, 254, 275, 284, 286, 305, 312, 329, 333, 340, 359, 387, 449
containerization 820–2
contemporary cities
Africa 622–41
Australasia 581–602
China 522–41
creativity 723–8
Europe 464–82
India 561–80
Japan 542–60
Latin America 483–503
Middle East 603–21
North America 504–21
South-East Asia 581–602 see also metropolitan cities
conurbations 327, 543, 545, 556, 749, 829, 842; see also city-regions; urban regions
convent-fortresses 261
Cordes 227
Cordoba 222, 260, 263, 392, 395, 404, 422, 423
Corinth 54
Costa Rica
poverty 496
suburbs 709
costumbrismo 377
cotton goods 312, 314, 466
(p. 855) Counter-Reformation 222
countryside
relations to cities 6, 7–8, 12, 15, 17, 18
early cities 52–3, 56, 59, 114, 127–9, 134–7, 167, 177, 183, 205, 206, 225
pre-modern cities 230, 235, 243–6, 249–50, 262–4, 267, 272, 278, 292–3, 313, 318, 323, 330, 356, 372, 374, 386, 387, 397, 404, 407, 409, 410, 428
courts, legal 262, 282
crafts 139–40, 264
craftsmen, see artisans
creative cities 19, 720–36; see also individual cities
creative industries 729–33
creativity 19, 721
credit 132, 197, 254, 320, 340, 422
Cremona 234
creoles 375–6
crime 316, 317, 472, 692–3, 840
Cuicuilco 136
cults 189
culture 7, 8, 11, 13–15, 18, 32, 33, 35, 36, 39, 41, 51, 61, 70, 72–3, 77, 87, 91, 95, 97, 98, 106, 107, 128, 131, 142, 156, 171, 181, 185, 241, 245, 247, 249, 250, 251–3, 256, 261, 267, 269, 300, 309, 318–19, 331, 341, 366, 375–6, 389, 427, 477–9, 497, 505, 513–15, 518, 528–31, 551, 567–9, 576–7, 590, 610–11, 692, 726–8, 731–2
engineering 648
intellectual development 228
production 337–9
representations of 438–54 see also books; cinema; music; theatre
Cumarkaj 365
Curitiba 499
Cuzco 128, 389, 483, 831
Cyrene 71, 151
Czechoslovakia 466
Dadu 300, 305, 439
dafangzi 107
Dakar 626, 628, 632, 634, 637, 755, 763
population 623, 630
Dakhlet el Atrous 75–6
Dalian 526
Dallas 508
Damascus 190, 259, 260, 261, 262, 265, 267, 268, 269, 272, 276, 284, 387, 392, 395, 422, 447, 614
Great Mosque 440
urban growth 606
urban renewal 609
Damme 226
dance and dancing 299, 726, 731
Dar es Salaam 634, 637, 639, 816
population 623, 630
Darius III 54
Datong 839
Davao 582
decentralization 9
of industry 130
of population 14, 142, 467, 477, 491, 781, 783, 793, 799
of power 265, 499–500, 562, 576, 591
decolonization 166–7, 767–8
Decumanus Maximus 198
deep water ports 822–3
deindustrialization 470, 774
deities 35, 39, 44, 182–3, 185, 188, 190, 318, 321, 365
Delft 248, 251, 444
Delhi 387, 562, 571, 573, 755, 760–1, 767
layout 762
social segregation 689
Delos 59
demes 56, 59–60
Dendugu 68
Denmark 466, 469
Denver 515
department stores 340
depopulation 9, 229–30, 271
deportation 406–7
Detroit 513, 772, 775–6
deurbanization 4, 31, 39, 40, 562, 794
Dhaka 571, 573, 575
dhimmî 262
(p. 856) Dholavira 83, 84, 90–1, 93, 94
Dia 59, 75, 76
diamonds 757
diasporas 5, 154, 262, 309, 315, 321, 408, 409, 415, 642
Diqdiqqah 44
dirt 38, 205, 206, 208, 209, 366, 367, 447, 448, 448, 684, 794
discrimination 177, 496, 516, 666, 690, 691–2
disease 154, 279, 471, 754–5, 758
port cities 817 see also epidemics; plague
Diyarbakir 276
docks 360, 758, 763, 811, 815, 817
Dodoma 633
Domburg 223
Dongping 300
Dordrecht 428
Dorestat 223
Dortmund 330
Douai 222, 423
Douala 623
Doxiadis, Constantinos 615–16
dress 335, 371
drinking houses, seetaverns
drinking water, seewater supply
drug trade 693
Duala 628, 632
Dubai 613–14, 617, 835
Dublin 467, 840
Dunkirk 226
Dura-Europos 189
Durban (Ethekwini) 629, 632, 639
population 623
Düsseldorf 468, 727
Dutch East India Company 359, 429, 590–1
early modern cities, seepre-modern cities
earthquakes 279, 549–50, 552, 708
East Africa 11
urbanization 394, 677
East India Company 429, 811–12
East London (South Africa) 640
Ebla 36
ecology, urban 422–4, 707–10
economy 18, 127–46, 385–402, 526
centralized system 386–7
decentralized system 387
hydraulic hypothesis 129–30
instability 10, 688
regulation 429, 532
rural 18, 244, 245, 247, 654–5
structure 7–8, 44, 147, 173, 428–30, 466, 678
theories of 129–32
Ecuador 367, 491
population 487
poverty 685
edge cities 516, 519, 588, 792, 793, 799
edgeless cities 792, 799
Edinburgh 439, 794, 811
Edirne 275, 276, 277
Edo, seeTokyo
education 61, 175, 526; see also schools
Egypt 9, 10, 37, 69, 137, 267, 612
city layouts 187–8
ecology 422
population 605
temple-cities 165
Ekurhuleni (East Rand) 623
El Mirador 364
El Salvador 496
el-’Amarna 70
el-Lahun/Kahun 70
elderly 300, 538
elders 166, 169, 173, 174, 284, 330, 336
