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date: 18 April 2019

(p. 577) Index

(p. 577) Index

Note: bold entries refer to figures and tables.

Abt, Clark 207
academic research, see e-research
access divide, see digital divide
access times, and online services 40
accountability:
and e-government 295
and industrial policy 519
Acquisti, A 494
addiction to the Internet 548
Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) 28, 539
advertising:
and free ad-supported services 249–50
and online newspapers 380
and online performance marketing 248
and pay-per-action advertising 249
and pay-per-click advertising 248–9
and surveillance 491
Advertising Standards Authority (UK) 467
affiliate marketing 243, 249
Africa:
and limited connectivity 533, 544
and online learning 336–7
and social network sites 544
African Charter on Human and People's Rights 442
Agarwala, A 475
age, and Internet use 134–5, 222
Alexander, Isabella 469
alienation 220, 549
Allagui, I 225–6, 229
Allen, I E 333
Al-Shakaa, R 229
Amazon 241–2
and Mechanical Turk 256
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (2009) 516
America's Army (game) 207–8
Amichai-Hamburger, Y 230
Anderson, C W 384
Andreessen, Marc 240
Annenberg School of Communication (University of Southern California) 12
anonymous posting, and Bulletin Board Systems (BBS) 34
AOL (America Online) 37
Apple:
and control over apps 44
and iTunes 242, 251, 258
application programming interfaces (APIs) 152
Arab Spring 62, 427, 431, 546
Araújo, V 221
ARPANET 27, 28, 29, 40–1, 448
Asia, and limited connectivity 533
Association for Progressive Communications (APC) 541
Association of Internet Researchers (AoIR) 10
astronomy, and e-research 310–11, 316
AT&T 30–1, 41
Atari 196, 197
Attewell, Paul 138
auction services 39, 242, 254
Australia, and Internet use 222–3
authoritarianism:
and e-government 287, 291
and the Internet 431
Autonomous System Numbers (ASNs), and Internet governance 561
autonomy, and freedom of expression 444
Autor, David H 139 (p. 578)
Baer, Ralph 197
Baidu 545
Bailur, S 299
Bakardjieva, Maria 3n6
Baker, M A 11
Balfanz, D 494
banking, and development of electronic banking 33–4
Bannister, F 272, 274
Bargh, J 220
Barlow, John Perry 41
Baron, Naomi 13
Barr, K 412
Bateson, G 93
Battelle, John 161
Battle, Juan 138
Baym, Nancy 163, 366
BEA Systems 240
Beetham, David 422, 431
Be Free 243
Bell, Daniel 11, 124–5
and post-industrialism 110, 111, 120, 124
Bendrath, R 491
Berkman Center for Internet and Society12, 516
and Next Generation Connectivity 516, 519
Berners-Lee, Tim 9, 16, 28, 71, 239
and Semantic Web 56
and web addresses 99
Berne Treaty (1886) 473
Bertot, J C 292
Best, M 431, 543
Bildschirmtext 36
Bimber, B 366, 423
biometric database 547
Birnie, S 361
Blackberry, and encryption 456–7
blogpulse.com 80
blogs:
and blogrolls 157–8
and China 227
and democracy 79
and development of 54
and link popularity 73
and participation 360
and public opinion research 80
Blue, Violet 87, 88, 89
Boczkowski, P J 379, 381, 382, 384, 387
Bokova, Irina 328, 336
Bonfadelli, Heinz 131–2
Bonikowski, Bart 139
bookselling, and the Internet 241–2
bootlegging, and distinction from piracy 468
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) 561
boundary crossing 362–3
Bovens, M 290
Bowie, David 482
Bowker, G C 94
boyd, d 151, 168
Boyd, J 366
Boyera, Stephane 336
Brandtzæg, P B 134, 135
Brazil, and distance learning 332
Brenkert, G G 264, 265
Bresee, J 500
British National Party 413
broadband:
and definition of 512
and developing world 336
and inequalities in access:
global divide 133
population segments 132
and infrastructure development 511
and network infrastructurepolicies 512–13
and promotion of 513–17
assessment of outcomes 523–4
categories of policy 518
demand considerations 522–3
difficulty in foreseeing policy outcomes 520
economic assessments of 520–2
European Union 513–15
evidence for policy 519–20, 523
justification of 517–18, 524
policy accountability 519
South Korea 517
United Kingdom 515
United States 515–16
brochureware 39
Brock, A 361 (p. 579)
Brown, Gordon 61, 336
Brown, T 337
browsers:
and commercial implications of 240
and development of 10, 240
Buckingham, D 222
Bulletin Board Systems (BBS) 34
Burgoon, J K 366
Burke, M 168
Burkell, J 495
Busch, L 98
Bushnell, Nolan 197
business models and strategy, and impact of the Internet:
and affiliate marketing 243, 249
and auctions 254
and cloud computing infrastructure services 256–7
and creation of new products and services in traditional businesses 241–2
and creation of totally new businesses 242
and crowdsourcing 255–6
and difficulties in making money 242
and distribution platforms 253
and drivers of 243
cost and speed of coordination 244
marginal cost of distribution 243–4
price discrimination 244–5
versioning 244
and enhancement of existing models and operations 241
and free ad-supported services 249–50
and freemium model 251–2
digital media content 252–3
market platforms and directories 253
software products 252
and group buying 255
and integration of mobile devices 258
and long-tail markets 253
and market efficiency 259
and multi-sided markets 247
and music 242, 251
and online performance marketing 248
and pay-per-action advertising 249
and pay-per-click advertising 248–9
and platform-based competition 245–6
and pricing strategies 258
and scope for new software products and services 240–1
and social network sites 243
and strategies 258–9
and subscriptions for digital goods and services 250
cloud computing 250–1
music 251
software 250–1
streaming digital data 251
and trust 257, 262–3
and viability of free and ad-based models 258
and virtual goods 254–5
and winner-takes-all dynamics 247 see also e-commerce
Butler, Judith 101
Caiani, M 362
Calambokidis, J 315
Calenda, D 359
Cameron, David 56, 61, 432
Cammaerts, B 360
Canada:
and development of online services31, 36
and Internet use 224
Capgemini 286
capital-enhancing activities:
and autonomy of Internet use 133
and Internet use 130
and socioeconomic status 135–6
capitalism:
and the Internet 539
and network capitalism 479
Cappella, J M 357
Captain videotex service 36
carbon emissions, and data warehouses 64
Cardoso, G 221
Carey, J 101
Carey, R 495
Caron, A 224
Caronia, L 224 (p. 580)
Castells, Manuel 11, 95, 110, 464, 477, 538
and mass self-communication 123
and network capitalism 479
and network society 112–13, 114, 115, 116, 121, 124, 479
and virtual reality 482
Castronova, E 202
censorship:
and alternatives to filtering 451–2
and child protection 457–8
and deep packet inspection 569–70
and filtering of content:
critiques of 450–1
how it works 449–50
state-supported 449
and international patterns of Internet freedom 452–4, 547
democracies 453
growth of government regulation 452–3
regional variations 453–4
types of material restricted 453
and net neutrality 458–9
and privacy vs national security 456–7
and surveillance 491 see also freedom of expression; surveillance
Centre for Embedded Network Sensing (CENS) 311–12
Cerf, Vinton Gray ‘Vint’ 9n8, 28
CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) 9, 28, 29, 307
and GridPP 309
and Large Hadron Collider 308–9
Cesca, J 500
Chadwick, A 415
Chai, L 274
Changchit, C 275
Chew, M 494
child protection, and freedom of expression 457–8
children, and video games 205–6
China:
and blogs 227
and censorship 452, 453
and class and the Internet 121–2
and Internet use 226–8
and labor unrest 122–3
and microblogging 227
and number of Internet users 117
and re-envisioning of Cultural Revolution 114–15
and social network sites 121–2
Choi, A 226
Cisco 240, 542
citation analysis 77
and hyperlinks 77–8
Citibank 34
civic engagement:
and digital inequality 139–41
and the Internet 411–12
limited impact 413–14
and online news consumption 387–8
and social science research 358–9
class, and network society 120–4
China 121–2
immaterial labor 124
India 122
information have-less 121
meritocracy 120–1
network labor 123–4
polarization of work 121
Clement, A 101
Clinton, Hilary 445
cloud computing:
and business model 250–1
and education 331
and infrastructure services 256–7
Club Penguin 206
cognitive ability, and Internet use 134–5
Cohen, Stan 470
Coleman, Stephen 425
collective action 426
collective identity 403
collective memory:
and Internet as channel for 116
and user-created content 114–15
Comegys, C H 273
communication and the Internet, social science research on 370–1
and changes in themes of 365
and growth in coverage of 353, 354, 355
and limitations 369–70
and media attributes 356
interactivity 356 (p. 581)
