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date: 19 February 2019

(p. 1009) Index

(p. 1009) Index

Abbott, Porter 311
Abrams, M H 763
action, and Weber 70–1, 81
action research 977
Adams, Robert 344
Addams, Jane 988
adorcism 381
Afghanistan 453
and human rights 439
Africa, and Pentecostal Christianity 155
African Independent Churches (AICs) 155
Agadjanian, Alexander 605
Aga Khan Ismaʼilis 552, 558
agapē 877, 900
agency, and practice theory 57
agnosticism:
and contrasted with atheism 320
and definition of 320
and education 322
Ahli-Haqq sect 548
Ahmadinejad, Mahmoud 485, 554
Ahmed, A 183
Alawites 548
Alevis 546, 548, 556, 558
Alexander, Jeffrey 694
Algeria 440
ʻAli bin Abi-Taleb 547
and sanctity of 548
alienation, and cosmization as 337–41
Ali Shriʼati 551
Alliance of Religion and Conservation (ARC) 823
Alpha Course 19, 658–9
Al Qaeda 414, 453, 459
altered states of consciousness (ASC) 375
and possession 375, 380–1
and shamanism 375, 384–6
cults 381–3
sexual aspects of 385
and trance 375–6, 384–6
chemical explanation of 377
cults 381–6
definition of 377
examples of 376–7
experiences in 379
induction of 377–9
interpretation of 379–81
music 376, 378, 386
possession 380–1
sexual aspects of 382–3, 386
alterity 461
Althusser, Louis 218
altruism 23, 876, 887
and Christianity 946
and definition of 876, 879–80
and happiness 950
and origins of term 879
and relationship with religion 882–7, 951
conversion 886
new religious movements 885
promoted by 883–5
research questions 882
research techniques 882–3
role models 885
social desirability effects 886–7
socialization 885
teachings 885
unclear nature of 883
and religious teachings, prescriptions and beliefs about 877–8
Buddhism 878, 885
Christianity 877, 878, 885
Judaism 877–8, 885
motivations for 878
and social-scientific explanations of 879–82
development of 880–1
historical perspective 880
link with empathy 881
motivating factors 879–80, 882
positive emotional states 881–2
positive human nature 882
rational choice 881, 882
Amal 897
American Academy of Religion (ARR) 210
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) 422
American Hospital Association 842
(p. 1010) American Institute of Public Opinion 883
American Nursing Association 848
Ammerman, Nancy 652–3
Amnesty International 422
Anaxagoras 326
Anderson, Benedict 36
Anderson, Chris 716
Andorra 453
androcentrism, and religious studies 142–4
anonymous Christians, and implicit religion 803
Anspach, Mark 897
Anthropic Principle 308–9
apostasy, and Islam 159, 439
Appiah, Anthony 992
Aquinas, Thomas 900
Argyle, Michael 949
Aristotle 880
Armstrong, K 180
arts and religion 13, 14–15, 360–1
and autonomy of fields 362
and church sponsorship 364–5
and competitive religious market 363–4
and conflict between 372
and congregations 566
and consumer involvement in both fields 362–3
and convergences between 360–1, 372–3
and democratization 365–7
and institutional differentiation 361–2, 363
and partnerships 367
and practice 370
repetition 370
and selective absorption 364–5
and spirituality 368–9
and transgression 370–1
Arya Samaj 564
Asad, Talai 349, 677
and definition of religion 273
Assassins 551
Association of Professional Chaplains 843, 844
astronomy, and science/religion relations 306–9
Ataturk, Kemal 471, 611
atheism 14
and Atheists as minority group 320
and benefits of 330
and contrasted with agnosticism 320
and cross-national differences 323
and definition of 319
difficulties with 319–20
and education 322
and gender 323
and historical background of 325–8
and hostility towards atheists 324–5
and intelligence 321–2
and measurement of 320–1
and militant atheism 470–1
and the New Atheism 331–3
and organization of 333
and social context 322–3
and social estrangement 323–4
and truth 328–31
and understudied nature of 319
Atkinson, P 969, 972
Atran, Scott 313, 333
Aupers, Stef 771
Australia 361
and religious diversity 508–9, 510, 517
Austria 424
authority:
and clergy 591–2
and congregations 573–4
and Islam 88, 107
and political authority 392
and postmodernism 175, 176, 177, 178, 181
and the Reformation 105
and religious authority 392
Aztec empire 893
Bahaʼi 486–7, 554
Bainbridge, William Sims 117, 312, 314, 332
and church-sect theory 536–7, 538, 540
and social problems 930
Bakan, David 312
Bakhtin, Mikhail 675
Ballard, Roger 975
Bangladesh 413
al-Banna, Hasan 479, 918
Barbour, Ian 304
Bargen, Doris 381
Barker, Eileen 778
Barrès, Maurice 414
Barrett, Justin 282, 333
and cognitive scientific approaches to religion 285
and social inference theory of religion 313
Barthes, Roland 218
Bartholomew, Richard 658
Bartholomew I, Patriarch 823, 824, 828
Bataille, Georges:
and the sacred 38, 39
and violence 896
Bauer, Bruno 433–4
Bauman, Z 764
and fundamentalism 181
and postmodernism 179
Baylor Religion Survey 325
Beattie, John 675
Becker, Ernst 895
(p. 1011) Becker, Gary 663
Becker, Howard:
and deviance 927
and typology of religious organization 528
Becker, Penny Edgell 570
Beckford, James A 110, 946
and definition of religion 276
and post-modernity 655
and religious diversity 508
and social problems 926, 947
Begin, Menachem 396
Bektashis 548, 555–6
Belgium:
and hierarchy of religions 424
and secularization 603–4
belief:
and benefits of 329–30
and Bourdieu 101
and education 322
and esotericism 788
and intelligence 321–2
and Pascal's wager 329
Bell, Catherine:
and cosmization 339
and ritual 681–2
Bell, Daniel 94
Bell, David 763
Bellah, Robert 32, 772
and civil religion 406, 452, 464, 471, 472, 692, 803
and moral crisis 728
and religion 178
and Weber 93
Bender, Courtney 996
Benedict XVI, Pope 395
Benjamin, Walter 218
Bensman, Joseph 992
Bentham, Jeremy 433
Berger, Peter 32, 178, 728
and cosmization 337–8
and creation of order 371
and definition of religion 267
and reproduction and transmission of religion 652
Bernardi, Bernardo 386
Berry, Thomas 824, 828
Best, Joel 926
Bhagavad Gita 902
Bharatiya Janata Party 902
Bhindranwale, Jarnail Singh 903
bias, and definition of religion 273
Bibby, R 179
Bible:
and sacrificial violence 893
and Western legal systems 419
Bible Colleges 483
Bierhoff, Hans Werner 880
bin Laden, Osama 485, 911
birth control 830
Black, Donald 423
Blackburn, Simon 248–9
Black Magic 792
Blackmore, Susan 946, 958
Blair, Tony 452
Blizzard, Samuel 583
Bloch, Maurice:
and ritual 676, 680–1
and sacrifice 894
Bloom, Paul 311–14, 332–3
Blumer, H 931
body 110–11
and Bourdieu 108
and Foucault 105, 109
Boisen, Anton T 843
Bourbakeur, Dalil 409
Bourdieu, Pierre 12, 55, 250
and power 107–8, 110
and religion 101–3, 110
and resource mobilization 663–5
Bourghiba, Habib 441
Bowerstock, G W 916
Boyer, Pascal 333, 677
and religious belief 286
and religious concepts 280–1
and social inference theory of religion 313
Brahe, Tycho 307
Brahma Kumaris 5
Brass, Paul 413
Brazil, and religion/state relations 394–5
Breggin, Peter 312
Brierley, Peter 658
Brown, Callum 661
Brown, Gordon 456
Brown, Karen 996
Browning, Don 877
Bruce, Steve 968–9
and alternative religions 760
and New Age spirituality 763–4, 765, 777
and secularization 165
and spirituality 762
Bryan, William Jennings 483
Buber, Martin 69, 70
Buddhism:
and altruism 878, 885
and the capitalist spirit 52
and China 396
and definition of religion 272
and emergence of 393
and feminism 144–5
(p. 1012) and fundamentalism 481–2
and innovation in 7