Eldoret 627
elections, municipal 234, 375, 421, 433, 614
electricity 546, 550, 607, 707
Elisabethville 629
elites 267, 298, 316, 322, 375, 397, 429, 498, 614–15, 649–50
city orientation towards 387
government by 431–2
trading 813
emigration 404; see also migration
employment 3, 40, 129, 249, 285, 412, 468, 469, 489, 492–4, 501, 508, 514, 518, 524, 531, 564, 573, 629, 630, 653, 669, 675, 691, 694, 730, 733, 763–4, 799, 802, 803 (p. 857)
informal 492–4
emporia 223
medieval 223, 225–7, 229, 230, 233, 399
urbanization 386, 397–9, 470, 669 see also London
entertainment, seeleisure and entertainment
entrepreneurs 320, 648–9, 654–5
Enugu 626
environment 1, 93, 371, 700–19
environmental policies 197–212
environmental problems 2, 4, 7, 19, 40, 658; see also pollution
eparch 264
Ephesus 185–6, 264
epicentres 32
epidemics 9, 11, 12, 175, 271, 321, 359, 404, 485, 566, 696, 700, 702, 714, 834
cholera 471, 605, 701
plague 9, 229–30, 279, 564
Erfurt 227
ergastèrion 264
Eridu 36, 136
Erligang 109
Erlitou 109, 156
eşraf 282, 284
Essen 466, 470
Estella 228
Ethiopia 69, 71
ethnic minorities 411, 413, 417, 605, 638, 666, 667, 670, 774, 798, 801
ethnic segregation 413, 515–16, 518, 667, 690
ethnicity 18–19, 512, 632, 664, 666, 679
significance of 670 see also migration; population
Etruscans 53–4, 152
Euesperides 71
Europe 392–6
contemporary cities 464–82
culture 477–9
early modern cities 240–57
Great Divergence 3, 13, 14, 645–50
hierarchy 449–51, 469–71
integration 414–15
medieval cities 221–39
civic memory 235–6
crisis and decline 229–31
growth and development 223–9
urban legacy 231–5
urban origins 221–2
metropolitan ‘bananas’ 778, 780
metropolitan cities 771, 776
migration 404, 408–9
power structures 425–7
pre-modern cities 216, 240–57
social conflict 471–3
social fabric 253–5
urban culture 251–3
urban economy 244–51
urban growth 464–9
urban landscape 241–4
urban populations 392–3, 398–9, 403–20, 425, 426, 428, 464
urbanization 12, 16, 245, 394, 405–6, 668, 669, 675
waste disposal 703–4
Western, see Western Europe see also individual countries; Rome/Roman Empire
European Cities of Culture 731–2
European Economic Community 477
executions 441
Exeter 446
exhibitions, international 727–8
extended suburbs 796–7
factorias 811
factories 17, 270, 297, 314, 355, 375, 377, 527
Fadugu 68
fairs 318
Famagousta 271
family and family life 115, 116, 118, 136, 172, 182, 252, 263, 269, 277, 285, 297, 299, 316, 320, 327, 329, 332, 336, 357, 358, 371, 375, 404, 410, 414, 488, 510, 518, 526, 529, 537, 538, 546, 558, 610, 628, 631, 649, 671, 678–9, 683, 689, 695, 722, 747, 803, 813, 838 (p. 858) family and family life (cont.)
extended 106, 332, 526
nuclear 526
family planning 537–8
famine 229, 230, 277, 316
fangguo 293
Fatehpur Sikri 835
feng-shui 201
ferman 279
fertility rates 12, 404, 487
festivals 184, 443–4
Fez 395, 422, 609, 761
fires 251, 333, 708
firms, international, see multinational corporations
First World War, see World War I
fityân 263
floods 552, 598, 708
flora and fauna 713
Florence 228, 230, 251, 397, 406, 423, 428, 442, 443
as creative city 722–3
Laudatio Florentinae Urbis 443–4
social structure 449
fogaras 72, 75
fondaci 227
food
adulteration of 319
production 52, 97, 128, 131, 134, 137, 408, 688
supplies 174, 249, 250, 285, 286, 303, 428, 506, 655
trade 506
foodstuffs 61, 262, 264, 280, 299, 312, 313, 356, 368
forced migration 406–7
foreign investment 15, 17, 18, 489, 498, 520, 531–5, 588, 589, 656
fortifications 116, 173–4, 305
forts 279
forum 174, 201–2
Foshan 315, 322
foundation myths 184
fountains 278, 279, 285
France 53, 155, 395–6, 398, 433, 451, 465–6, 468, 469, 472, 474, 476, 477
early modern cities 246, 250
medieval cities 222, 225–7, 232
ville neuves 227
franchises 312, 567, 764
Frankfurt 254, 470, 505
freemasonry 611
Freetown 638
Freiburg 476
Fremantle 733
frontier cities 59, 86
Fukuoka 544
funduqs 262, 270
Fustât, seeCairo
Fuzhou 813
Gaborone 633
Galveston-Houston 508
Gandhinagar 575
Ganges plain 97–8
gangs 320
Ganweriwala 83, 91, 93
Garamantes 72–4
Garden City movement 524, 609
garden suburbs 20, 795–6
garrison cities, seemilitary towns
gas supply 546, 549, 607, 707
gated communities 691, 797
Gateshead 733
gateway cities 13, 20, 54, 508, 594–5
Gaul, seeFrance
Gelibolu (Gallipoli) 279
Genoa 228, 230, 251, 271, 423, 429
genocide 605–6, 666, 692, 694
George Town 582
Germany 5, 467–70, 472, 473, 511, 604, 679, 704, 724, 743, 813
early modern cities 241