and media implications, use and understanding 356–8
credibility and trust 356–7
diffusion of innovations 357
harmful effects 358
media effects 357
media use/adaptation 357–8
uses and gratifications 358
and meta-theory frameworks 365
critiques 366
integrated or new theoretical models 366
reviews 366–7
and methodology of study 355
and participation 358–60
civic engagement 358–9
participatory media/users 359
political participation 359
public sphere 359–60
and relations among primary and global themes 367–9
cluster analysis 368
and social relations 360–2
community 360
groups 360
identity 360–1
media use and sociality 361
relational management 361
social capital 362
social networks 362
and societal 362–4
boundary crossing 362–3
cultural differences 363
digital divide 363
political economy 363
privacy 364
and theory frameworks 364–5
critiques 364
integrated or new theoretical models 364–5
reviews 365
communication rights, and Internet governance 568–70
private industry 569–70
role of government 568–9
community, and social science research 360
CompuServe 36
computer conferencing, and development of 32–3
Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) 566
computer-mediated communication (CMC):
and effectiveness of 163
and first generation of virtual communities 162–3
and genres of 162–4
and one-to-many channels 162
and one-to-one channels 162
and origins of 162
and relationship formation 185–6
and social network sites 160, 163–4
and trust 269–70
computer science (CS), and study of the Web 49
computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) 91–2, 94
ComScore, and online dating 176
Confucianism 226
Connolly, R 272, 274
content analysis, and political campaigning on the Internet 405
Conway, D 539
Cook, S G 547
Cook, Thomas D 131
cookies 493
Copsey, N 413
copyright:
and advantages over patenting 471
and copying for personal use as civil offense 466
and legal attempts to control file-sharing 474–7
and maintenance of scarcity based exchange system 472 see also file-sharing; intellectual property rights
Copyright Act (UK, 1906) 469
corporate social responsibility 569
Corritore, C L 269, 270
cosmopolitanism, and the Internet 423, 433
Council of Europe 497
country codes 87–8
Craigslist 253
Cranor, L F 500 (p. 582)
credibility, and social science research 356–7
credit cards, and decline in use of 262
Critical Internet Resources (CIRs):
and Autonomous System Numbers (ASNs) 561
and Domain Name System 560–1
and Internet addresses 559–60
and Internet governance 558–61
and meaning of 558–9
Crook, C K 330
crowds, and wisdom of 74
crowdsourcing 255–6, 545
culture:
and Internet use 363
and trust 273–5
cyber-crime 465
cyber-squatters 471
Cyprus 232
Cyr, D 274
Cyworld 151
Czech Republic 223
Czerniewicz, L 329
Czincz, J 548
Dahl, Robert 424, 428
Danay, Robert 476
Darfur is Dying (game) 208
Dasgupta, P 264
databases, online, and development of 32
data.gov 61
data.gov.uk 61–2
data protection 487
and e-government 291
and privacy protection 497
legal instruments 498–9
self-regulation 499–500
technological instruments 500–1
transnational instruments 497–8
and Sweden 313
data retention 498
dating, see online dating
David, C 357
Dayan, D 115–16
Dean, Howard 401, 409
decentralization, and Web structure 51–2
deep packet inspection (DPI) 569–70
Deibert, R 431, 491
deliberation, political, and the Internet428–9
Delors, J 330
Delors Report (1996) 330
democracy, and the Internet 421
and blogging 79
and cosmopolitanism 423, 433
and cross-national indicators of democracy 432
and definition of democracy 422
and deliberation 428–9
and democratic citizenship 430
and democratic institutions 424–7
and elections 424
and executive government 425–6
and interest groups 426
and Internet as ‘Fifth Estate’ 427, 428
and legislatures 425
and models of democracy 422–3
and participation 429–30
and pluralism 423, 432
and political equality 432
and political information
acquisition of 427–8
dissemination of 428
and political parties 424–5
and political science 421–2, 433
and popular control 431–2
and the public sphere 423, 433
and referenda 424
and republicanism 423, 433
and voter turnout 429
and voting mechanisms 424
Democratic Audit of the UK 422
democratization:
and e-government 287
and the Internet 431
and the Web 71
denial of service attacks 451
de Pourbaix, R 335
dereferencing, and Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) 50
Dervin, B 131
De Sola Pool, Ithiel 4
Detica 491
Deutsch, M 265 (p. 583)
Deutscher Commercial Internet Exchange (DE-CIX) 567
Deuze, M 380, 383, 390
developing countries:
and access to the Internet 531–2
and limited conceptions of the Internet 533
and online learning 336–8
development, and the Internet 531, 535
and access to 548
and assumptions about 531
and commercial interests 534, 542, 543
and conception of Internet as inclusive development tool 536–7
and conceptions of development 533–5
capabilities 534–5
corporate economic interests 534
definitions of poverty 534
poverty elimination 533, 534
and defining objectives of development 548–9
and dehumanizing and alienating effects 549
and development as economic growth 542–3
and development as equality 544–6
net neutrality 544–5
and development as freedom 546–8
and future research on 549–50
and information and communications technology (ICT) 535–6, 537
and Information and Communication Technologies and Development (ICTD) 537, 538
and Information and Communication Technologies for Development (ICT4D) 531, 536, 537
and multi-disciplinary approach to 538
and private sector involvement 541–2
and reasons for project failures 537
and technology and development 538–40
and World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS, 2003) 540–1
De Waal, E 380
Dhamija, R 60
Digg.com 74, 160
Digiplay Initiative 209
digital divide 129
and access divide 531–2
autonomy of use 133
global divide 133
population segments 132–3
and differentiated skills and uses:
demographic groups 134–5
gender 134
global divide 136–7
socioeconomic status 135–6
and e-government 293
and freedom of expression 447–8
and implications of 137
civic engagement 139–41
educational outcomes 138
financial capital 139
human capital 137–8
job-seeking 139
labor market 139
social capital 139–41
and increase in 544
and minority groups 115
and national developmentlevels 223
and social exclusion 223
and social inequality 141–2
and social science research 363
and socioeconomic status 131, 135–6, 223
and theoretical approaches to digital inequality 130–2
factors affecting 130
knowledge gaps 131–2
social stratification 130
socioeconomic factors 131
unequal distribution of resources 131
Digital Economy Act (UK, 2010) 469, 475–6, 515
digital inequality, see digital divide
Digital Millennium Copyright Act (USA, 1998) 474
digital rights management 478
Digital Youth Project 342, 343–4
digitization of research, see e-research
Dijkstra, Edsger 49
DiMaggio, Paul 130, 133, 139, 220
direct democracy 424 (p. 584)
discourse analysis, and political campaigning on the Internet 405
distance learning, and the Internet 332
distributed computing 28
and e-research 314
Large Hadron Collider 309–10
distributed denial of service attacks (DDoS) 566
Dittmar, H 276
DNS (Domain Name System) 29
DoCoMo, and i-mode 45
Dodgeball 154
domain names 556–7
Domain Name System:
and intellectual property rights563–4
and Internet governance 560–1
Domingo, D 383
Douglas, A S 196
Downs, Anthony 429
Drew, D 429
Drezner, D 431
Dublin Core 60
Dunleavy, P 292, 295
Dutton, W H 272, 276, 384, 404, 427, 428
Duverger, M 425
Eastin, M 358
eBay 39, 242, 254
and consumer trust in 263
Eco, Umberto 218
ecology of games (EoG) 454–5
e-commerce:
and growth in 263
and impact of global economic crisis 262–3
and trust 257, 262, 263, 269–71
cultural influences 273–5
future research on 275–6
gender 272–3, 276
online experience 271–2
Economic and Social Research Council (UK) 12
economic growth, and the Internet 542–3 see also development, and the Internet
Economist Intelligence Unit 432
education:
and digital inequality 138
and the Internet 328–9
and video games 206, 207 see also learning, and the Internet
Education for All Fast Track Initiative 541
Edwards, P 90, 96
e-government 283–4
as academic discipline 299–300
and accountability 295
and aims and objectives 288–9
and authoritarianism 287, 291
and barriers to 292
and changes in government 294
and data protection 291
and definitional difficulties 284–5
and democratization 287
and de-skilling of staff 290
and digital divide 293
and e-consultation 297
and enablers of 292
and e-policy 297–8
and e-public administration 295–6