and political management of religion 9
and religious violence 903–4
and religious vitality 5
and Weber 48, 49, 54–5, 60
Bulkeley, Kelley 284–5
Bullard, Robert 825
bureaucratization, and capitalism 64
Bureau of American Ethnography (BAE) 987
Burke, Edmund 433
Burkert, Walter 895
Bush, George W 403, 420, 459–60, 932
Butler, Judith 135, 145, 767
Cabot, Richard 843
Cadge, Wendy 996
caesaropapism 393
and Weber 83, 84, 89
Caillois, Roger 38–9
Cairo Declaration (1990) 439, 440
Callahan, Daniel J 616
Callicott, Baird 824
Calvinism 75
Cameron, David 765
Campbell, Colin 333
and atheism 323
Campbell, Robert A 315–16
Camp David Accords 396
Canadian Forum on Religion and Ecology (CFORE) 828
canonization, and religious power 202
capitalism:
and Pentecostal Christianity 155–6
and religion 470
and religious power 203
and spiritualities of life 761
and Weber:
conditions for rise of 63–4
emergence of capitalist spirit 49–50
Protestant ethic 51–2, 64–5
religious ethics 64–5
Capps, Walter 137
Capra, Fritjof 304
Carey, James, and the media 690, 692
Carrette, Jeremy 764
Carroll, Jackson 582
Carter, Jimmy 396, 403
and concerns over religion's influence 5
Casanova, José 395
and secularization 336
caste, and Hinduism 443–4
categorization and religious collectivities 17–18
Catholic Charismatic Revival (CCR) 155
causality, and methodology 240
Cavanaugh, William T 916–17
Caws, Peter 257
celibacy, and Roman Catholic priests 587, 589
Centre for Advanced Religious and Theological Studies (CARTS) 809
Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (CCCS) 212
Centre for the Study of Implicit Religion and Contemporary Spirituality (CSIRCS) 809
Chandler, D 969–70
Channing, William Ellery 83
charisma:
and routinization of 87
and Weber 73, 85, 86
Chaudhry, L N 970
Chaves, Mark 565
Chevènement, Jean-Pierre 408
Chicago School 988, 1001
children:
and religious development 286–7
ontological development 291–2
reflecting on epistemic issues 292–3
religious education 566
and social control of religions 427–8
China:
and Christianity 469–70
and Confucianism 92–3
and hierarchy of religions 424
and political management of religion 9
and religion/state relations 396
choice:
and consumerism 469
and horizons of significance 956–7
Christadelphians 529
Christian Booksellers Association 696
Christianity:
and altruism 877, 878, 885, 946
and definition of religion 273
and emergence of 393
and esotericism 794–5
and growth of 469–70
and influence on legal systems 419
and innovation in 7
and martyrdom 915–17, 921
and pacifist nature of 897
and persecution 921
and religious violence 897, 900
and sexuality 104
(p. 1013) Christiano, Kevin J 327
Christian Science 421
Christmas 609–10
church-based religion:
and decline of 21, 176–7, 184–5, 742
debate over 742–3
and spirituality 21
Church of England 397, 398, 453–4
Church of Scotland 397
church-sect theory 525–30, 725
and churches:
beliefs and practices 527
leadership 527
membership 527
and criticisms of 530–3
confusion over ‘cult’ type 531–2
ethnocentrism 532
formal criticisms 532–3
historical context 530
masks complex reality 530–1
substantive criticisms 530–2
and cults 528, 529
types of 529
and denominations 528, 529
and developmental and relative character of types 529
and ecclesia 528–9
and ethnocentrism 525
and history of 526–30
development of typologies 528–9
and multi-dimensional typologies 536
and nature and purpose of typologies 534–6
and reconceptualizing church-sect concept 726–7
and relativeness of distinctions 530
and sects 528, 529
beliefs and practices 527
leadership 527
membership 527
types of 529
and uni-dimensional typologies 536–9
membership 537, 539–41
organizational complexity 537
relationship with society 537–9
and universal church 528
and usefulness of 525
Cicero 900
cities, and Weber 89–90
citizenship:
and congregations 563
and religious familism 637
civil religion 403–4, 406, 463–4
and globalization 471
and implicit religion 803
and media and religion 692
and political manipulation of 470
and political religion 471
and theocracy 452, 472
Clark, Lynn Schofield 698
Clarke, P 183
clash of civilizations thesis 94
clergy 18, 581–2
and declining authority of 18
and hospital chaplaincy 842–4
as professionals 581–2
inapplicability of term 582
and research on 582, 594
Buddhist priests 590
Eastern Orthodox priests 589–90
globalization 593
homosexuality 592–3
Jewish rabbis 590
loss of authority 591–2
Muslim imams 590–1
women ministers 592
and research on Protestant ministers:
new seminarians 585–6
role of minister 582–3
stress 583–4
supply of ministers 587–8
women ministers 584–5
and research on Roman Catholic priests:
celibacy 587
homosexuality 589
resignations 588
satisfaction 588
self-identity 588–9
sexuality 589
shortage of priests 586–8
Clifford, J 939, 971
Cline, V B 883
Clinical Pastoral Education (CPE) 843
clocks, and secularization 604
Cnaan, Ram A 955
Coalition on Environment and Jewish Life (COEJL) 823
Cobb, John 822, 824
cognition, and concept of 282
cognitive psychology, and mental models 254
cognitive science, and religion 13, 294–6, 332
characteristics of cognitive science 283
children 286–7
cognition concept 282
concept of religion 280–1, 284–5
characteristics of 280
faith 285
definition of religion 280
dimensions of 283–4
(p. 1014) development of cognitive science 282–3
human development 288–9
mental systems 281
relations between 311–14
religious and spiritual change 294–6
religious development 286, 289–90
children 286–7
epistemic cognition 291–4
features of 288–9
matching thought form and problem structure 293–4
ontological development 291–2
reflecting on epistemic issues 292–3
stage-structural theories of 290–1
simplistic approach to 281
Cognitive Science Society 312
Coleman, James 663
collective memory 465
and loss of 655
and religious groups 791
colonialism:
and development of ethnography 987–8
and Enlightenment thought 138
and religion/state relations 393–4
and religious studies 138, 139
commitment, and implicit religion 801–2
commodity fetishism 220–1
communal action, and Weber 71–3
communication 332, 333
communicative action, and Habermas 99
communicative discourse, and morality 343–4
communicative power, and Habermas 106
communism, and secularization 94
community:
and claims of 932–3
and esotericism 791
and formation of in congregations 568–70
food 569
immigrants 569
minority cultures 569
mutual caring 569–70
segregation 568
comparative studies of religion:
and methodology 240
comparative analysis 237–8
qualitative comparative case studies 237
and multi-dimensional approach 231
and religious violence 904–6
cosmic order 905
cosmic war 905
nature of religion 904–5
compensation, and religion 332
competition, and religious market 119–20, 121–2, 163, 363–4, 400–1
Comte, Auguste 619, 650–1
and altruism 876, 879
conceptual models 13
and cognitive models 258
and constructed (etic) models 253
and creativity 259
and cultural models 254–5, 258–9
and debate about 249–50
and descriptive nature of 256, 257
and discovered (emic) models 253
and examples of 247–8
and facts and data 245, 251
and felicity conditions 256
and function of 259
and graphic form 252
kinds of 252
and ideal cognitive models 254
and ideal types 251
and ideological fabrication 260
and importance of 251
and mental models 254
and metaphoric models 252
and model holism 253
and narratives 252–3, 258–9
and nature of 245–6, 256–7