industrialization 652, 776
medieval cities 225–7, 230, 451
urban growth 231, 465
Ghadames (Cidamus) 75
Ghana 76
poverty 685
Ghent 222, 226, 232, 234, 240, 397, 398, 423, 428
ghettos 413, 515–16, 518, 667, 690
Girón 376
Girsu 33
global cities 19, 66, 688, 777–80 see also individual cities
global creative cities 730–1
globalization 166, 497–8, 618, 640, 687, 788
metropolitan cities 777–80
Goa 754, 756
Gola-Dhoro 91, 94
gold 757, 766
Gombe 639
governance, urban 19, 277, 334, 421–35, 499–500, 590–2, 695–6
colonial cities 763–5
India 565–7
Latin America 375–6, 499–500
metropolitan cities 780–3
misgovernment 499–500
power structures 424–7
South-East Asia 590–2
government, central 169, 279, 294, 310, 432
Granada 423
granaries 173
Gravelines 226
graveyards, seecemeteries
Great Depression (1929–31) 475, 514, 522, 742, 820
Great Divergence 3, 13, 14, 645–8
explanation for 648–50
Second 15–16, 652
Greece 466, 467
dêmoi 151
poleis 150
polis 55, 59–60, 150
synoikismos 150
urbanization 150–2
Greeks 7, 49, 50, 53, 71
colonization 150–1
literacy 53
green spaces, seeenvironment; parks and gardens
grid-plans 199–201
groma 199–200
gross domestic product (GDP) 532, 587, 598, 646, 656, 658, 686, 688, 727, 729
Guadalajara 490
Guangdong 315, 409, 533
Guangzhou 10, 315, 318, 351, 536
dynamics 595
Guatemala 365, 367, 368
population 487
services 494
gudai 106
guidebooks 444, 452
guilds and confraternities 176
Latin America 376
Middle East 262, 264, 605, 607
Ottoman Empire 281, 282, 284, 285, 287, 430
Guilin 527
Guoneicheng 116–17
Guzang 116
gymnasiums 175
Haarlem 248, 444
Haiphong 591
Haithabu 223
Hajime, Seki 550–1
Hakata 329
Halberstadt 227
Hall of the Ancestors 202–3
Hama 284
Hamburg 227, 367, 406, 470, 478, 505, 810, 811, 813
shipping connections 819
hammams 175, 266, 287
Hamwic 223
Handan 114–15
Hangchow, seeHangzhou
hangtu 107
Hangzhou (Hangchow) 9, 296, 299, 300–1, 318, 321, 391, 534, 770
guilds 301
population growth 305, 422
Hankou 312, 315, 321, 322, 813
Hanoi 591, 756
population 582
hans 285
Hanseatic League 57, 227, 429, 431
Haradum 34, 38
(p. 860) Harappa 83, 84, 89–90, 93, 158, 835, 840
Granary/Great Hall 90
Harare (Salisbury) 626, 628, 757, 767
population 623
Harbin 320, 526
Hartford region, USA 781, 782
harvests 129, 134, 135, 137, 300
Hastinapura (Kuru) 96, 97
Hatra 188
Haussmanization 474, 608, 609, 695, 759–60
Havana 10, 374, 485, 703, 754, 755
population 373
health 18, 132, 142, 208, 301, 359, 367, 371, 474, 700–3
public health 301, 474, 591, 605, 701, 714, 723, 758, 784, 832
Hefei 115
Heidelberg 241, 243
Heliopolis 831
Hellenistic kingdoms 54–5
Helsinki 475
cinema 738–9
as creative city 727–8
sports grounds 478
Herakleion 829
Herat 272
Herculaneum 164
heterarchy 31, 68, 77, 93
hierarchy, seeurban hierarchy
high technology industries 727
high-rise buildings 589
hill stations 564–5, 757
Hinduism 346
hinterland, urban 6
early cities 32, 41, 43–4, 61, 68, 71, 75, 83, 95, 136, 138
modern and contemporary cities 484, 504, 507, 510, 523, 524, 562, 588, 598, 653, 700, 707–10, 715, 750, 755–6, 772, 774, 778, 787, 809–10, 813, 816, 818, 821, 823
pre-modern cities 229, 247, 249–51, 261, 276, 282, 293, 296, 301, 313, 347–9, 351, 353, 356, 372, 374, 375, 388, 390, 497, 407–12, 415, 416, 424, 426, 428
Hippodamus of Miletus 60
hippodrome 175, 266
Hiranogo 329
Hiroshima 327, 339
population 544
Holland, seeNetherlands
Hollywood 741–3; see also cinema
Holy Roman Empire 225, 227
homelessness 493
homosexuals 235
Honduras 499
poverty 496
Hong Kong 470, 522, 526, 533, 585, 656, 708, 756, 809, 810
dynamics 595
Hongshan culture 107
Honolulu 755
hospices 266
hospitals 371, 440, 474
access to 414
Houma 111
households 37, 42, 140, 142, 156, 157 et passim
housing 37, 38, 70, 77, 153, 199, 202, 227, 251, 316–17, 335, 366, 466, 469, 471, 472, 474–6, 493–4, 497, 500, 513, 515, 516, 518, 526, 533, 534, 536, 551, 553, 555, 576, 588, 610, 632, 634, 638, 639, 658, 675, 683–4, 690–1, 694–5, 721
bungalows 759
development of 252
shortages of 12, 17, 477, 795
single-family 528, 786, 796
types of 316–17
housing estates 555, 589, 691
housing market 513, 516
Houston 818–19
Huddersfield 733
Huguenots 406
Huizhou 315, 673
Hull 733
Hunan 315
Hungary 467, 468
Huns 222
Huzhou 300
Hyderabad 562, 571, 758
hygiene 262, 301, 636, 638, 794; see also dirt; disease
Hyogo 330
(p. 861) Ibadan 627–8
population 623, 630
idealization of cities 443–9
Ife 68, 77–8, 831
population 630
imam 268, 279
immigration 404, 671
American Quota Acts 666