and e-services 296–7
co-creation of 297
personalization of 296–7
and Gov 2.0 298–9
and holistic government 296
and (in)efficiency of government IT projects 291–2
and international comparisons 286
readiness rankings 288
top 10 countries 286, 287
and measurement of 287
and methodological approaches to studying 299–300
and organizational structure and power 290–1
and pre-Internet computerization 285
and privacy 291
and public policy 297–8
and public sector reform 295 (p. 585)
and reduction in administrative discretion 290
and research focus 289
and social media 289, 298–9
and stages of 286–7
and surveillance 291
and transparency 295–6
and usability of 293–4
and usage of 293
Egypt 427, 431, 546
election campaigning, see political campaigning and the Internet
elections:
and the Internet 424
and voter turnout 429 see also political campaigning and the Internet
Elesh, D 366
Ellison, N B 151
Elmer, G 366
email, and development of 33
Emergency Management Information Systems And Reference Index (EMISARI) 12
encryption:
and file-sharing 478–9
and freedom of expression 456–7
and surveillance 478
Engelhard, Douglas 9
engineering:
and misconceptions about 53
and reflective practice 53
English Premier League 480
environmental concerns, and media studies 100
equality, and the Internet and development 544–6
e-research:
and academic-business collaboration 314
SwissBioGrid 314
and access to 322
and changes in everyday research practice 315–16
VOSON 315–16
whale research 315
and changes in scholarly knowledge 308
and complexities of data sharing 311–13
Centre for Embedded Network Sensing (CENS) 311–12
Genetic Association Information Network (GAIN) 312–13
Sweden 313
trust 313
and contribution to knowledge 319–20
and creation of a coherent network 323
and definition of 308
and disciplinary perspectives on 308
and distinctiveness of 323
and diversity of perspectives on 308
and engaging communities in humanities 316–17
literary studies 316–17
Pynchon Wiki 316
specialisms 317
and physical core of research instruments 323
and physics:
GridPP 309
Large Hadron Collider 308–9
and role of research technologies in 319
and styles of science in 317–20
and transformation of academic research 308, 322–4
disciplinary differences 320–1
and trust 313
and visibility of 321–2
and volunteer contributions:
Galaxy Zoo 307, 310–11, 316
humanities 316–17
Ericson, R 489
error handling, and Web architecture 51
Erstad, O 340
Estonia, and Internet voting 424
Ethiopia 533
ethnicity, and digital inequality 223
European Association of Public Administration 299
European Commission:
and Building the European Information Society 519
and Digital Agenda 514–15
and eEurope initiative 514
and e-government 292
and Europe 2020 strategy 514–15 (p. 586)
and European Digital Competitiveness Report 514
and European Economic Recovery Plan 514
and i2010 strategy for ICTs 514
and promotion of broadband 513–15
European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) 442
European Organization for Nuclear Research, see CERN
European Social Survey 430
European Union (EU):
and digital inequality 136
and e-government 62
and Lisbon Strategy (2000) 514
and privacy protection 497–8
and promotion of broadband 513–15
Eurostat 136
evolutionary theory, and sexual-partner seeking 179, 184
Ewing, S 222–3
exchange, and trust 268–9
executive government, and the Internet 425–6
experts, and access to 74
ExpertsExchange.com 74
extranets, and development of 38–9
Facebook 10, 151
and business model 249
and personal information 75
and political activism 426–7, 546
and popularity of 79
and privacy practices 167
and unexpected success of 56
and uses of 163
and video games 200
fair information principles (FIPs) 498
Fairlie, Robert W 139
Falun Gong 62
Fanning, Shawn 242
Farrell, H 497
Federal Communications Commission (FCC, USA) 516, 545
and Connecting America 516
Federation Against Copyright Theft (FACT) 466, 467, 468
file-sharing:
and anti-piracy commercial 465
parodies of 466
and attempts to equate with piracy 467, 468–9, 483
term embraced by file-sharers 469, 470
and decline in recorded music sales 469
and deterritorialization 481
and digital rights management 478
and distinction from piracy 468
and distributed networks 477–8
and economic consequences of 464, 465–6
and encryption 478–9
and impact on demand for live performances 482
and legal attempts to control 474–7
and live-streaming 480
and moral panic 470–1
and music industry 465
and The Pirate Bay 469–70
and plagiarism 466
and prosecution of individual uploaders 475
and recording artists advocacy of 470
and representation as theft 464, 465
and surveillance 478, 479
and torrent services 469, 475 see also copyright; intellectual property rights
filtering of content:
and critiques of 450–1
and how it works 449–50
and state's role in 449, 568
and surveillance 491 see also censorship; freedom of expression
financial capital, and digital inequality 139
Financial Times 252
Findahl, O 230
First Mile Solutions 544
Fischer-Hübner, S 500
Fishbein, N 357
Flanagin, A J 357, 366
Flash cookies 493
Flickr 61, 154
folksonomy, and tagging 74–5 (p. 587)
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) 545
Foot, K A 404, 406
Football Association (FA) 480
Forman, Chris 139
formats, and Web architecture 50
Fortunati, L 124
Foucault, Michel 291, 489
Foursquare 154
Foxconn 120
France, and development of online services 31
Minitel 35–6
free content, and hidden cost of 75–6
freedom, and development as 546–8
Freedom House 432, 449, 452
freedom of expression:
and access to the Internet 445, 447–8
and arguments for 444
democracy 444
knowledge and social progress 444
personal autonomy 444
and child protection 457–8
and communication rights 568–70
and control of online content, alternatives to filtering 451–2
and digital inequality 447–8
and domain names 561
and ecology of freedom of expression framework 455–6
and ecology of games (EoG) framework 454–5, 460
implication of applying 459
and exceptions to 442–3
and filtering of content:
critiques of 450–1
how it works 449–50
state-supported 449
and freedom of information 443, 445
and freedom to communicate 445–6
as a fundamental right 442
limitations on 442–3
and international patterns of Internet freedom 452–4, 547
democracies 453
growth of government regulation 452–3
regional variations 453–4
types of material restricted 453
and the Internet's contribution to446–7, 460
concerns over 446
expansion/limitation of 446–7
and net neutrality 458–9
in network society 444–6
and privacy vs national security 456–7
and surveillance 496
and use of media 445
and World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS, 2003) 444–5
Declaration of Principles 445 see also censorship; surveillance
freedom of information 443
and freedom of expression 443, 445
freemium business model 251–2
and digital media content 252–3
and market platforms and directories 253
and software products 252
Freese, Jeremy 135
Friedman, L M 501
‘Friends’ list, and social network sites 154, 155–7
context collapse 156
distinguishing types ofrelationships 155–6
management of 156
purposes 155
social graph 156–7
uni-directional relationships 156
Friendster 151, 160
and profiles 153–4
FTP (File Transfer Protocol) 50
Gadhafi, Moammar 88
Galácz, A 223
Galaxy Zoo 307, 310–11, 316
games, see video games
Gandy, O H, Jr 493
Garrett, R K 386
Gartner Group 286, 331
Gasser, U 496
Gates, Bill 41, 331
Gateway 36
gateways 98 (p. 588)
Gefen, D 273–4, 275
Geldof, M 533
gender:
and Internet use 132, 134
and online dating 176, 178–9, 179–80, 184
and trust 272–3, 276
General Purpose Technologies (GPTs) 517
Generation X 198
Genetic Association Information Network (GAIN) 312–13
Geographical Information Systems 298
GET method 86–7
Ghonim, Wael 546
Gibson, R 405, 425
GigaNet (Global Internet Governance Academic Network) 571
Gladwell, Malcolm 426–7
Global Alliance for ICTs and Development (GAID) 541
Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria 541
Global Internet Governance Academic Network (GigaNet) 571
globalization, and surveillance 489
Godoy-Etcheverry, S 229
Goggin, A 117
Golembiewski, R T 265
Good, D 265
Goodwin, I 223
Google:
and AdWords 245
and data collected by 492
and Google Plus 151, 156
and net neutrality 544–5
and PageRank 77
and pay-per-click advertising 248–9
and targeting of advertisements 79
Gotved, S 363
governance, see Internet governance
government:
and development of online services 31
and financial support of the Internet 42–3
and the Internet 425–6, 547
and open government data 61–2
and surveillance by 490–1, 568 see also e-government