and normativity 259–60
and ‘old’ models 251
and performativity of 255–6, 257
and philosophy of science 248–50
and pragmatic approach to 247
and reality 249
and religion 246
and religious education, stories 567
and sacrifice 250–1
as semantic entities 253
and speech acts 256
and study of religion 245
and symbolic models 252
and typology of 257–8
and validity 253
and working with 245–6
effects of 247
see also methodology
Confucianism:
and the capitalist spirit 52
and China 396
and emergence of 393
and neo-Confucianism 93
and political management of religion 9
as state theory 92
and Weber 84, 91–3
congregations 18, 575–6
(p. 1015) and attendance as gendered activity 643
and changes in 575
and citizenship 563
and community formation 568–70
food 569
immigrants 569
minority cultures 569
mutual caring 569–70
segregation 568
and cultural creativity 566
and definition of 562
and diaspora communities 563
and family:
adaptation to changed structure of 639, 641
caring practices 641–2
family ideology 640
gender ideology 643
ideal family type 639–40, 642
innovatory attitudes towards 641–2
neo-patriarchal family schema 640
production of family-oriented culture 643–4
production of religious familism 638
tensions between family models 642–3
and features of 562, 564–5
and generations 630–1
and Hinduism 564
and historical context 562–3
and Islam 564
and mission 570–1
charitable work 570–1
global engagement 571
and music 565–6
and organization of 572–3
authority 573–4
decision-making 574
gatherings 563–4
leadership 574
power 574
and parish organization 563
and religious education 566–7
sermons 567
and vicarious religion 563
and Weber 74–5
and worship 565–6
Conrad, Peter 935
Le Conseil Français du Culte Musulman (CFCM) 408–9
consilience 314
constructionism:
and religion as a social problem 933–4
ethics 934–5
healthiness/medicalization 935–6
heresy 936
pseudo-religion 937
rationality 936–7
and social problems and religion 928–9, 930–1
claims making 929, 931
claims of community 932–3
material claims 931–2
spiritual claims 933
consumerism:
and choice 469
and religious diversity 512
conversion:
and altruism 886
and motives for 886
and New Religious Movements (NRMs) 724, 731–4
Copernicus, Nicolaus 308
cosmicization thesis 14
cosmic war 24, 905
cosmization 337–41, 351–2
cosmology, and science/religion relations 306–9
cosmopolitanism 459
Coulter, Ann 936
counterculture 728
and declining religious participation 624
and esotericism 784
Craik, Kenneth 254
creation:
and Anthropic Principle 308–9
and argument from design 308
creation science 311, 483–4
Creation Science Institute 484
creativity:
and conceptual models 259
and transgression 371
creeds, and preference for experience over 367–8
Crenshaw, Martha 898
crime and delinquency, and religion 23
future research 871
involvement of religion in prevention strategies 872
political/scholarly focus on crime 857–8
promotion of pro-social behavior through religion 868–71
reasons for not committing crime 868
relationship between 871
lack of research on 858
reduction of crime and delinquency 859–61
systematic literature review 859–61, 862–5
religiosity as protective factor 866–7
research on causes of crime 868
research on religion and civic engagement 858
crisis religion 936
(p. 1016) Crockett, David 660
Cuddihy, John 312
cults:
and definition of 122
and rational choice theory of religion 122–3, 128–9
and sexual aspects of 382–3
and shamanism 381–3
and social problems theory 926
and typology of religious organization 528, 529
confusion over ‘cult’ type 531–2
cultural capital 103
cultural diversity, and migration 492
Cultural Studies 210, 212
culture and religion:
and classical social science tradition
Durkheim 216
Weber 215–16
and contemporary social science tradition 216–20
Bruce Lincoln 218–19
J Z Smith 217–18
W C Smith 216–17
and cultural essentialism 219
and cultural heterogeneity 492
and cultural homogenization 492
and cultural hybridity 492–3, 502–3
and discourse theory 220
and exteriority of religion to the subject 220–3
and historical understanding of culture 211
and Marxist tradition 212–13
E P Thompson 213–14
Stuart Hall 214–15
and religion as 211
and religion as objective social phenomenon 220–1
and religious power 203–4
and religious studies 210–11
culture wars, and United States 464
Cush, Denise 977
and religious education 966
cyberspace and religion 20
and new religious vitality 2
Dalai Lama 765, 823
Dalton, Anne Marie 828
Dandelion, P 673, 971
Darwin, Charles 310
Davie, Grace 563
Davie, Jodie 996
Davies, PCW 331
Dawkins, Richard 321, 451, 911, 936, 946
de Heusch, Luc 381, 384
de Lauretis, Theresa 222
Demerath, N J, III 394, 399
democratization, and arts and religion 365–7
Deng Xiaoping 470
Dennett, Daniel C 333
and evolution 310
denominations, and typology of religious organization 528, 529, 726
Denton, Elizabeth 761
Denton, Melinda 778
Denton Conferences 809
depth grammar, and morality 341–6, 352
communicative discourse 343–4
human rights 342–3
moral languages and traditions 344–6
natural law 343
objections to 344–5
reason 342
retribution and mitigation 342
universal norms 344
Derrida, Jacques 12
and religion 223
Descartes, René 200
design, argument from 308
Detienne, Marcel 894, 895
developing countries, and atheism 327
development, and Weber 50
Devereux, George 376, 383
Dharmapala, Anagarika 55
diaspora communities, and congregations 563
Dilthey, Wilhelm 619
DiMaggio, Paul 848
Dingwall, Eric J 376
Dionysian cults 383
disbelief, and benefits of 330
discourses, and Habermas 99
discourse theory:
and culture and religion 220
and exteriority of the subject 222
disenchantment 602
and Weber 66–7, 71
dislocation, and New Religious Movements (NRMs) 727–31
diversity of religion, see religious diversity
Docka, Danielle 642
Domenach, Jean-Marie 912
domination, and Bourdieu 102, 107
Donegani, J M 178
Dostoevsky, Fyodor 919
Douglas, Mary 32
and cognitive boundaries 37
and Durkheim's concept of the sacred 36
Douglass, H Paul 582
(p. 1017) Dragon Rouge 792, 796
Drane, John 658
Driver, Tom 678–9
Druze 546, 552, 557–8
Dumont, Louis 32, 38
and Hinduism 53, 414
and nationalism 408
and Weber 56
Dumouchel, Paul 912
Dunbar, Helen Flanders 843
Durkheim, émile:
and challenges to 31–2
and civil religion 403–4
and culture and religion 221–2
and definition of religion 269
and evolutionary sociality 41–4
and methodology 240
and nationality and religion 406
and neo-Durkheimians 32
and organic solidarity 362
and religion as political institution 452
and religious development 651
and religious studies 40–1
and renewed interest in 31–2
and ritual 676
and the sacred 32–4, 216, 221
anti-structural aspect of 38
effervescence of group gatherings 38–9, 201
as marker of shared identity 36–7
nature of 34
sacred/profane binary 34–5
taboo 33, 35
violations of 37–8
as way of reading history of religion 35–6
and sacrifice 894
and secularization 603
and social problems 930
and structural differentiation 651
and subjective phenomena 221
and suicide 930
Dynes, R 883
Eagleton, Terry 911
Earth Charter movement 828
Earth Dialogue conference (2001) 832
Eastern Lightning 5
Eastern Orthodox churches, and women ministers 585
Eaton, Heather 825, 828
ecclesia, and typology of religious organization 528–9
Echchaibi, Nabil 699
Eck, Diana 972
and religious diversity 509–10
ecology, religion and:
and challenges facing 829–30
and environmental crisis 819
calls for participation of religions 821–2
challenges facing religions 829–30
cosmologies 820
ethics 821
institutional capacity 821
limits of science and policy 831
policy group and scientific responses 831–3
religious response to 822–4
rituals 820
role of religion 819–21
symbols 820
world views 820
and Forum on Religion and Ecology 828
and Harvard Conference series 825–8
conferences 826–7
goal of 825–6
interdisciplinarity 826
publications 827
purposes of 827
religious traditions 826
and intellectual influences on 824–5
and publications 827, 829
and websites 828–9
ecstatic religion 15, 73
Edgar, Robert 823
Edgerton, Robert B 327
education:
and belief 322
and Bible Colleges 483
and faith schools 456
and secularization 604–5
and student-centred learning 986, 998–9
and teaching of religion 966
effervescence:
and the sacred 38–40
and self-empowerment 201
and social dynamics 39
egalitarianism, and Islam 89, 90
Egypt:
and human rights 440
and Islamic law 440
and religion/state relations 396
Ehrlich, Paul 832–3
Eister, AW, and church-sect theory 532–3, 535
El Fadl, K 183, 184
and human rights 440
Eliade, Mircea 251, 255, 904
and the sacred 40
and shamanism 384
(p. 1018) Ellsworth, David 371
emancipation, and Marx 434
Emerson, Michael 568
emotions, and cognition 282
empathy, and altruism 881
Enlightenment:
and Continental Enlightenment 187
and human rights 432
and roots of religious studies 137–8
and Scottish Enlightenment 187
and universalism 138
entertainment industry, and religion 360, 690, 691, 693
environmental crisis 22–3, 819
and science and religion 304–5
see also ecology
Epicurus 880
Episcopal Church, and women ministers 585
epistemic cognition, and religious development 291–4
matching thought form and problem structure 293–4
ontological development 291–2
reflecting on epistemic issues 292–3
epistemic rationality 124–5
epistemology, and definition of religion 267–70, 274
equality:
and cultural source of 1000
and ethnography 995–7
and student-centred learning 998–9
and urge to 1001
Erikson, K T 936
Esler, Anthony 616, 617
esotericism 22, 783, 797
and alternative spirituality 794
and belief 788
neo-paganism 788
New Age movement 788
and Christianity 794–5
and community 791
imagined community 791
and definition of 784–6
characteristics 785, 797
claims of higher knowledge 786
counterculture 784
discursive model 785–6
as form of thought 786
secret knowledge 784
and demography of 792
age 792
class 793
gender 792
and diversity of 787
and the Internet 796
and music 796
and New Religious Movements (NRMs) 794
and objectives of 793
and organization of 792
and popular culture 796
and projected image 793
and religious experience 790
and rhetorical strategies 793
and ritual 789–90
participatory model 789
Scientology 789–90
and science 784
and secularization 795–6
post-secular esotericism 796
and sociology of 787
and sociology of religion 786–7
essentialist theories 211
ethics:
and environmental crisis 821
and religion as social problem 934–5
and religious ethics 64–5, 80
ethnic churches 726
and origins of 726
ethnocentrism:
and church-sect theory 525, 532
and definitions of religion 350
and rational choice theory of religion 125
ethnography 968
and approach of 968
and changes in 986, 987
and critical reflection 967
and definition of 969
and development of 987–90
and ideological assumptions 988–9
and location of study 969–70
and methodology 968–9, 987
data sources 969
fieldwork guides 987
insider/outsider status of researcher 970–1
participant observation 970
reflexivity 972
researcher positioning 971, 987
transparency 972
and purpose of 969, 975
and reflexivity 993–4
and regulative ideals:
informants as equals 995–7
truth 994–5
and religious studies 967
and representation 990–4
levels of 991–3
and time scale 969
(p. 1019) ethno-religious nationalism:
and development of 410–12
and specificity of religion-based nationalism 412–14
see also nationalism
Eurocentrism, and sociology of religion 152
Europe:
and arts and religion 373
and Christian renewal 751–2
and monopoly in religious market 121
and secularization 176–7, 747–8
European Court of Human Rights 419, 422–3
European Union:
and resistance to religion 470
and secularization 19, 613
European Values Survey 655, 751, 753
Evangelical Christianity:
and Latin America 4
and the media 695–6
Evans-Pritchard, E E 894, 987–8
Everington, J 974
evolution, and science/religion relations 309–11
evolutionary sociality, and Durkheim 41–4
exchange theory, and rational choice theory of religion 117, 118, 312–13
excommunication, and power 102
exorcism 381
experience:
and esotericism 790
and faith 367–8
and spirituality 749, 750
faith:
and benefits of 329
and experience 367–8
and religion 285
Faith Development Theory 290
Faivre, Antoine 785, 797
false consciousness, and Bourdieu 102
Falun Gong 5, 422, 424, 511
Falwell, Jerry 460, 936
family and religion 19, 635–6
and case studies of links between 638–44
and changes in family life 637–8
and congregations:
adaptation to changed family structure 639, 641
caring practices 641–2
family ideology 640
gender ideology 643
ideal family type 639–40, 642
innovatory attitudes of 641–2
neo-patriarchal family schema 640
production of family-oriented culture 643–4
production of religious familism 638
tensions between family models 642–3
and cultural influence of religion 636
and cultural repertoire of family 637
and fit between 638, 647
and generational changes 646
and intersectionality 644
and new forms of religious expression 646–7
and relations between 635–6
and religious familism 636–7
influence of 637
and religious involvement:
behavioral effects 647
effects of 635–6
family formation 647
and reproduction and transmission of religion 660–2
and research on:
behavioral effects of religious involvement 647
expanding focus of 645–6
expanding range of questions 647
life course 647
modernization 645
need to change focus of 644
new understanding of religious familism 645
reproduction of assumptions 644–5
and secularization 661
Fanon, Franz 894–5
Faraj, Abd al-Salam 901
fear, and transcendence 197
feminism, and conservative religious women 109
feminist theory:
and binary logic of 141
and Buddhism 144–5
and colonialism 140–1
and colonialist practices of 142
and study of religions:
difference from gender theory approach 135
political commitment 135
and ‘third world woman’ 141–2
and Western feminism 141 n2
festival, and the sacred 38–9
Fetterman, D M 969
Fichter, Joseph 582
field, and Bourdieu 101
Fields, Karen 32, 39
Finke, Roger 117, 269, 315
and atheism 325–6
and church-sect theory 540, 541
(p. 1020) Finland:
and happiness 949
and values 950–1
Fitzgerald, Timothy 273
Fleming, Chris 912
Focus on the Family 638
Fodor, Nandor 312
folk religion, and implicit religion 804
food, and community formation 569
Ford, David 966, 973
Forum on Religion and Ecology 828
Foucault, Michel 12
and language 223
and power 108–9, 110, 222
and religion 103–6, 110
Fowler, James 290–1
France:
and hierarchy of religions 424
and Islam 408–9
and nationalism 407, 408, 414
and secularization 602–3
Frankfurt School 945
Franklin, Benjamin 51
Franklin, Robert 569
Frazer, J G 33, 35, 251, 650
and sacrifice 893–4
Freire, Paulo 977
French Revolution 407, 472
and human rights 433
and political religion 467
Frend, W H C 915, 916