social problems of 671 see also migration; population
imports 11, 62, 77, 138, 231, 246, 296, 312, 430, 486, 489, 587, 824
Inca civilization 10, 389, 483;see also specific cities
India 8, 83
colonial cities 561–5, 756, 757–8
contemporary cities 561–80
culture 567–8, 576–7
ecology 422
Ganges plain 97–8
independence 767
industry 575, 755, 763
mega-cities 569, 571
migration 674–6
million-plus cities 573
post-independence 574–7
poverty 685
Raj period 561–9
urban governance 565–7
urban populations 458, 561–4, 569–74, 761
urbanization 7, 12, 16, 158–9, 561–5, 569–74, 668, 675
Indo-Greeks 99
Indo-Parthians 99
Indo-Scythians 99
Indonesia 685
Indus Valley 6, 83, 87–96, 422
cities of 84, 85
decline of 96
networks and networking 94
political integration 95
trade 94
industrial cities 16, 38, 58–9, 165, 223, 229, 315, 323, 465, 471, 508, 523, 575, 649, 652–4, 658, 701, 705, 706, 707, 709, 711, 732, 738, 741, 774, 776, 791, 795, 799, 832
Industrial Revolution 648, 659, 669, 684,701, 755
industrial suburbs 794–5
industrial zones 299
industrialization 15, 16, 17, 230, 246–8, 251, 341, 363, 377, 380, 466, 477, 508, 645–63, 707, 711
Great Divergence 3, 13, 14, 645–50
import-substituting 488–9
rural foundations of 658–9
industry 269–70, 545, 575
creative 729–33 see also specific industries
inequality, seesocial inequality
informal sector work 492–4
infrastructure 269, 285, 333, 399, 494–5, 506–10, 705–7
metropolitan cities 783–7
infrastructure investment 5, 11, 15, 242, 294, 297
infrastructure services 20, 138, 339
inner-city districts 109, 172, 183, 298, 304, 486, 550, 591, 593, 671, 709, 711, 796, 810
innovations 256, 310, 505, 519, 578, 647, 648, 650, 705, 707, 716, 720, 721
integration, social 11, 18, 34, 37, 38, 94, 95, 43, 227, 250, 271, 320, 408, 409, 410, 413–16, 470, 518, 522, 525, 530, 535, 671–2, 690, 778, 787, 788
inter-urban competition 5, 11, 15, 19, 20, 49, 57, 92, 95, 111, 141, 149, 167, 175, 246, 265, 267, 284, 288, 358, 416, 430, 440, 444, 452, 466, 479, 488–9, 575, 702, 720, 723, 724, 726, 727, 731, 733, 734, 783, 817
inter-urban cooperation 5, 840
International Congress of Modern Architecture (CIAM) 476
investment patterns 15, 17, 18, 57, 138, 298, 320, 429, 489, 498, 516–17, 530–5, 565, 575, 589, 616, 648, 656–9
Iran 277, 613
Iraq 613, 615
Ireland 477
iron and steel industries 466, 508, 575, 726, 841
irrigation 40–1, 585
fogaras 72, 75
qanat 72 see also water supply
Islam 9, 261, 350, 611
cities 261–7
courts 262
fundamentalist 636
power structures 427
spread of 346
urban histories 447
waq f endowments 9, 433, 607, 609
Islamabad 574
Israel 703
Istanbul (Constantinople) 258, 263–4, 271, 272, 277, 393, 395, 406, 423, 443, 606, 614, 770, 831, 841
Blue Mosque 440
governance 607
migrants 666
museums 611–12
town planning 447, 617–18
urban growth 606
Italy 397, 467, 468, 469, 470
borgo franco/castelfranco 228
communes 233–4
culture 251–2
early modern cities 246
fondaci 227
medieval cities 227–8
social structure 449
urbanization 7, 152–5, 669 see also Rome/Roman Empire
Iwo 630
Iximché 365
Izmir (Smyrna) 264, 276–7, 283, 606
urban growth 606
Jaca 228
jails 173
Jakarta (Batavia) 10, 354, 355–9, 581, 585, 588, 590, 592, 754
castle 346, 358
dynamics 595
orang kaya 353, 358
Pasar Ikan (fishmarket) 356
pollution 711
population 582
Pulau Seribu (Thousand Islands) 356
slums 588
syahbandar (harbour master) 358
Japan 390–1, 656
air traffic 596–7
castle towns 331–2, 334, 338, 339, 542, 548
contemporary cities 542–60
1880s and 1890s 545–8
1960s and 1970s 553–5
post-1980s 555–7
housing 551
danchi 555
industrialization 651–2
kombinaato 553
manufacturing output 545
Meiji Restoration 542
metropolitan expansion 548–52
port cities 814–15
pre-modern cities 327–44
urban destruction/reconstruction 552–3
Urban Improvement Ordinance (1888) 547
urban land prices 557
urban populations 333, 542, 543–5, 550, 553, 556
urbanization 12, 15, 16, 17, 542, 668, 675
Jarma 72
Jauja 367
Java 585
Jedda 265
Jenné-jeno 59, 68, 75
Jericho 148
Jerusalem 265, 443, 614, 831
governance 607
temples 173
urban growth 606
jewellery 139
Jews 7, 235, 261, 262, 269, 279, 434, 670, 671
Baghdad population 605
mellahs 689
persecution of 189, 406, 666
Jiang 111
Jiangxi 315
Jiankang 116
Jianye, seeNanjing
Jingdezhen 315
Jinyongcheng 115
Jiujiang 315
Johannesburg 629, 631 (p. 863)
population 623
Johor Bahru 352
population 582
Jordan 612, 613
Jos 627
Judaism 189; see also Jews
Kabuki theatre 340
kadi 281, 282, 283, 286