Gowalla 154
Gower's Review of Intellectual Property (UK, 2006) 469
Graber, D A 386
Grabner-Krauter, S 269
Graham, S 95
graphical user interface (GUI), and introduction of 29
Greenberg, B 131
GridPP 309, 310
Grokster 474, 475
Groshek, J 431
Grosslags, J 494
group buying business model 255
Groupon.com 255
groups, and social science research 360
Gunkel, D J 366
Gurevitch, M 383
Gurumurthy, A 541
Gutiérrez, F 224
Habermas, J 423, 539
hacker ethic 477
Hacking, I 317, 318, 319
Hagen, I 366
Haggerty, K D 489
Hameed, S S 359
Hamilton, J 381
Han Han 227
Hanyang Cyber University 333
Hara, N 334
Hardt, M 124
Hargittai, Eszter 133
Harvard University 12, 516
Harvey, D 538
Hawking, Stephen 93
Hayat, Z 230
Heart, T 273–4, 275
Hechanova, R M 548
Heeks, R 299, 536
Helsper, E J 134, 223, 229
Hermans, L 381
Hersman, E 546
Higginbotham, Wally 196
higher education, and online learning 332
developed world 333–4
Himanen, P 477 (p. 589)
Hindman, M 411
Hirsch, F 268
Hirshleifer, J 270
history:
and infrastructure studies 94–5
and media events 115–16
and network society 113–16
Ho, S S 359
Holmes, Brian 474
Holmes, J 358
Hooper, Richard 42, 43–4
Horiuchi, Y 429
Horvath, P 361
Howard, P N 408, 431
HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) 48, 50, 57
Huduma 545
Hughes, Thomas Parke 94, 98
Hulu 251, 258
human capital, and digital inequality 137–8
human practices, and infrastructure 97–8
human rights, and freedom of expression 442–3
Hung, A Y H 361
Hungary 223
hypermedia 28–9
hyperpersonal theory 185–6
IBM 240, 241
identity:
and social science research 360–1
and surveillance 501–2
identity politics 124
identity theft 466
ideology, and political campaigning on the Internet 413
Ilavarasan, P V 543
immaterial labor 124
i-mode 45
India:
and biometric database 547
and class and the Internet 122
and online learning 337
individuality, and surveillance 501–2
industrial policy:
and accountability 519
and broadband infrastructure development 511
and infrastructure development 510–11
and market failure 510
and network infrastructurepolicies 511–13
and promotion of broadband 513–17
assessment of outcomes 523–4
categories of policy 518
demand considerations 522–3
difficulty in foreseeing policy outcomes 520
economic assessments of 520–2
European Union 513–15
evidence for policy 519–20, 523
justification of 517–18, 524
policy accountability 519
South Korea 517
United Kingdom 515
United States 515–16
inequality, see digital divide
InfoCom Corporation 88
information, and value of 58
information and communications technology (ICT):
and assessing economic impact of520–2
and development 535–6, 537
and economic growth 542–3
as general purpose technologies 517
and Internet Studies 11–12
Information and Communication Technologies and Development (ICTD) 537, 538
Information and Communication Technologies for Development (ICT4D) 531, 536, 537 see also development, and the Internet
information resources, and Web architecture 50
information society 109
and centrality of theoreticalknowledge 111
and ethnocentrism of concept 111–12
and post-industrialism 110–11 see also network society (p. 590)
infrastructure:
and investment in 509–11
and network infrastructurepolicies 511–13
infrastructure management, and Internet governance 566–8
infrastructure of the Internet 43
and surveillance 490–2
advertising 491
censorship 491
filtering of content 491
government surveillance 490–1
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 490, 491, 492
and value of studying 86
infrastructure studies 89, 90, 102
and attributes of infrastructure:
dependence on human practices 97–8
invisibility 96–7
modularity 98
momentum 98–9
standardization 98
and definition of 91
and distinction from study of infrastructure 91
and meaning of infrastructure 90
and new materialist approach to99–102
environmental concerns 100
and relationist approach to 92
applied nature of 93–4
heuristics of infrastructure 96–9
historical approach 94–5
infinite series of infrastructure 93
methods 96–9
multiple perspectives 92–3
origins of 91–2
soft infrastructure 92
urbanism 95
use of infrastructure term 100
and URL shortening services 87–8
Ingelstam, L 288
Innis, Harold 101
innovation, and diffusion of 357
Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance 422
Institute for the Future 12
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 562
institutional change, and infrastructure development 510
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) 517
intellectual property rights 242
and attempts to enforce formal regime on 464
and copyright protection 471
and digital rights management 478
and domain names 561
and global intellectual property regime 473–4
and historical evolution of 472–3
and Internet governance 563–5
Domain Name System 563–4
network operators 565
royalty-bearing standards 564
search engines 564–5
and Internet's threat to 471
and legal attempts to controlfile-sharing 474–7
and limited duration of monopoly rights 472
and live-streaming 480
and romantic justifications for 472
and surveillance 478, 479
and trademarks 471
and utilitarian justifications for 472
and World Intellectual Property Organization 473–4 see also copyright; file-sharing
interactivity:
and social science research 356
and Web 2.0 79
interest groups, and the Internet 426
International Communication Association (ICA) 355
International Criminal Court (ICC) 433
internationalized domain names (IDNs) 561
International Multilateral Partnership Against Cyber Threats (IMPACT) 548
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 562
International Telecommunication Union (ITU) 133, 447, 540, 544, 557, 562 (p. 591)
Internet:
and addiction to 548
and alienation 220, 549
and American dominance 541, 545
and capitalism 539
and communication 221
and definition of:
broad conception 9, 532–3
narrow conception 8–9
and diffusion of 221, 441, 447
and distinction from the Web 50
and doubts over commercial use of 41
and economic growth 542–3
and economic impact of 539
and foundational nature of 91
and global significance of 15
and governments’ financial support for 42–3
and harmful use 358
and lessons learned from earlier online activities 38–40
and mobile access to 45
as network of networks 9, 29
and number of users 1
global regional distribution 117
top countries 118
and offline consequences of 219–20
and opened to commercial use 38, 41
and origins of 28–9
and predictive failures 41
as a social fact 220
and society 219–20
and traditional media 224–5
and transformative nature of 15, 151
and usage patterns 221–2
and user experiences 39–40
and valence of 487, 502
and value-system of 41 see also infrastructure of the Internet
Internet Archive 75
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) 560
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) 541, 556–7
and Uniform Domain-Name Dispute Resolution Policy 561
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) 240, 557, 559, 562
Internet exchange points (IXPs) 567
Internet Explorer 10, 240
Internet governance:
and communication rights 568–70
private industry 569–70
role of government 568–9
as contested term 556
and control of Critical Internet Resources 558–61
Autonomous System Numbers 561
Domain Name System 560–1
Internet addresses 559–60
meaning of 558–9
and definition of 556–7
and global nature of research 571
and infrastructure management 566–8
and intellectual property rights 563–5
Domain Name System 563–4
network operators 565
royalty-bearing standards 564
search engines 564–5
as interdisciplinary field 571
and internet protocol design 562–3
and key topics of 558
and misconceptions about 556–7
and private industry's role 571
and public interest issues 555–6
and public invisibility of 570
and research focus 555
and security 565–6
and technical architecture 555
and tension between openness and enclosure 571–2
Internet Governance Forum 541, 542, 557, 571
Internet Science 14
Internet Service Providers (ISPs)
and fiduciary relationship with customers 492
and surveillance 490, 491, 492
Internet Studies:
and broad scope of 2–3
and central research challenge 4
and defining the Internet:
(p. 592) broad conception 9
narrow conception 8–9
and driving force behind 15
as emerging field 217
and foundations in early research on ICTs 11–12
and future of 13
integration 14–15
interdisciplinary status quo 13
specialization and fragmentation 14
and growth of 1–2
and history of the Internet 9–10
and increasing status of 2
and interdisciplinary nature of 8
and lack of consensus in field 8
and multidisciplinary nature of 1, 8
and origins of 10–11