Freud, Sigmund 222, 312, 880
and religious violence 895
Friedland, Roger 905
Fukuyama, Francis 466
Fuller, Richard 927
functionalism, and definition of religion 268, 269
fundamentalism 17, 478
and appeal of 181
and cause of 487–8
and definition of 481
and features of:
continuities 482
mythos 482
proclamation 482
reliance on modern means 482
and fundamentalist religious globalization 493–4
and global fundamentalism 481–2
and globalization 487–8
and growth of 480
and Islam 182–3, 479–80
features of 480
violence 486–7
and modernity of 482
and origins of term 478–9
and postmodernist perspective 179–81
and pre-modern nature of 180
and science 482–5
and United States 478–9
and violence 486–7
Fundamentalist Project 480
Galileo Galilei 307–8
Gandhi, Indira 487, 903
Gandhi, Mahatma 416, 902
and compared to Khomeini 905–6
Garces-Folly, Kathleen 631
Garcia, Lydia 370
Gardner, Gary 832
Geaves, Ron 976
Geertz, Clifford 32, 258, 677, 989
and cosmization 338, 339–40
and definition of religion 269
and force of religion 5
and identity 409–10
and interpretation of 56
and scope of religion 5
and thick description 971
and Weber 56
Gehlen, Arnold 654
Gellner, E:
and intelligentsia 410
and Islam 182
and postmodernism 185
and rationalist fundamentalism 186
gender 12
and atheism 323
and belief 323
and esotericism 792
and family ideology 643
and religious familism 637, 643
gender theory, and religious studies 134–7
androcentrism 142–4
challenge to methodological disinterestedness 139
classificatory practices 139
colonialism 138, 139, 140–1
colonialist practices 144, 145
common ground between 136, 142, 145–8
dualist framework 146
hegemonic representations 146–7
otherness 146
post-colonial perspective on 145–6
criticism of Christian orientation 139–40
difference from feminist approach 135
Enlightenment roots of religious studies 137–8
feminist reconstructions 144
opposition to 139
phenomenology of religion 139
political commitment 135
post-colonialism 136–7, 145–6
secularist values 140
tensions between 134–5
dualist framework 135–6
weaknesses of 136
General Social Survey (GSS):
and belief in God 320–1
and intelligence 321–2
general will, and Iranian revolution 105
generations:
and cohort generations 619
and continuity of religious attitudes 661–2
and cross-generational religious trends 628–30
and cultural and social change 620, 632
and cyclical patterns 622
and definition of 619, 620–1
and development of concept:
historical context 618–19
Mannheim 620–1
Ortega y Gasset 620
and differences within 621
and family generations 619
and family life 646
and generational consciousness 616
and generational identity 621
validity of 622
and Generation X 617
religious trends in 627–8
and impressionistic use of notion 617
and lack of clarity of concept 617–18
and lack of scholarly attention to 617, 618
and measurement of 621–2
defining boundaries between 622
difficulties with 618
generation effects 623
life-cycle effects 622
period effects 622–3
and media and religion 698
and Millennial Generation 617
and post-Second World War Boom Generation 617
New Religious Movements (NRMs) 728
religious trends in 623–7
and production-of-culture perspective 616–17
and religious institutions 630–2
and research gaps 632
geocentrism, and science/religion relations 306–9
George, Robert P 340
Gere, Richard 103
Germany:
and nationalism 407
and religious history historiography 67–8
Gerth, Hans 49, 50, 80
Ghana 361
Gibson, Mel 360, 367
Gibson, Nicholas 282
Giddens, Anthony 55
and postmodernism 185–6
and Western individualism 655–6
Gill, Robin 884
Gillespie, Marie 977
Girard, René; 250
and Christianity 912
and impact of 912
and martyrdom 912, 914–15, 920, 921
and mimetic theory 911
myth and gospel 920
supersessionism 921–2
and persecution 920, 921
and religious violence 911–12
and terrorism 910
and violence 896
Glacken, Clarence 824
Global Forum of Spiritual and Parliamentary Leaders 822, 823
globalization 12, 16–17, 275
and arts and religion 373
and civil religion 463–4, 471
and clergy 593
and fundamentalism 487–8
and global connectivity 451–2, 456, 459
and global consciousness 452, 456, 457–8, 459
and global fundamentalism 481–2
as glocalization 462
and impact on religious life 153
and millennialism 458
as multi-dimensional process 462
and national identity 453–6, 462–3, 464, 487–8
and nation-state 456–7, 462–3
and relativization 463
and religion/state relations 402
and religious diversity 513
and religious globalization 491–2, 504
adapting religious identity to new surroundings 498–501
cosmopolitan 494
cosmopolitanism/anti-cosmopolitanism 501–3
cultural heterogeneity 492
cultural homogeneity 492
cultural hybridity 492–3, 502–3
(p. 1022) fundamentalist 493
maintenance of religious identity 494–8
and religious revival 469
and secularization 94, 481
and universalization and particularization 462
Glock, Charles 231
and definition of religion 283
Gmünder, Paul 290, 291
Gobbo, F 973–4
God:
and argument from design 308
and survey results on belief in 320–1
gods, and religious systems of explanation 118
Gokalp, Ziya 471
Goldstein, Baruch 902
Goldziher, Ignaz 67, 68
Goode, E 525, 533
Gorbachev, Mikhail 832
Gorski, Philip S 152
Gothein, Eberhard 69
Gottlieb, Roger 825
Gould, Stephen Jay 304
government, and political management of religion 1–2, 9, 427
governmentability 105
Grace Cathedral, San Francisco 360–1
Graham, Billy 695
Graham, Franklin 460
Gramsci, Antonio 214–15, 218, 990 n4
Graubard, Stephen R 617
Gray, John 452
Greece 453
and religious influence on law 419
Greeley, Andrew 663
Green, Ronald M 342
Gregory the Great, Pope 360
Griffith, R Marie 848
Grim, John 827, 828, 829, 832
Grimmitt, Michael 966
Gross, Rita 144–5
Grounded Theory 236, 286
group formation theory, and martyrdom 914
groups:
and boundaries between 37–8
and effervescence of group gatherings 38–40
and the sacred as marker of identity 36–7
Guantanamo Bay 468
Guba, Egon G 266
Gumbel, Nicky 659
Habermas, Jürgen 12
and modernism 173
and morality 343–4
and power 106–7, 110
and religion 99–101, 110
and religious violence 911
habitus:
and Bourdieu 101–2
and Muslim women 102–3, 107–8
and ritual 682
Hadden, Jeffrey 925–6
Haiti 664
and shamanism 382
Hajji Bektash 555, 556
Halevy, Elie 213
Hall, Stuart 214–15
Hamas 892
Hamayon, Roberte 385, 386
Hamberg, Eva 745–6
Hamilton, Malcolm 786
Hammersley, M 969, 972
Hand, Michael 974
Hanegraaf, Wouter 763, 783, 784, 787, 795, 797
happiness:
and altruism 950
and religion 948–50
and Weber 92
Harding, Susan 991–2
Hare, R M 344
Hare Krishna 422, 511
Harris, Margaret 955
Harvey, D, and modernism 173, 174
Hatch, Nathan 688
Hayes, Bernadette 323
Hayes, Carlton 406
healing:
and healing services 847
and prayer 836–7
see also health
health, and religion and spirituality 23
and future research 849
and hospitals:
doctors 845–6
hospital chapels 841
hospital chaplaincy 842–4
Joint Commission for the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) 841–2
nurses 844–5
origins of 839
religious influences on 839–40
space for religion 841
and local religious institutions 846
healing services 847
health care services 847–8
parish nursing 848
(p. 1023) relationships with bio-medical institutions 847, 848
and national conversation about 837
and prayer 836–7
and relationships between 837, 869, 870
historical context 839–40
and research on 837
and role of institutions 838, 848–9