Kaduna 626
population 623
Kaifeng 296, 298, 303–4, 315, 422
Kairouan 259, 261, 263
Kalhu 149
Kalibangan 84, 91
Kanazawa 542
Kané 70
Kanesh (Kültepe) 137
Kanmer 91
Kano 625, 636
population 623, 630
Kansas City 508–10
kanuns 277
Kar-Tukulti-Ninurta 149
Karacabey 277
Karachi 563, 571, 573, 574, 840
Karimi 271
Karnak 188
Kathmandu 703
katibs 283
Kausambi (Vatsa) 96, 97, 98, 159
Kawasaki 544
KawKaw 76
Kenya 685
Kerameis 151
Kerkouane 71
Kerma 69, 70
Khafajah 37
Inanna Temple 36
khân 270
khanqa 266
Khartoum 627
population 630
khâssa 267, 268
khatîb, seemosques
Khorsabad 34, 37, 38
palaces 36
Kibera 686
Kigali 633
Kimberley 757
Kingston, Jamaica 19, 731, 763
Kinshasa (Léopoldville) 626, 631, 634, 636, 638, 639, 757
population 623, 630
Kisangani 639
Kish 36
Kita Kyushu, population 544
Kjonju 439
Kobe 542, 543, 552, 812, 823
population 544
koine 61
Kolkata, seeCalcutta
kommerkion 264
Konya 264
Kuala Lumpur 589, 591
dynamics 595
population 582
Kumamoto 327, 543
Kunming 527
Kuntasi 91
Kush 69, 70
Kushans 99
Kütahya 276
Kuwait 612
Kyoto 328–9, 339–40, 390, 439, 542, 543, 547, 831
Nanzenji temple 440
population 544
La Bastide d’Anjou 227
labour market 235, 262, 316, 374, 408, 411, 413, 512, 647, 665, 669, 671, 676, 721, 722
labour migrants 666, 669
labourers 44, 118, 135, 153, 255, 297, 316, 333, 407, 468, 484, 534–6, 613, 655, 763, 842
Lagos 626, 628, 636, 676, 756, 809, 820
population 623, 630
Lahore 571, 840
landfills 704
landowners 5, 33, 92, 127, 131, 223, 225, 245, 247, 248, 336, 408, 638–9
Larsa 41
Las Vegas 835
Latin America 10, 11, 389
city populations 373
colonial cities 366–71
contemporary cities 483–503
creolization 375–6
decentralization 499–500
economic and political change 372–4
employment 492–4
independence 377–8
indigenous traditions 364–6
metropolitan cities 20, 771, 775, 784, 800
migration 486, 491–2
post-independence 483–4
poverty 495–6
pre-modern cities 219, 363–81
services, transport and infrastructure 494–5
social inequality 496–7
urban governance 499–500
urban populations 363, 364–6, 368, 373, 375, 389–90, 487, 490, 499–501
urbanization 12, 15, 16, 18, 484–8, 500–1, 668, 675
waste disposal 703
latrines 92
lawyers 357
Le Corbusier 795
Lebanon 612, 613, 615
legislation 311, 335, 419, 518, 551, 554, 674, 703
Leiden 248, 470
Leipzig 473, 505
leisure and entertainment 16, 240, 242, 244, 252–3, 299–300, 304, 339, 340, 477–9, 501, 505, 519, 551, 610, 667, 723, 792, 795, 803, 811, 813, 814, 821, 822; see also specific activities
leisure towns 14, 809
Leningrad, seeSt Petersburg
Leon 228
Léopoldville, seeKinshasa
Lepcis Magna 71
lepers 235
Leptiminus 138, 139
Letchworth 796
Levant 10
Levittown 797
Lhasa 831
libraries 61, 175–6, 266, 368, 440, 478, 511, 514, 569, 676
Libya 72, 74
Liège 466
lighting 243, 478, 546–7, 565, 607, 610, 705, 707, 723, 724, 726; see also electricity
Lille 222, 232, 234, 423
Lilongwe 633
Lima 367, 368, 370–1, 372, 375, 389, 439, 505
population 373, 490
water supply 371
Lin’an 299
Linzi 114–15, 156
Lisbon 247, 468, 470
literacy 37, 53–4, 175, 235, 255, 319, 324, 377, 493, 683, 722, 831, 841
Liverpool 247, 464, 468, 470, 810
housing 475
living standards 3, 14, 18, 19, 229, 230, 300, 477, 597, 647, 650, 685, 687
income 254–5, 497
Livingstone 626
Lomé 628
London 10, 226, 250, 388, 428, 443, 446, 448, 468, 505, 701, 720, 770
anonymity of 447
as creative city 723
Dick Whittington 446
Great Fire 251
growth of 244, 247, 398–9
Lord Mayor's Show 442
migration 467, 468
parks and gardens 478
as port city 809, 810, 811
sewage systems 695
slums 684
social structure 450
Trafalgar Square 441
Longshan culture 107
Los Angeles 515, 517
Lothal 84, 91
Low Countries 9, 222, 397–8, 423, 469
culture 251–2
migration 406
(p. 865)
urbanization 398 see also specific countries and cities
Luanda 635
population 623, 630
Lübeck 227
Lucca 222, 228
Lucerne 330
Lucknow 562
Lusaka 626
population 623
luxury goods 94, 138, 251–2, 270, 302
Lyon 446
urban reconstruction 474
Maastricht 247
Madras 563, 565, 754, 756
madrasa 266, 268, 269
Madrid 247, 387, 396, 442, 468, 470, 478, 835
squares 442
Magdeburg 227
Maghreb 267
Magna Carta (1215) 425
Mahajanapadas 86, 96–7
mahalles 279, 281, 284, 287
Mainz 222, 246
Makassar 352
population 582
Malacca (Melaka) 350–1, 352–3, 354, 358, 754, 756
malaria 154, 360
Malay port polity 349–50, 353–4
Malaya 755, 757
Malaysia 588, 591–2, 666
Maldives 570
Mali 76
Malines 222
Mallorca 429
Mamluks 265–6, 267
Manaus 377