and particularistic conception of 10–11
and policy as object of study 6
and questions addressed by 3
and scope of 218
and stages in development of 218–19
and synoptic conception of 10, 11
and technology as object of study 3–4
and transformative role of 13
and use as object of study 4–5
in everyday life 5
media use 6
in work and organizations 5–6
Internet Watch Foundation (IWF) 450
interpersonal communication, and the Internet 173, 174
intranets, and development of 38–9
invisibility:
and infrastructure 96–7
and Internet governance 570
IP Address:
and Internet governance 559–60
and surveillance 498–9
Iran 62
and Green Revolution 546
Irvine Group 12
Islas, O 224
Ito, M 205–6, 342, 344
ITT Dialcom 33
iTunes 242, 251, 258
Jackson, S J 96
Jaeger, P T 292
Japan:
and development of online services 31
and Internet use 226
Java, and development of 240
JavaScript 240
Jenkins, Henry 205, 209, 344
Jenner, S 292
job-seeking, and Internet use 130, 139
Johansen, Jon 478
Johansen, Robert 12
Johnson, T 429
Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) 562
journalists, see news production, online
Jowell, R 230
Justin.tv 480
Kahn, Robert 9n8, 28
Kaiser Family Foundation 205
Kaluscha, E A 269
Karlekar, K D 547
Karyda, M 495
Katz, E 115–16
Kaye, G 429
Kelley, P G 500
Kember, D 337
Kenny, C 543
Kenny, R 543
Kenya 535–6, 545
Kerr, Ian 492
Kiesler, Sara 12
Kim, E 381
Kim, K 274
Kim, S T 365, 369
Kim, Y 387
King, J L 294
Klinenberg, E 381
Kling, Rob 11, 12, 92, 97, 334
Klischewski, R 284
knowledge gaps, and digital inequality 131–2
Kohn, M 230, 231–2
Kokolakis, S 495
Kraemer, Kenneth 12, 294
Kreimer, S 496 (p. 593)
Krueger, Alan 482
Kumar, Krishan 111
labor market, and digital inequality 139
labor unrest 122–3
Laguerre, M 366–7
Large Hadron Collider 309–10
large technical systems (LTS) research 94
LaRose, R 358
Lasswell, Harold 3n5
Laurie, B 494
Laurillard, D 338–9
law, and Internet Studies 6
Lawson-Borders, G 382
Lazzarato, M 124
learning, and the Internet:
and cloud computing 331
and commercial opportunities 331
and critical approach to 345
and democratization of educational access 331
and formal learning 330
blended learning 338
blending with informal learning 344–5
compulsory education 339–41
contribution to 339, 344
in developed world 333–6
in developing world 336–8
distance learning 332
distinction from informal learning 330–1
management systems 335–6, 338
mobile learning 336–7
post compulsory education 332
reinforcement of existing practices 338
role in 332–41
students’ difficulties 334–5
teaching methods 335
and informal learning 330, 341–4
blending with formal learning 344–5
categories of youth engagement 342–3
distinction from formal learning 330–1
nature of 342
networked modes of 342
solitary practices 342
young people 343–4
and lack of research coherence 329
and multidisciplinary research 329
and relationship between academic work and practical implementation 329
Lee, B 360
legislatures, and the Internet 425
Lemley, Mark 564
Lessig, Lawrence 6, 52, 465, 479, 491
Levy, M R 543
Lewis, J 273
Libya 99
and country code 87–8
Libyan Telecom and Technology (LTT) 87, 88–9
Liebowitz, Stan 465
Lievrouw, L 218, 369
Light, P 330
Lilleker, D 414
Lim, J 386
linguistics, and analysis of Web content 80
Linked Data Web 56–7
and how it works 57–8
and open government data 61–2
and trust 58–9
and trusting data 60–1
metadata 60–1
and value of Linked Data 58
LinkedIn 151, 154
Linked Open Data project 58
linking, and the Web 51
link popularity:
and power law 73
and preferential attachment 72
and search engine results 72, 77
link structure, and social science research 76–8
literary studies, and e-research 316–17
LiveJournal 154, 157–8
live-streaming 480
Livingstone, S 218, 220
Locke, John 472
long tail:
and Internet retailing 253
and niche sites 73
Lowrey, W 384
Lunn, R 225
McAllister, D 265
MacArthur Foundation 342, 343
McBride report 446, 448
McCaw, Craig 41
McConkie, M 265
McCoy, M E 363
MCI Mail 33
McIntyre, D 341
McKelvey, F 491
McKenna, K 220
MacKenzie, D 220
McLelland, M 117
McLuhan, Marshall 218
McNeal, R 387, 429
McNeally, Scott 487
magazines, and adapting to the Web 39
Magnavox Odyssey 197
mailto 50, 51
Makutano Junction (tv series) 535–6
Malawi 533
Manell, R 366
Manovich, Lev 168
mapping the Web 55
Margetts, H 292, 297, 425, 427
market efficiency, and the Internet 259
market failure, and industrial policy 510
marketing:
and affiliate marketing 243, 249
and exploitation of personal information 79–80
and online performance marketing 248
and pay-per-action advertising 249
Marshall, Lee 470
Martin, James 331
Marvin, S 95
Marwick, A 168
Marx, Karl 63
massively multi-player online games (MMOs) 199, 201–2
and number of players 204–5
and World of Warcraft 199, 202 see also video games
mass participation:
and tagging of web content 74–5
and wisdom of crowds 74
materialism, and infrastructure studies 99–102
Mauss, Marcel 220
May, Chris 472, 473, 479
Mayer, R C 267
Mayer-Schonberger, V 496
media attributes, and social science research 356
media effects, and social science research 357
media events 115–16
and new media events 116
media use:
and sociality 361
and social science research 357–8
Meetup.com 409
Meijer, A 359
Melville, R 296
Mercer, C 536–7
meritocracy 120–1
Mesch, G S 361
metadata, and trusting data 60–1
Metcalfe, Ben 86n1
Metzger, A J 357, 364
Mexico, and Internet use 224
Michigan, University of 12
microblogging:
and China 227
and political uses of 62
Microsoft 331
and Internet Explorer 10, 240
and Xbox 199, 200
Middle East, and Internet use 225–6
Mikami, S 226
Mill, John Stuart 472
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 533
Minitel 35–6
minorities, and digital divide 115
MIT Mailbox 33
Mobile Internet, and Africa 544
mobile phones:
and diffusion of 118
countries by income levels 119
world regions 119
and economic impact of 543
and educational use of 336–7 (p. 595)
and Internet access 45
mobile technology, and Internet commerce 258
‘modding’ 124
modularity, and infrastructure 98
momentum, and infrastructure 98–9
moral panic 470–1
Morozov, Evgeny 62–3, 431
Morpheus 474, 475
Morris, Noel 33
Mosaic browser 10
and creation of 29, 240
Mossberger, K 430
Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) 467
Motion Picture Experts Group (MPEG) 562
Motlik, S 336–7
Mouzelis, N 218
MP3 242
Mueller, Milton 556, 560
multimedia consumption, and cross-national differences 136–7
Murdoch, Rupert 482
music, and Internet business models 242, 251
music industry:
and decline in recorded music sales 469
and file-sharing 465
and increased demand for live performance 482
and recording artists advocacy of file-sharing 470
and royalties system 470 see also file-sharing; piracy
Myanmar (Burma) 569
and censorship 453
Myllyahti, M 380
MySpace 151, 154
and development process 161
and uses of 164
Napster 242, 258, 469, 474
National Center for Supercomputing Applications (University of Illinois-Urbana) 29, 240
National Communication Association 355
National Science Foundation (USA) 12n9
and NSFNET 29, 41
national security, and privacy 456–7
National Security Agency(NSA, USA) 491
National Telecommunication and Information Administration (NTIA, USA) 132
Neff, G 101
Negri, A 124
Nelson, Ted 9
neoliberalism, and elimination of traditional places 117
Neopets 206
Nepal 568–9
Netflix 251, 258
Net Mums 426
net neutrality 544–5
and concerns over 44, 458–9
Netscape:
and JavaScript 240
and Netscape Navigator 10, 29, 240
network analysis 362
network corporations 481
network effects 246
network labor 123–4
network society 112–13
and class 120–4
China 121–2
immaterial labor 124
India 122
information have-less 121
meritocracy 120–1
network labor 123–4
polarization of work 121
and freedom of expression in 444–6
as fundamental mode of social organization 113
and multiple network societies 109–10, 124–5
and plurality of 124–5
trend towards 109–10
and social exclusion 112–13
and space 116–20
diffusion of mobile communications118, 119
distribution of Internet users 117–18
spatial formation 119–20 (p. 596)
spatial transformation 116–17
and time 113–16
changed perceptions of 113–14
collective memory 114–15
historical rediscovery 115
sequencing of events 116
timeless time 114
Newell, J 385
Newman, A L 497–8
New Public Management 289, 295
news consumption, online 384–5, 388
and audience fragmentation and homogenization 385–6
and limitations of research on 388–90
and political campaigning 402–3
and political knowledge and participation 386–8
and relationship with traditional media consumption 385
and traditional and innovative practices 378–9