methodological approach 849
Hecht, Richard 905
Heelas, P 179, 181
and spiritualities of life 749, 795
and spirituality 746
Hefner, Philip 305
Hegel, G W F 912
and culture 212
Helland, Christopher 697
Helliwell, J 948
Hendershot, Heath 695
Henderson, Lawrence Joseph 308
Hennis, William 81
Henry, John 326
Henry VIII, King of England 397
Herder, Johann Gottfried 212
heresy 936
Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn 796
Hervieu-Léger, Danielle 655, 1000
Herzl, Theodore 414
Hessel, Dieter 825
Hewitt, Marsha 144
Hezbollah 485, 559
higher education:
and dual structure of 997
and student-centred learning 998–9
and teaching of religion 966
see also education
hijab, and power 110
Bourdieu 107–8
Foucault 109
Habermas 106, 107
Hinduism:
and the capitalist spirit 52
and centralization and coordination of 160–1
and congregations 564
and development of 160–1
and emergence of 393
and human rights 443–4
and innovation in 7
and modernity 153, 160–2
and nationalism 161–2, 412, 902
and post-colonial reform 161
and rationalization of tradition 161
and religious violence 902
and the state 164
and Weber 48–9, 53–4, 60
Hinneberg, Paul 67, 68
Hirschi, T 859, 868
historiography, and religious attitudes 67
history:
and practice theory 57
and rationalist conception of 138
Hizbollah 897
Hizb ut Tahrir 612
Hobbes, Thomas 880
Hobsbawm, Eric 213
Hodge, Charles 479
Hoggart, Richard 212
Holifield, Brooks 630
Hollis, Jennifer 847
Holy Trinity Church, Brompton (HTB), and Alpha Course 658–9
homosexuality, and clergy 592–3
Roman Catholic priests 589
Hong Kong 494–5, 496–7, 499, 500
horizons of significance, and social problems 956–7
Horton, Robin 675
hospitals, and religion and spirituality:
doctors 845–6
hospital chapels 841
hospital chaplaincy 842–4
Joint Commission for the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) 841–2
nurses 844–5
origins of 839
religious influences on 839–40
space for religion 841
Houtman, Dick 770, 771, 778
Howe, Neil 622
Hubert, Henri 894
Huizinga, J 675
human development 288–9
human rights 16
as contradiction in modern society 435–6, 445
as cultural product of modernity 432
and Hinduism 443–4
and Islam 439–42
and morality 342–3
and national security 466
as object of sociological enquiry 435–7, 445
and origins of:
philosophical 432–3
political 433–5
religious 435
and socio-religious conflict over 436–8, 444–5
and women 442–3
(p. 1024) Hume, David 218
Humphrey, C 683
Hungary 422, 424
Hunt, Stephen 659
Hunter, James Davison:
and reproduction and transmission of religion 652
and social dislocation 728–9
Huntington, Samuel 94, 911
Hussein, Saddam 557
Hutchison, William R 630
Huxley, Aldous 103
Iannaccone, Laurence 117
and definition of religion 748
and religious revival 181
Ibn Khaldun 552–3
ideal types 13, 72–3, 93
and conceptual models 251
and polythetic definition 272
identity:
and confirming 936
and markers of 37
and religion 100
and the sacred 36–7
and spiritualities of life 766–8
identity politics 106
and structural constraints 658
ideology, and religion 9
immigration:
and impact of 752
and United Kingdom 456
see also migration
implicit religion 22, 801
and criticisms of 805–6
and definitions of 801–2
commitment 801–2
integrating foci 802
intensive concerns with extensive effects 802
and limitations of 806–8
definitions 806
imprecision 806–8
and near-synonyms:
civil religion 803
invisible religion 803
ultimate concern 802
and non-synonyms:
anonymous Christians 803
folk religion 804
popular religion 805
and spirituality 811–12
and study of:
aim of 812
context of 810–12
development of 809–10
Implicit Religion (journal) 810
origins of 808, 810
Implicit Religion (journal) 810
Inaba, Keishin 885
India:
and caste system 443–4
and human rights 443–4
and nationalism 414
and Weber 53–4
individualism:
and nationalism 407
and spirituality 749–50, 751
individuality, and the Reformation 105
individuation of religion 607–8, 693, 1000
Indonesia 453
and religion/state relations 396
Inglehart, Ronald 948
InnerChange Freedom Initiative 870
inner-life spirituality, see spiritualities of life
innovation, and religion 7
integration, and religious diversity 8
intelligence, and belief 321–2
intelligent design 311, 484
intelligentsia, and ethno-religious nationalism 410–11
Interfaith Partnership for the Environment 831
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 458 n6
International Association of the History of Religions (IAHR) 210
International Church of the Four Square Gospel 501
international law, and religion/state relations 402
International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) 753
Internet and religion 20, 502, 705
and change 706
and conformity 707
and content 707
and digital divide 707
and esotericism 796
and future study of 717–18
and interactivity 706
and marketplace issues 706
and media distribution 706
and media saturation 706
and representing religion on 706
effectiveness of presentation 715
Long Tail equation 716
motivations for 714
(p. 1025) online religions 697, 714
online representation 714
reader experience 715
reference works and texts 716
religion online 696–7
source material 716
typology of content 715
virtual worlds 714–15
and social reach 707
and transformative potential of 705–6
and use of in studying religion:
archiving of material 713
case study of Internet research 711–12
censorship 711
changing nature of sites 713
data capture and analysis 713
filtering technology 711
information availability 709
interaction with other media 713–14
Internet specific questions 709
methodologies 708–9
origins of sites 711
perspectives 708
research resource 708
search engines 710–11
site affiliations 713
site ownership 713
sociology of cyberspace 707–8
technological literacy 708
invisible religion, and implicit religion 803
Ipgrave, J 970, 977, 978
Iran 453
and human rights 439
and Iranian revolution 88, 461, 556–7, 558–9
general will 105
Islamic fundamentalism 480
and Mahdist movements 553–4
and violence 486–7
Iraq:
and Mahdist movements 554
and sectarian politics 557
irreligion 2, 14, 319
see also atheism
Islam:
and apostasy 159, 439
and authority 88
and backsliding 4, 17
and the capitalist spirit 52
and communal prayers 564
and egalitarianism 89, 90
and emergence of 393
and five pillars of 546
and France 408–9
and fundamentalism 182–3, 479–80
features of 480
violence 486–7
and the Hadith 441, 552
and hierarchical social order 90
and human rights 439–42
and ijtihad 184, 549
and influence on legal systems 419
and innovation in 7
and interpretation debate 183–4
and jihad 901, 917, 918, 919
and martyrdom 917–19
and the media 699
and militant activists 157
and modernity 153, 156–60, 183–4
repudiation of 182–3
and Muhammad as last Prophet 549
and mysticism 549–50
and naskh (abrogation) 918–19, 922
and nationalism 413–14
and pluralization of religious authority 158, 159
and political conflict in 88
and political management of religion 9
and politics of 156–7
and polygamy 441
and postmodernist perspective 182–4
and religious violence 897, 900–1
and resurgence of 156–7
social profile 157–8
and the sacred 395–6
and sacred/profane dynamic 89
and sects 558–9
Alawites 548, 558
Alevis 546, 548, 556, 558
Assassins 551
Bektashis 548, 555–6
communal politics 557–8
Druze 546, 552, 557–8
Ismaʼilis 546, 551–2, 558
in modern politics 556–7, 558–9
Salafis 545, 546