Manchester 464, 466, 470, 471, 706
Mandalay 582
Manila 10, 354, 374, 581, 585, 588, 591, 592, 754, 755, 763
population 582
slums 588
Manisa 276
maps 444, 452
Africa 29
ancient cities 26–30
China 30
Madaba map 188
Mediterranean coast 26
Middle East 27
North Africa 28
pre-modern cities 214–20 see also town plans
Maputo (Lourenço Marques) 634, 635
Mari 36
Mariquita 376
maristân 266
Markadugu 68
market places 174–5, 282
agora 165, 174, 198
sûq 260, 262, 269
market socialism 654–6
market towns 9–11, 245, 293, 295–6, 298–9, 309, 313, 320, 323, 391, 399, 469, 542, 562–3, 655, 658, 829
market-oriented cities 386–8
markets and marketing 111–12, 113–14, 261–2, 294–7, 302, 303, 356, 387–8
urban markets 137, 225, 282, 293, 397, 411, 428
women's role in 353–4
Marrakech 395
Marranos 406
marriage 182, 230, 250, 255, 316, 319, 357, 367, 377, 404, 410, 414–15, 416, 424, 537–8, 671, 691, 759
Marseilles 56, 330, 470, 809
urban reconstruction 474
Marshall Plan 477
Marzabotto 53
Mashkan-shapir 41, 140
masjid 263, 269
mass transit 474, 475, 705, 709–10, 725, 785; see also transport
Mathura (Surasena) 96, 98
Mauryan empire 99
mausoleums 222, 266
China 113
(p. 866) Mayan civilization 10, 128, 137, 364, 365, 483
city layouts 187
decline of 141–2 see also specific cities
Mayapán 365
Mbuji Mayi 639
Mecca 258, 447, 831
Medan 582
Medellin 486, 488
medical services 371, 414, 440, 474
doctors 311, 319, 474 see also hospitals
medieval cities
China 292–308
creativity 722–3
Europe 221–39
film portrayal 747–8
Japan 328–31
Middle East 258–74 see also pre-modern cities
Medina 258, 261, 447, 831
Mediterranean region, Ancient 9, 49–65
cities 26
development 50–2
hierarchy 56–8
networks and networking 52–6, 57–8
urbanization 7
variety of cities 58–62 see also Africa
Meerut 563
mega-hubs 20
megalopolis 773
Megara 51
Melaka (Malacca) 350–1, 352–3, 354, 358
Melbourne 590, 765–6
population 582
Memphis 128
merchants 12, 92, 94, 127, 130, 132 et passim
Meroe 69, 70, 71
mescits 277
Mesopotamia 6, 31–48, 392
Amorites 149
cities 149
excavations 32–3 see also individual cities
city-states 31, 32, 34–5, 43–4, 129, 136
communal institutions 169
early cities 31–2
ecology 422
evolution of cities 42–3
origin and creation of cities 34–5
population 148–9
ruralization 136
taxation 135
temples 35
terminology of settlements 33
textual and artistic records 44–5
urban logistics 40–2
urban spaces 35–9
urbanization 148–50
cycles 39–40
Messene 60
metalworking 139, 140
Metropolis, Fritz Lang's 748
metropolitan cities 3, 20, 249–50, 548–52, 574, 770–90, 800
form and motion 772
and globalization 777–80
governance 780–3
infrastructure 783–7
population 771
reshaping of 773–4
wealth and poverty 774–7 see also contemporary cities; and specific regions
Meulan 233
Mexico 365, 368, 374
employment 493
population 487
services 494
Mexico City 16, 365, 368–70, 371, 389, 439, 486, 489, 497
ecology 708
population 373, 490
solid waste 703
Miami 708
Middle East 8, 10, 392–6
1950s to present 611–18
ancient cities 27
contemporary cities 603–21
(p. 867)
economic and political background 611–12
effendiya 605, 610
elites 614–15
guilds 262, 264, 605, 607
governance 607–8
urban 614–15
medieval cities 258–74
Byzantine Anatolia 263–4
eleventh-fifteenth centuries 264–72
seventh-eleventh centuries 258–63
metropolitan cities 771
migration 612–14
modernity in 610–11
Nahda (renaissance) 610
Ottoman Empire, seeOttoman Empire
pre-modern cities 216
Tanzimat (reform) 604–5, 607, 610
trade with 231
transport 616–17
urban demography/hierarchy 605–6
urban growth 7, 11, 12, 16, 17, 393, 394, 612–14, 668
urban projects 615–18
urban renewal 608–10
waqf endowments 9, 433, 607, 609
Middle Niger 75–7
middle-class, seebourgeoisie
migration 7, 18–19, 147–63, 280–1, 403–20, 486, 587–8, 664–82
between cities 188–9
between countries 688
forced 12, 147, 154, 157, 160, 280, 406–7
integration 413–16
Latin America 486, 491–2
Middle East 612–14
models of 665–7
North America 510–16, 519
regulation of 411–13
rural-urban 7, 18–19, 267, 279, 403–13, 467, 468, 535–6, 473, 665–7
within cities 185–8 see also population
migration pyramid 407–11
Milan 56, 230, 406, 423, 439, 466, 470, 473
squares 442
military towns 247, 261, 265–6, 278–9; see also armies
million-plus cities 573
mimarbaşi 281, 282
Minas Gerais 375, 376, 377
Minden 330
mining towns 11, 320, 370, 371, 466, 627, 629, 678, 757
Minneapolis 507
mob 450
Modernism
and cinema 739–41, 745
international planning movement of 497, 615, 726