news media, and central role of 378
newspapers:
and adapting to the Web 39
and freemium business model 252–3
and impact of Internet use 224–5
news production, online 379, 388
and context of 379–80
advertising revenue 380
motivation 379
profitability 379–80
and innovation processes 380–1
and journalists:
challenge of user-generated content 383
functions of 378
professional identity 382
self-perceptions of 383
and limitations of research on 388–90
and practices of 381–2
increased speed 381–2
news-gathering 381
organizational integration 382
workflow practices 381
and users as co-authors of content 383–4
New York Times 253
New Zealand, and Internet use 223
Nguyen, A 379
niche sites 72
and the long tail 73
and viability of 73–4
Nieborg, D 359
Nielsen, and online dating 176
Nintendo Corporation 196, 198, 203
and GameCube 200
and Wii console 199, 200
Nisbet, M C 387
non-profit organizations, and development of online services 34
Nooteboom, B 267
Norris, Pippa 404, 407, 411, 430
Norway, and online learning 340
NSFNET 29, 41
Obama, Barack 56, 410–11, 412
Office of Emergency Preparedness 32
Ogburn, W F 98
Ogilvy and Mather (advertising agency) 36
online dating 173
and age difference tolerance of users 178
and characteristics of users of 176, 177, 178
in existing relationship 176–8
and emergence of 174–5
and format of sites 180
and future research on 188–9
and gender 176, 178–9, 179–80, 184
and growth of 175, 187
and growth of single population 174
and market changes:
free sites 187–8
market fragmentation 188
media companies 188
and motivations of users of 178–9
and online alternatives to 184–7
deception 186
relationship formation 185
self-presentation 185–6
and prevalence of 175
corporate evidence 175
online measurement 176
self-report evidence 175–6
and risks of 174–5
and satisfaction with services 179–80 (p. 597)
and self-disclosure 181–4
deception 183–4
differences from other online settings 181–2
means of 181
new identities 183
use of emotional words 183
warrants 183–4
and social acceptance of 176, 188
and social network sites 185–7
and success of 180
establishment of relationships 181
geographical proximity 180, 182
online services, and development of 45
AOL (America Online) 37
Bulletin Board Systems (BBS) 34
CompuServe 36
computer conferencing 32–3
context for (1970s-80s) 30–1
electronic banking 33–4
email 33
and fears over impact of 42
government policies 31
Internet and World Wide Web 28–9
lessons from earlier online activities38–40
Minitel 35–6
non-profit organizations 34
online databases 32
Prestel 35
Prodigy 37
stand-alone services 31–4
telephone companies 30–1, 41
and user experiences 39–40
videotex 31, 34–7
Viewtron 36–7
Open Educational Resources (OER) 337, 545
Open Government Licence 62
openness, and the Web 44, 71
OpenNet Initiative 449, 452–3
open platforms, and videotex 43–4
open standards 562–3
Open University 333–4
O’Reilly, Tim 161
Organization for Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation 497
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)497, 513
Orwell, George 291, 489
Oxford Internet Institute 12, 13
Oxford Internet Survey 271–2, 293, 427, 430
packet-switching 28
Palfrey, J 496
Palmlund, I 288
Papert, Seymour 12, 339
Paris Treaty (1883) 473
Parks, L 102
participation:
and democracy 429–30
and interest groups 426
and social science research 358–60
civic engagement 358–9
participatory media/users 359
political participation 359
public sphere 359–60
Parton, N 298
patents, and copyright's advantages over 471
Patry, William 465
Paulussen, S 383
Pavlou, D 274
pay-per-action advertising 249
pay-per-click advertising 248–9
performance marketing 248
and pay-per-action advertising 249
and pay-per-click advertising 248–9
permanence of content 75
personal information:
and commercial exploitation of 79–80
and maintaining control over 493
and motivations for revealing 495
and permanence of content 75
and protection on 486
and risks of disclosure 493–4
collective harms 496
individual harms 494–6
and surrendered for benefits 489
and willingness to provide 495 see also data protection
personally identifiable information (PII) 498–9 (p. 598)
personal relationships:
and computer-mediated communication 185–6
and impact of online activities 140, 155–6
and information about previous relationships on the Web 75
and permanence of Web content 75 see also online dating; social network sites (SNSs)
Pew Internet and American Life Project218–19, 343
Pew Research Center 404
pharmaceutical industry, and intellectual property rights 471
Phillips, D 101
physics, and e-research:
GridPP 309
Large Hadron Collider 308–9
Pickering, J 332n2
piracy:
and anti-piracy commercial 465
parodies of 466
and attempts to equate file-sharing with 467, 468–9, 483
and attempts to link with terrorism 467–8
as commercial infringement 468
and distinction from bootlegging 468
and distinction from file-sharing 468
as identity theft 466
and legal definition of 468
and moral panic 470–1
and The Pirate Bay 469–70
and positive connotations of term 470
and term embraced by file-sharers469, 470
The Pirate Bay 469–70
pluralism, and the Internet 423, 432
policy research, and Internet Studies 6
political behavior, and the Internet:
and deliberation 428–9
and participation 429–30
and political information:
acquisition of 427–8
dissemination of 428
and voter turnout 429 see also civic engagement; participation
political campaigning and the Internet401–2
and adaptation by political organizations 406–7
and caution of political organizations 414
and collective identity formation 403
and communication 403–4
and co-ordination of actions 403
and debate and discussion 404
and evolution of campaigning 407–8
and future research on 415–16
and hypermedia campaign 408–9
and ideology 413
and incentives for 413
and information elite 409
and information provision 402–3
and interplay of online/offline environments 415
and landmark campaigns:
Barack Obama 410–11, 412
Howard Dean 409
Segolene Royal 410
and methodological approaches to studying 404–6
content analysis 405
discourse analysis 405
web sphere analysis 405–6
and mobilization 403–4
and national variations 402
and network effects 408–9
and political participation 411–12
limited impact on 413–14
and professionalization of campaigning 407
and resources 413
and targeting voters 408
thin democracy 408
political knowledge, and online news consumption 386–7
political participation:
and digital inequality 139–41
and the Internet 411–12, 421
and online news consumption 387–8
and social science research 359
political parties, and the Internet 424–5 (p. 599) see also political campaigning and the Internet
politics, and Web Science 61–3
Pong (game) 197
pornography 358
positivism 539
Poster, Mark 466
post-industrialism:
and ethnocentrism of concept 111–12
and information society 110–11
and internal contradictions 124
and nature of 111
Post Office (UK), and videotex 34–5
poverty reduction, and development533, 534
power law, and link popularity 73
Prasad, A 475
preferential attachment, and link popularity 72
Prensky, M 222
Prestel 31, 33, 35
and common carrier policy 43–4
pricing:
and online services 39
and subscription revenue 39
Prior, M 386
privacy:
and commercial surveillance 75–6
and data retention 498
and e-government 291
and governance of 486
and inadequacy of concept 488
and national security 456–7
and permanence of content 75
and prominence of issue 486–7
and protection of 497
legal instruments 498–9
self-regulation 499–500
technological instruments 500–1
transnational instruments 497–8
and risks of disclosure of information 493–4
collective harms 496
individual harms 494–6
and significance of 487
and social network sites 167
and social science research 364
and technology 487 see also data protection; surveillance
Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PETs) 500–1
Problematic Internet Use (PIU) 189, 358
Prodigy 39
Prodigy videotex service 37
profiles, and social network sites 153–5, 164
co-construction of 154
dynamic nature of 155
self-presentation 185–6
updating 154–5
protocols:
and internet protocol design 562–3
and Web architecture 50
public administration, and e-government 295–6
public opinion, and using blogs to research 80
public policy:
and accountability 519
and broadband infrastructure development 511
and difficulty in foreseeing outcomes 520
and e-government 297–8
and infrastructure development509–11
and network infrastructure policies 511–13
and promotion of broadband 513–17
assessment of outcomes 523–4
categories of policy 518
demand considerations 522–3