Sufism 546, 549, 555
Wahhabis 545, 546
Yazidis 558
Zeydi Shiʼism 551
see also Shiʼi Islam
and secularization 611–12
and sharia law 89, 158–9
human rights 439–42
sources of 441
and sharia-mindedness 90–1
and the state 159–60, 164
Egypt 396
Indonesia 396
(p. 1026) and Sunni/Shiʼite divide 18, 88, 545
common ground between 546
historical origins of 547–8
and ʼulama 184
influence of 158
and the Umma 414, 480
and war on terror 460
and Weber 84, 87–91
and women 107
habitus 102–3, 107–8
Islamism, and contest over public space 6
Ismaʼilis 546, 551–2, 558
Israel 412, 453
and ethno-nationalism 415
Jackson, Robert 967, 971, 972, 978, 979
Jacobson, Jessica 974
Jainism 496
and the capitalist spirit 52
and puja ritual 683–4
Jamaʼat-I Islami 612
James, William:
and belief 328–9
and benefits of religious faith 329
and truth 328
Janissaries 555, 556
Janoski, Thomas 884
Japan:
and Confucianism 93
and fundamentalism 481–2
and political management of religion 9
Jehovah's Witnesses 422, 529
Jellinek, Georg 435
Jenkins, Timothy 968
Jenkins, Willis 832
John Paul II, Pope 180, 395, 823
Johnson, Benton 537
John Templeton Foundation 316
Joint Commission for the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) 838
and religion and spirituality 841–2
Jonas, Hans 832
Jones, Lindsay, and ritual 682, 683
Jones, Tobias 451 n1
journals, and cultural discourse 210
Joy, Morny 137
Judaism:
and altruism 877–8, 885
and congregations 562
and emergence of 393
and martyrdom 915–16
and religious violence 901–2
Juergensemeyer, Mark 416, 898–9, 905
just war 900
Kabbalism 531
Kahane, Meir 896, 902
Kant, Immanuel 432
and faith 87
and nationalism 407
and Protestantism 85
and reflecting faith 85
and religion as cult 84
and religion as moral action 84, 85
and Weber 83
Kantorowicz, Hermann 69
Kaplan, L 187–8
Kapoor, Ilan 147
Karbala 550, 918
karma, and doctrine of 878
Kaufman, Gordon 824
Kay, William 778
Kedourie, Elie 407
Kellert, Steven 832
Kendal Project 761, 762, 767
Kepler, Johannes 307, 308
Keren Hayessod 415
Kerouac, Jack 103
Khan, Akhtar Hameed 769
Khomeini, Ayatollah 88, 480, 558
and compared to Gandhi 905–6
and violence 486–7, 901, 905–6
King, Martin Luther 285
King, Richard 139–40, 764
Kitsuse, J I 926, 928, 948
Knowles, Malcolm 998
Kramer, Martin 897
Krauss, Alison 369–70
Kriegel, Annie 618
Kuhn, Thomas 307
Kuk, Abraham Isaac 901–2
Kung, Hans 823
Kurtz, L 173
Kuyper, Abraham 206, 207
LaBarre, Weston 895
labeling theory, and social problems 927, 928
Laidlaw, J 683
laity, and increased involvement of 366
Lambert, Yves 751, 752, 753–4, 778
Landres, Shawn 631
and levels of representation 991–3
Langley, C 178
language 332, 333
and nationalism 412
Laqueur, Walter 898
(p. 1027) Larsen, Otto 315
Larsen vs Valente (US Supreme Court, 1982) 425
Larson, Sheila 772
Lash, Christopher 764
Latin America:
and Evangelical Christianity 4
and Pentecostal Christianity 154, 155
and religion/state relations 394–5
Latter-Day Saints (Mormons) 419, 420, 500, 795
Lau, Kimberly 764
Laurent, André 989
law and religion 16
and interactions between 418–19, 428
and religion as underpinning of law 419–20
and social control of religions 423–4
ability to take legal action 426
admissibility of evidence 426
children 427–8
hierarchies of religions 424–5
society's attitude towards religion 427
and structuring of legal system by religious groups 420–1
and use of law by religious groups 421–3
European Court of Human Rights 422–3
risks and obligations 421
third party partisans 422
United States 421–2
see also human rights
Leach, Edmund 251
Lebanon 412
Leganger-Krogstad, Heid 970
Lehman David 493–4
Lenski, Gerhard 233
Leuba, James 763
Lévi-Strauss, Claude 32, 680
Lewis, I M 654
Lewis, James R 792
Lewis, Oscar 992
liberation theology 395
and just war 900
Lichtblau, Klaus 72
life, and spirituality 759
life world, and Habermas 99
Lincoln, Abraham 453
Lincoln, Bruce 41, 210–11, 905
and culture and religion 218–19
Linden, Gurli 767
Lindquist, Galina 788
linguistic turn 223
literary theory, and violence 896–7
Little, David, and morality 342–3, 346–7
Locke, John 432, 880
Lofland, J 732
Lorenz, Konrad 895
Loseke, Donileen R 944, 945
Lot-Falck, E 384
love, and morality 345
Lowdermilk, Walter 822
Löwith, Karl 82
Lubchenco, Jane 827
Luckmann, T 803
Lukács, Georg 214
Lutheran Church, and women ministers 585
Lynn, P 884
Lyon, David 110, 178, 656
and postmodernism 177–8, 188
Lyotard, F 177
McCutcheon, Russell 41, 138, 211
and religious behaviour 273
McDonaldization 657–8
and Alpha Course 658–9
and religious organizations 658–60
McFague, Sally 825
McGuire, Meredith 235, 787
and methodology 752
and religious groups 791
and ritual 789
and secularization 747
and spirituality 746
Machalek, R 732
Machen, J Gresham 479
Machiavelli, Niccolò 880
McKenna, Andrew 919, 920
Mackie, J L 51
McKinney, John 534
McKinney, William 1000
MacLaine, Shirley 103
McLuhan, Marshall 707
McNeill, William 824
Madonna (singer) 103, 360
madrasahs 4
Maffesoli, Michel 39
magic 118 n2, 221, 748–9
and definition of 269
and objectives of 793
and rhetoric of 793
see also esotericism
Maguire, Daniel 830
Mahdism 552–3
and Mahdist movements 553–4
Mahmood, S 109
Malina, Bruce 979
Malinowski, Bronislaw 676, 968
Mannheim, Karl 620–1
Mao Zedong 93
Marett, Robert Ranulph 67
Marias, Julian 620
(p. 1028) markets, religious:
and arts and religion 363–4
and competition 119–20, 121–2, 163, 363–4, 400–1
and Internet 706
and media 694, 697–8
and modernism 163
and monopoly in 121, 122, 400–1
and preferences 163
and rational choice theory of religion 119–20
and United States 121–2
and youth market 698
Marren, R R 674
marriage:
and religious familism 636, 637
and same-sex marriage debate 637
Marsden, George 695
Martin, B 178
Martin, David 156
and secularization/sacralization 165
Martindale, Don 49, 50
martyrdom 24
and Christianity 915–17, 921
and Girard 912, 914–15, 920, 921
and Islam 917–19
and Judaism 915–16
and sociological perspective on 913–15
Girard 914–15
group formation theory 914
martyr as social type 914
martyrological confrontation 913
martyrological narrative 913
martyr's motive 913, 914, 920
symbolism of 913–14
Marx, Karl 12, 880
and commodity fetishism 220–1
and human rights 433–5
and religion 267, 933
and resources as capital 663
and social realities 220
and violence 897–8
and Weber 82
Marxism, and culture 212–13
E P Thompson 213–14
Stuart Hall 214–15
Mascini, Peter 770, 778
Maslow, Abraham 880
Masuzawa, Tomoko 210–11
material culture, and media and religion 697
Maududi, Sayid Abul Ala 901
Maurras, Charles 414
Mauss, Marcel 250
and nationalism 407
and sacrifice 894
al-Mawardi 88
Mawdudi, A 182
Mead, G H 945
Meadows, Dennis 833
meaning, and Weber 71, 72, 75, 81
media and religion 20
and audiences 693–4
and civil religion 692
and commodification of religion 697–8
and convergence of 694
and convergence of scholarship 694
and decline in institutional religious authority 693
and development of media 688
and digital media 693, 696–7
and diversity of content 694
and effects of 689
measurement difficulties 689
and entertainment 690, 691, 693
and Evangelical movement 695–6
and evolution of religious and spiritual exploration 693
and features of media 689
autonomy 689
as economic force 689
as institutions 689
technology 689
translocal nature of 689
and generations 698
and global context 698–9
and individuation of religion 693