modernity 505, 610–11
modernization 17, 248, 314, 341, 438, 678
Modica 241
Mogadishu 638
population 623
Mohenjo-daro 83, 84, 85, 88–9, 140, 158, 835
Buddhist stupa 88–9
layout 92
Mound of the Great Bath 88, 89, 92
Mombasa 756, 763
monasteries and convents 266, 297, 298–9, 371
Mongol empire 9, 264–5, 309–11
monsoons 346–7
Monterrey 486
Montevideo 485
population 490
Montpellier 228
Montreal 504, 507, 517, 756
monuments 61, 73–4, 266, 364
Indus Civilisation, seeIndus Civilisation see also specific cities/monuments
mortality/mortality rates 404, 472, 684
Rome/Roman Empire 154
Moscow 232, 387, 393, 465, 466, 470
migrants 666
suburbs 709
mosques 260, 261, 266, 268, 279, 281, 350, 440, 691
as meeting places 432–3
mescits 277
Mosul 614
muhtesib 281, 282
muhtsabi 262, 266, 268
mültezims 281, 282, 283
(p. 868) multinational corporations 688, 729, 732
Mumbai (Bombay) 10, 15, 19, 562, 563, 565, 571, 573, 674, 754, 756, 758, 760
slums 784
Munich 465, 505
municipal territory 2, 51, 55, 58–60, 127, 151, 169, 186, 222, 232, 387
Münster 227, 246, 330, 476
Murzuq 74
museums 61, 440, 478, 611–12
music 51, 252, 253, 297, 299, 304, 319, 375, 442, 479, 731–2
Mycenae 137, 138
Myos Hormos 70
Mysore 732
myths and legends, urban 446
Nagasaki 10, 814
Nagoya 327, 543
manufacturing output 545
population 544
Nagpur 563
naibs 281, 283
Nairobi 626, 628, 633, 756–7
population 623, 630
slums 635
Nancy 241, 242
Nanjing (Jianye) 115–16, 310, 315, 316, 317, 391, 526, 527
Nanking 673
Naples 246, 247, 470
Nara 439
narh 282
Nasr (Victory) City 615
nationalism 534, 569, 628, 633, 666, 670, 679, 767
natural disasters 57, 279, 549–50, 552, 708, 834, 841
natural resources 57, 59, 93, 627, 792
nature and the city 712–14
parks and gardens 40, 41, 117, 118, 175, 199, 205, 209, 244, 298, 328, 329, 332, 338, 356, 433, 478, 513, 547, 610, 713 see also environment
Navidad 366–7
neighbourhoods 6, 9, 32–3, 37–8, 39, 40et passim
Neiva 376
Nepal, urban populations 570
Netherlands 470, 477
early modern cities 247–8
urbanization 669
networks and networking 1, 2, 5, 6, 8–10, 11, 13, 20, 32, 44, 138, 142, 147, 153, 160, 188, 374, 378, 391, 407–11, 413–16, 424, 425, 427, 432, 495, 543, 549, 648–50, 652, 667, 670, 672, 679, 691, 705–7, 720–2, 724, 725, 727–31, 745, 766, 772, 785, 786, 797, 799, 802, 817
Africa 68, 69, 71, 75, 78, 622, 630, 633, 636, 639
Ancient Mediterranean 49–58
China 293, 295, 296, 303, 305, 312, 320, 523–8
India 563, 568, 574
Indus Civilisation 94, 90, 94, 97, 100
North America 504, 506, 508, 512, 513, 518
port cities 346, 351, 352, 354–5, 357, 810–15
South-East Asia 346, 351, 352, 354–5, 357, 581, 583, 588, 594, 596 see also trade; transport
New Delhi, seeDelhi
New Geography 75, 167
New Orleans 508
ecology 708
new towns 10, 11, 16, 199, 227, 305, 375, 403, 407, 439, 784–5
New York 11, 19, 389, 504, 506, 507, 508, 515, 720, 756, 841
as creative city 725–6
film portrayal 741–2
as port city 809, 810, 813
suburbs 797
Newcastle, Australia 733
newspapers 377, 433, 510, 513, 522, 567, 738, 742, 745
Nicaragua 487
poverty 496
Nieuport 226
Nigeria 623, 626, 756
Nile Valley 69–70; see also Egypt
NIMBYism 715
Nimrud 34, 38
palaces 36
Nineveh 34
libraries 175
palaces 36
Ningbo 315, 409, 813
Nippur 31, 35, 37, 39–40, 41, 167, 188
Inanna Temple 36, 40
nobility 157, 222, 247, 256, 329, 340, 449
noise 205, 368, 448, 710, 712, 714, 794
Nollywood 19, 749
non-governmental organizations (NGOs) 322, 636
North Africa
ancient cities 28
urbanization 7, 147, 394, 677 see also Africa
North America 14, 389–90
contemporary cities 504–21
Federal Reserve Banks 509–10
imperial outposts 505–6
industrialization 508
infrastructure 506–10
metropolitan cities 771, 772
migration 510–16, 519, 671
post-industrial/international cities 518–20
pre-modern cities 220
railways 507–8, 509
road system 785–6
solid waste 703
urban populations 462, 507–8, 510–11, 516
urbanization 12, 16, 511, 668, 675
Noto 241
Novgorod 226, 232
Nóvita 376
Noyon 232
Nuremberg 231, 476
Nuremberg Chronicle 445
Obama 329
occupations 150, 158, 269–70, 298, 310, 449–50, 469, 492–4, 546, 631, 765, 829, 842
officials, urban 263, 264, 268, 281, 304, 763
aldermen 233–4
elders 166, 169, 173, 174, 284, 330, 336 see also elites
Ogbomosho, population 630
oil prices 489, 616–17
Oldham 733
oligarchy, urban 234, 330, 440
Olympic Games 554
Omdurman 627
population 630
Ominato 330
Onomichi 329
opera houses 242, 377, 478, 485, 610, 724, 760
Oran 265
orang kaya 353, 358