difficulty in foreseeing policy outcomes 520
economic assessments of 520–2
European Union 513–15
evidence for policy 519–20, 523
justification of 517–18, 524
policy accountability 519
South Korea 517
United Kingdom 515
United States 515–16
public sphere:
and the Internet 404, 423, 433
limited revitalization by 413–14
and social science research 359–60 (p. 600)
publishing industry, and apprehension over development of online services 31
Putnam, R D 204
Pynchon, Thomas 316
Pynchon Wiki 316
Qiu, J L 112
QWERTY keyboard 97
racial formation theory 361
Rainie, Lee 15
Ramirez, A 366
Razorfish 241
Recording Industry Association of America 466
Reddit 160
Reding, Viviane 443
referenda 424
reflective practice:
and engineering 53
and Web Science 53–4
Regional Internet Registries (RIRs) 557, 560
regulation of the Internet:
and child protection 457–8
and international patterns of Internet freedom 452–4
and net neutrality 458–9
and privacy vs national security 456–7 see also Internet governance
Reidenberg, J 497
Reisdorf, B 222
relational management, and social science research 361
republicanism, and the Internet 423, 433
research, and impact of computerization 307 see also communication and the Internet, social science research on; e-research
Research in Motion (RIM) 456–7
Resource Description Framework (RDF) 57
Rheingold, Howard 11, 163, 404
Rice, R E 366
Riley, J G 270
risk:
and cyber-surveillance 493–4
collective harms 496
individual harms 494–6
and trust 267
Rohozinski, R 491
Rosenstiel, T 382
Royal, Segolene 410
Ruggiero, T E 366
Russia, and censorship 452
Sachs, Jeffrey 534
Safe Harbor 499
Salesforce.com 251, 252, 258
Sapient 241
Sarkozy, Nicolas 409–10
Sassen, Saskia 122
Sawhney, H 95
Sawyer, Ben 207
Scheb, J M 357
Scheufele, D A 387
Schneider, S M 404, 406
Schoenbach, K 380
scholarship, see e-research
Scholl, H 284
Schön, D A 54
schools, and online learning 339–41
Schudson, M 383
Schumpeter, Joseph 196
Schwartz, Paul 496
science, and styles of 317–18
e-research 318–20
science and technology studies 92
scientometrics 77
Scolari, C A 364
Seaman, J 333
search engines:
and Internet governance 564–5
and surveillance 492–3
search results:
and dominance of well-known sites 71, 72
and link popularity 72, 73, 77
and personalization of results 71
and rich-get-richer effect 72
securitization, and surveillance 489
security, and Internet governance 565–6
Sega Dreamcast 200
self-presentation:
(p. 601) and computer-mediated settings 185–6
and online dating sites 181–4
and social network site profiles 153–5, 159, 164, 185–6
self-regulation, and privacy protection 499–500
Sell, Susan 472
Selwyn, N 334, 345
Semantic Web 49
and Berners-Lee 56 see also Linked Data Web
Sen, A 534–5, 546
Serious Game Initiative 207
Setanta 480
Seymour-Ure, Colin 406
Shah, Dhavan V 140, 387
Sharia, and the Web 86, 87, 99
Shepherd, A 272, 276
Shrum, Wesley 11, 15
Silcock, R 284
Silver, D 90
Simmons, J L 496
Simon, L 426
Simpson, S 363
Singapore, and Internet use 226
Singer, J B 383
Smith, A 411
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol):
and development of 53
and unintended consequences of 54
Snyder, David Pearce 233
social capital, and Internet use 139–41, 362
social exclusion:
and digital inequality 223
and network society 112–13 see also digital divide
social graph, and ‘Friends’ list 156–7
social identity of deindividuation effects (SIDE) theory 185, 360
social inequality 130
and Internet use 141–2 see also digital divide
social informatics 14
social information processing theory 185
social media:
and rise of 151
and significance of 160
social mobility, and Internet use 130
social network sites (SNSs) 69, 169, 546
as alternative to online dating sites 185–7
and business model 243
and challenge in studying 152
and China 121–2
and civic engagement 140
as communication platform 159
and computer-mediated communication 160, 163–4
and conceptualizing community 164
and definition of 151, 158–9, 200
difficulties with 152
as friendship-driven spaces 161
and ‘Friends’ list 154, 155–7
context collapse 156
distinguishing types of relationships 155–6
management of 156
purposes 155
social graph 156–7
uni-directional relationships 156
and geo-linguistic regions 119–20
and media-centric sites 154, 159
and media sharing 159
and online communities 161
and permanence of content 75
and personal information, possible harms 494
as platform 157
and political activism 426–7, 546
and popularity of 79, 343
and primary driver of use of 159
and primary features of 152
and privacy practices 167
and profile-centric sites 154
and profiles 153–5, 164
co-construction of 154
dynamic nature of 155
self-presentation 185–6
updating 154–5
and research challenges 165
documenting socio-technical changes 165–7
large datasets 167–9
rapid innovation 165
and rise of 151 (p. 602)
and social connectivity 140
and traversing connections 157–8
and uses of 163–4
and video games 200
and Web 2.0 160–2
social norms, and the Web 52
social presence theory 269–70
social relations, and social science research 360–2
community 360
groups 360
identity 360–1
media use and sociality 361
relational management 361
social capital 362
social networks 362
social science research 70, 76, 219
and link structure 76–8
social stratification, and Internet use 130
society, and the Internet 219–20
socioeconomic status:
and access to resources 142
and digital inequality 131, 135–6, 223
and knowledge gaps 131–2
Software as a Service (SaaS), see cloud computing
Soghoian, C 492
Solove, D J 496
Solow, Robert 292n1
Sony 474–5
Sony PlayStation 198, 199–200
The Source 36, 38, 39
Sousa, H 382
Souter, D 542, 548
South Korea 42
and online learning 333
and promotion of broadband 517
space, and network society 116–20
diffusion of mobile communications118, 119
distribution of Internet users 117–18
spatial formation 119–20
spatial transformation 116–17
Spacewar! (game) 197
Spain, and Internet use 224
special interests, and viability of niche sites 73–4
Sprint Telemail 33
Sproull, Lee 12
standardization, and infrastructure 98
Standardization Administration of China (SAC) 562
Stanford Research Institute 9
Star, S L 90, 93, 97, 98, 100, 102
Starosielski, N 101
Sterne, J 101
Stohl, C 366
Stromer-Galley, J 414
Structure of Populations, Levels of Abundance and Status of Humpbacks (SPLASH) project 315
subscription revenue 39, 250–1
Sudulich, M L 413
Suman, M 225
Sun Microsystems 240
Sunnafrank, M 366
Sunstein, C 423
surveillance:
and advertising 491
and biometric database 547
and data retention 498
and deepening concern over 488
and deep packet inspection 569–70
and definition of 488
and democratic consequences of 496
and e-government 291
and encryption 478
and file-sharing 478, 479
and Flash cookies 493
and freedom of expression 496
and global nature of 489
and individuality 501–2
and Internet as medium of 487, 489–90
and Internet infrastructure 490–2
advertisers 491
censorship 491
filtering of content 491
government surveillance 490–1
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 490, 491, 492 (p. 603)
and mass surveillance 501
and nature of 488–9
and privacy protection 497
legal instruments 498–9
self-regulation 499–500
technological instruments 500–1
transnational instruments 497–8
and risks of 493–4
collective harms 496
individual harms 494–6
and search companies 492–3
and securitization 489
and social control 501
and trust 495 see also data protection; privacy
Suu Kyi, Auung San 453
Sweden:
and data protection 313
and e-research 313
and Internet access 221
Swedish National Data Service (SND) 313
SwissBioGrid 314
Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics 314
Swiss National Grid Association (SwiNG) 314
Swiss National Supercomputing Centre 314
Syracuse University 12
systems analysis 91–2
tagging of web content 74–5
Tan, H P 358
Tanzania 536–7
technical change, and social network sites 165–7
technology:
and consequences of 477
and development 538–40
and Internet Studies 3–4
and privacy 487
Teledisc 41
Telenet 32
Telenor Group 542
telephone companies, and development of online services 30–1, 41
television:
and development 535–6
and impact of Internet use 224–5
and political campaigning 407
Telidon videotex system 36
terrorism, and attempts to link piracy with 467–8
Tewksbury, D 386
Text Encoding Initiative 60
38 Degrees (pressure group) 426
Thomas, J 222–3
Thurman, N 380
Tichenor, P J 131
time, and network society 113–16
changed perceptions of 113–14
collective memory 114–15
historical rediscovery 115
sequencing of events 116
timeless time 114
TinyURL.com 87
Tolbert, C 387, 429
torrent services 469, 475
Touraine, A 111
trademarks 471
and domain names 561
Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) 468, 473
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) 9n8
and development of 28
transparency, and e-government 295–6
Trippi, Joe 401
trust:
and antecedents of 265–6
ability 266
benevolence 266
integrity 266
and attitudinal perspectiveon 264
and categories of 265
and computer-mediated communication 269–70
and cultural influences 273–5
and definition of 264–5
and e-commerce 257, 262–3, 269–71
cultural influences 273–5
future research on 275–6
gender 272–3, 276
online experience 271–2
uncertainty 270–1 (p. 604)
and e-research 313
and exchange 268–9
and future research on 275–6
and gender 272–3, 276
and importance of 264
and institutional trust production mechanisms 267–8
and Linked Data Web 58–9
and online trust 59–60
and perceived risk 267
and predictability view of 264
and propensity to trust 266–7
and research on 263
and social science research 356–7
and surveillance 495
and trusting data 60–1
and voluntarist view of 264–5
Tunisia 431, 546
and censorship 452
Turkle, Sherry 11–12, 163
Turner, F 100
Turoff, Murray 12
Twitter 10, 156
and success of 41–2
Tymnet 32
ubiquitous computing 82
Umesao, T 109
UNCTAD 542
UNESCO 328, 336
and Delors Report (1996) 330
and freedom of expression 443
and McBride report 446, 448
Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs):
and changing 52
and dereferencing 50, 61–2
and Web architecture 50–1
unintended consequences of innovations 54, 55–6
United Arab Emirates 225–6
United Kingdom:
and development of online services 31
videotex 34–5
and Digital Britain (2009) 515
and government surveillance 491
and Internet use 222, 223
and online learning 333–4
and open government data 61–2
and promotion of broadband 515
and Vision for the Future of ICT in Schools 339
United Nations:
and e-government 284, 286, 287
and Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) 442
and World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS, 2003) 123, 444–5, 540–1, 557
United States:
and development of online services 30–1
videotex 36
and dominance over the Internet 541, 545
and financial support of the Internet 42–3
and freedom of expression 443
and government surveillance 490–1
and intellectual property rights 472, 473, 474
and National Information Infrastructure 515
and online learning 333
and open government data 61
and promotion of broadband 515–16
United States Constitution, and First Amendment 443
urbanism, and infrastructure studies 95
URL shortening services 87–9
US Defense Department 28, 539
Usenets 29
use of the Internet, and Internet Studies 4–5
in everyday life 5
media use 6
in work and organizations 5–6
user-created content (UCC), and collective memory 114–15
Uses and Gratifications (U and G) approach 358
Ushahidi 545
Valenti, Jack 467
Vallee, Jacques 12
ValueClick 243 (p. 605)
van Arkel, Hanny 311
Vanderbilt, T 90
Van Dijck, J 359
van Dijk, Jan A G M 131
Vanhanen, T 432
Van Reenen, J 521
Van Vleck, Tom 33
vb.ly (URL shortening service) 87
Vergeer, M 381
Verizon 545
video games 195, 209
and casual games 203–5
development costs 203
number of players 205
and children and young people 205
Club Penguin 206
genres of game play 205–6
Neopets 206
Whyville 206
and development costs 203
and education 206, 207
and games consoles 199–200
integrated Internet access 200
number in the home 199
and history of:
modern gaming (2004–) 198–201
origins (1951–2003) 196–8
and massively multi-player online games (MMO) 199, 201–2
number of players 204–5
World of Warcraft 199, 202
and multi-user dungeons (MUDs) 201
and networked gaming 200, 201
and non-interoperability of systems 196
and piracy 201
and players of:
adult audience for 203–4
age 198
characteristics of 202, 203
gender 198
and profitability of industry 195–6
and research on 209
and sales of 200–1
and serious games 207–9
America's Army 207–8
classification of 207
Darfur is Dying 208
effectiveness of 208
and social network sites 200
and violence 205
and virtual goods 254–5
and virtual worlds 201–2
Club Penguin 206
Neopets 206
Whyville 206
videotex:
and attractiveness of 31
and development of 31, 34–7
AOL (America Online) 37
CompuServe 36
Minitel 35–6
Prestel 35
Prodigy 37
Viewtron 36–7
and lessons learned from 38–40
and open systems 43–4
and shortcomings of 40, 43
and user context 44
Vietnam, and censorship 453
Viewdata 35
Viewtron 36
Vincents, Okechukwu Benjamin 475
violence, and video games 205
virtual communities:
and development of 163
and first generation of 162–3
and social network sites 163–4
virtual goods 254–5
Virtual Observatory for the Study of Online Networks (VOSON) 315–16
virtual proxy networks/servers (VPNSs) 481
virtual worlds, and video games 201–2
Club Penguin 206
Neopets 206
Whyville 206
Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) 542
Waage, J 539
Wade, K 431
Wagemann, C 362
wages, and digital inequality 139
Waipeng, L 359
Wajcman, J 220 (p. 606)
Wallace, David Foster 316–17
Wall Street Journal 252–3
Walters, T 225–6
Walther, J B 366
Wannamaker, John 248
Ward, S 405, 425
warrants, and self-disclosure 183–4, 186
Waskul, D D 366
Weaver, D 365, 369, 429
Web 2.0 160–2
and appeal to business 161
and cultural shifts entailed by 161
and e-government 289, 298–9
as industry-driven phenomenon 161
and interaction 79
and meaning of 78
and perpetual beta development 161
and procedural basis of 161
and public opinion research 80
and significance of 160
and social science research 78–80, 81
and technical basis of 161
web addresses:
and country codes 87–8
and redundant prefixes 99
and URL shortening services 87–9
Web of Science for Social Sciences 353–5, 421
webometrics, and hyperlink analysis 76–7
Web Science 14, 49
and aim of 64
and challenge for 63–4
and dynamics of the Web 54–5
and government 61–2
and Linked Data Web 56–7
how it works 57–8
metadata 60–1
open government data 61–2
trust 58–9
trusting data 60–1
value of Linked Data 58
and political effects of the Web 61–3
as reflective practice 53–4
web sphere analysis, and political campaigning on the Internet 405–6
Webster, Frank 111
Weigert, A 273
Weiser, Phil 562–3
Weitzner, Daniel 499
Weizenbaum, Joseph 12
Wellman, Barry 11, 15, 218–19
West, D M 286, 292
Western Union Easy Link 33
Westin, A F 11
whales, and e-research 315
White, C 357
Whitty, M 182–3
Whyville 206
Wikipedia 72, 426
Williams, A 384
Williams, Raymond 101
Wilson, T 358
Winner, L 94, 570
Woodley, A 335
Wordsworth, William 472–3
working-class 120, 121, 122, 123
World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) 473–4
World Internet Project (WIP) 5, 15, 216, 447
and differentiated Internet uses 136
and diffusion of the Internet 222
and future research 232–3
and Internet usages patterns 221–2
Australia 222–3
Canada 224
China 226–8
Japan 226
Mexico 224
Middle East 225–6
New Zealand 223
Singapore 226
Spain 224
traditional media consumption 224–5
and methodological challenges of cross-national studies 228–32
and multiple levels of analysis 217–18
and non-users of the Internet 228
and origins of 216–17
and pragmatic approach of 217
and rationale of 217
World of Warcraft 199, 202
World Summit on Information Society (WSIS) 123, 444–5, 540–1, 557
World Trade Organization (WTO), and intellectual property rights 473–4 (p. 607)
World Wide Web:
and application development 54–5
and architecture of 50–1
error handling 51
formats 50
information resources 50
protocols 50
Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) 50–1
and computer science research 49
and creation of 9, 28–9
as decentralized structure 51–2
and development of 49
and distinction from the Internet 50
and interaction 51
and lessons learned from earlier online activities 38–40
and linking 51
and mapping of 55
and multidisciplinary approach to 48–9
and openness of 44, 71
and permanence of content 75
and political effects of 61–3
and social norms 52
and social science 70, 76
and transformative nature of 48
and under-theorized nature of 48, 63
and unintended consequences of innovations 54, 55–6 see also Internet; Semantic Web
World Wide Web Consortium (WC3) 71, 240, 562
Xanadu project 9
Xanga 157–8
XML (Extensible Markup Language) 240
Yahoo! 569
Yao Chen 227
young people:
and informal learning on Internet 342–4
and Internet use 135
and political mobilization 412
and video games 205–6
Youngs, G 367
YouTube 154
Zhao, S 366
Zillow.com 253
Zimic, Sheila 222
Zimmer, M 492
Zittrain, Jonathan 4, 42, 491
Zook, Matthew 118–19
Zooniverse 311
Zouridis, S 290
Zuckerberg, Mark 56, 243
Zynga 205