Osaka 340–1, 388, 390, 542, 543, 547
ecology 708
manufacturing output 545
population 544
slums 546
urban life 548
Oshogbo 630
Osnabrück 227
Ostia 56, 153
Ottawa 517, 835
Ottoman Empire 7, 10, 11, 264–5, 266, 393, 603
city administration 281–6
guilds 281, 282, 284, 285, 287, 430
pre-modern cities 275–91
reform (Tanzimat) 604–5, 607, 610
social structure 451
sultans 286–8
urban challenges 279–81
urban morphology 277–9
overcrowding 472, 516, 551, 686, 701, 712, 708, 709, 712
Oxford 228
Òyamazaki 329
Paderborn 227
Padua 443
Paithan (Asmaka) 96
Pakistan 83, 574
urban populations 570
(p. 870) palace-cities 116–18, 149, 310
palaces 6, 7, 31–3, 35, 51, 77, 78, 86–9, 92, 95, 99, 137–8, 140, 156, 164–71, 203, 206, 209, 223, 234, 259–60, 263, 266, 281, 422, 442, 477, 522, 546, 584–5, 633, 759, 762, 767, 835, 841
Japan 328, 556
Latin America 365,
Mesopotamia 36, 38, 43–5
as seats of power 172–7
South-East Asia 350, 355
urban 266
palankas 279
Palembang 582
Palermo 222, 246, 392, 423
Palmares 371
Palmyra 187, 260
Pamplona 228, 376
Panama City 373, 490
Panhellenion 188
Panlongcheng 109–10
Panopeus 60–1
paper manufacture 270, 297
Paraguay 496
Paris 9, 19, 228, 244, 247, 440, 442, 446, 465, 505, 701, 770, 836, 841
anonymity of 447–8
as creative city 723
culture 252
film portrayal 740
Métro 467, 475
revolts 473
squares 440–1
urban reconstruction 474, 608
Park, Robert 2
parks and gardens 40, 41, 117, 118, 175, 199, 205, 209, 244, 298, 328, 329, 332, 338, 356, 433, 478, 513, 547, 610, 713
parliaments 231, 396, 433
Pataliputra 96, 99, 159
Patna, seePataliputra
patron saints 442–3
Pausanias 49, 60
pax Romana 56
peasants 169, 177, 225, 276, 280, 356, 378, 424, 426, 449, 503, 605, 653, 656, 831
Peloponnesian League 54
Penang 591, 756
population 582
Pernambuco 373
persecution 189, 406
Persepolis 164
Perth, Australia 582
Peru 364, 367
employment 493
population 487
Petrograd, see St Petersburg
petroleum 818–20
Philadelphia 10, 11, 389, 439, 506, 507, 508, 514, 515, 756
as port city 811, 813
water supply 701
philanthropic societies 322, 433, 473–4, 731; see also associations, voluntary
philanthropy 266, 321–2, 473
Philip II of Macedon 50
Phnom Penh 591
population 582
Phoenicians 50, 53, 71, 137
Phoenix 517
Pietermaritzburg 640
pilgrimages/pilgrimage towns 181, 188, 228, 277, 321, 442, 831
Pinelo, Antonio León 370
Pingcheng 117
Pingliangtai 107
Pingyang 300
Piraeus 151
Pirak 98
Pirenne, Henri 223, 584
Pisa 228
Pistoia 232
Pittsburgh 504, 508, 706
plagiarism, cultural 445
plague 9, 229–30, 279, 564
Black Death 229–30, 273
planned spaces 35–40
planners 61, 292, 305, 328
planning 197–212, 476, 617
informal 207–9
legislation 207–9, 526, 558
planned cities 16, 37, 53, 99, 198, 200, 201–4, 302, 305, 592, 835
(p. 871)
street grids 155, 198, 199–201, 370
Town Planning Act (1910) 198
‘planted’ settlements 34–5
plaza mayor 377
pluralism 21, 189, 676
poetry 318, 337, 338
policing 20, 98, 284, 317, 336, 413, 565, 608, 673, 691, 764, 781, 830, 835, 838, 840
polis 55, 59–60, 150
political institutions 12, 165, 167–8, 169, 649
political representation 430–3, 435
politicians, urban 235, 431, 547, 551, 556, 558, 567, 593, 611, 656, 679, 786, 834 see also officials, urban
pollution 4, 17–19, 270, 467, 491, 495, 501, 535, 554, 584, 616, 700, 702, 704, 708–12, 714, 716, 784, 785, 803, 832; see also dirt
polytheism 35, 172
pomerium 200
Pompeii 53, 58, 140, 164, 205–6
baths 205, 206
size 205
urban planning 207–8 see also Rome/Roman Empire
Pondicherry 754, 756
Popayán 376
popular protest 19, 229, 317, 525, 532, 534, 537, 547, 693, 694–6, 704, 714, 765, 767;see also riots and risings
population 1, 2, 19, 32, 33, 39, 52, 72, 95, 107, 128, 131, 134, 138, 205, 223, 261–72, 387, 393, 394, 484, 603, 605–6, 612–4, 616, 623, 630, 664–82, 685, 700–2, 708–9, 711–12, 763
diversity 59, 61, 75
growth 9, 11, 12, 18, 61, 96, 112, 129, 141, 301, 304, 424, 464–9, 485–9, 689, 724; see also urban growth
Japan 333, 542, 543–5, 550, 553, 556
Latin America 363, 364–6, 368, 373, 375, 389–90, 487, 490, 499–501
metropolitan 456–63
Middle East 261–72, 393, 394, 603, 605–6, 612–4, 616
movement, seemigration
North America 507–8, 510–11, 516
Ottoman cities 276, 279–88
South-East Asia/Australia 352, 356, 357, 581–8, 590–3, 597
port cities 5, 11, 13, 20, 100, 138, 345–62, 504, 506, 603, 653, 708, 809–27
colonial 20, 755
decline of 20, 71, 466
deep water ports 822–3
disease 817
economy of 138
as gateway cities 13, 20, 54, 508
hinterland 43–4, 250–1, 410,