and Islam 699
and journalism 690–1
and local cultures 699
and markets 697–8
and material culture 697
and mediated religion 694–5
historical roots of 695
and relations between 692
and religious and secular contexts of material 696
and religious identity 696
and religious media marketplace 694
and rethinking of media 689–90
and ritual 692
and social analysis of 688–9
and televangelism 691–2
and visual culture 697
and youth market 698
medicalization 935
medicine, and secularization 604–5
Mencken, H L 483
Mendelsohn, Everett 482–3
mental models 254
Mercer, Joyce 979
Merton, Robert K 303–4, 930
Methodism 7, 87
and Marxist interpretation of 213–14
methodology 13, 229
and causality 240
and combined methods 239–42
advantages of 241
challenges of 242
example of 242
extending conclusions 241–2
validity 241
and comparative studies 240
and definition:
functions of 270–1
monothetic 272
polythetic 272
religion 271–3, 274
and Durkheim 240
and meaning of 230
and methods 229–30
and new approaches 229
and operationalizing religion 230–1
complexity of 231
dimensions of 231
and qualitative methods 235–8
analysis 236
case studies 235
comparative analysis 237–8
computer-assisted tools 236
conservative use of 237
correspondence analysis 237
interpretation 235
qualitative comparative case studies 237
reports 236
subjectivism 235–6
validity 238–9
and quantitative methods 232–4
characteristics of 232
co-variation 233
factor analysis 233
Lenski's study 233
LISREL analysis 234
measurement 232
regression analysis 233, 234
statistical modelling 234
survey examples 233–4
surveys 232–4, 968–9
validity 238–9
and religion and social problems 937–8
and unchurched spirituality studies 752–4
and validity problem 238–9
and Weber 239–40
Middleton, Russell 322
migration 17
and national identity 459
and new religious vitality 3, 4
and religious diversity 513–14
and religious globalization 491–2, 504
adapting religious identity to new surroundings 498–501
cosmopolitan 494
cosmopolitanism/anti-cosmopolitanism 501–3
cultural heterogeneity 492
cultural homogeneity 492
cultural hybridity 492–3, 502–3
fundamentalist 493
maintenance of religious identity 494–8
and transnational identities 459
Mill, John Stuart 240, 619
millennialism 452
and Mahdism 552–3
Mahdist movements 553–4
and post-millennialism 458
and pre-millennialism 458
and United States 458
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Report 833
Millennium World Peace Summit 823
Miller, Alan 745–6
Miller, James 828
Mills, C Wright 80, 152
Milner Jr, Murray 43
mimetic theory:
and myth and gospel 920
and supersessionism 921–2
and violence 910, 911
minority faiths:
and use of law by 421–3
and use of law to control 423–7
minority groups:
and Atheists 320
hostility towards 324–5
and congregations 569
Minzokuha (National Soul School) 481–2
misrecognition, and Bourdieu 102
missionary movements:
and congregations 570–1
charitable work 570–1
global engagement 571
and consumerist approach of 658
and cultural hybridization 502
mission statements 811
Mitchell, J P 681
Mithraism 307
(p. 1030) Mitroff, Ian 761
models, see conceptual models
modernism and modernity 12
and competitive religious market 163
and critique of 173–4
and definition of 269
and disappearance of religion 152
and Hinduism 160–2
centralization and coordination of 160–1
nationalism 161–2
post-colonial reform 161
rationalization of tradition 161
and Hindu nationalism 153
and implications of 173
and Islam 153, 156–60, 183–4
militant activists 157
pluralization of religious authority 158, 159
politics of 156–7
repudiation by 182–3
shariʼa law 158–9
spread of 157–8
the state 159–60
and malaises of 956
and nature of 173
and Pentecostal Christianity 153–6
accommodation of spirit beliefs 155
Africa 155
capitalism 155–6
development of 154
doctrine 154–5
growth 153–4
Latin America 155
organization of 154
politics of 154, 156, 164
Prosperity Gospel 156
and postmodernist rejection of 174
and public participation in religion 162–3
and reason 173
and religion and the state 164
and religious revival 152, 162
and secularization 164–5
modernization:
and definition of religion 275–6
and ontological security 207
and pillarization in Netherlands 207
and religion 22, 99
and religious history 69
and secularization 165
and Weber 67, 75
Mohanty, Chandra Talpade 141–2
monopoly, and religious market 121, 122, 400–1
Monroe, Kristen Renwick 951
Montada, Leo 880
Montesquieu, Charles de 432
Moody, Dwight L 479
Mooney, Chris 315
Mooney, James 987–8
Moonies, see Unification church
Moore, James 485
moral individualism, and spiritualities of life 770
morality 14
and autonomy of 337
and autonomy of moral practices 346–51, 352
distinction from religion 347–8
moral action-guides 347
objections to distinction from religion 348–51
reconstructive definitions 346–7
solving social problems 347
and cosmization as alienation 337–41, 351–2
objections to 339–40
and depth grammar 341–6, 352
communicative discourse 343–4
human rights 342–3
moral languages and traditions 344–6
natural law 343
objections to 344–5
reason 342
retribution and mitigation 342
universal norms 344
and differentiation from religion 336–7
moral order, and unchurched spirituality 755
Morgan, David 697
Morocco 440
Morris, Henry M 484
Moyers, Bill 827
Mubarak, Hosni 396
Muhammad:
as last Prophet 549
and Weber 88
Müller, Max 685
multiculturalism:
and language-based 413
and national identity 459
and religion-based 413
and religious education 974
and United States 455, 466
music:
and congregations 565–6
and esotericism 796
and trance 376, 378, 386
Muslim Brotherhood 4, 396, 479, 918
Myers, Richard 927
mythology, and Durkheim 41
(p. 1031) Naess, Arne 824
Naʼim, Abdullahi 442
Nanak, Guru 903
narratives, and conceptual models 252–3, 258–9
Nash, Laura L 619
Nash, Manning 386
Nasr, Seyyed Hossein 822
Nasser, Gamal Abdul 396
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) 305
National Council of churches 422
National Geographic Society 323
national identity 410
and globalization 453–6, 462–3, 464, 487–8
and historical revisionism 465
and migration 459
and multiculturalism 459
and the other 461
and religion 406, 451, 461
and United Kingdom:
controversy surrounding 455
debate about 465
impact of religious diversity 454
scale of problem 456
search for 454–5
values 465
and United States 455, 466
National Institutes for Health (USA) 305
nationalism 15–16
as anti-religious force 407–9
and changes in nature of 414–15
and definition of 407
and development of 407
and dual nature of 415–16
and France 407, 408, 414
and Hinduism 161–2, 412, 902
and individualism 407
and Islam 413–14
and language 412
and nation-making 408
and religion 406–7, 415–16
and religion-based nationalism 409–10
ambivalence of 416
development of ethno-religious nationalism 410–12
specificity of 412–14
and religious violence 898–9
and secularization 408, 416
and statist and territorial nature of 409
and tradition 412
National Religious Partnership for the Environment (NRPE) 823
National Science Foundation (USA) 305, 315
national security:
and human rights 466
and totalitarianism 468
natural law, and morality 343
Needham, Joseph 469–70
Nelson, L 883
neo-Confucianism 93
neo-Durkheimians 32
neo-liberalism, and secularization 94
neo-paganism, and belief 788
Nepal 453
Netherlands, and pillarization 206–7
Neuhas, R 177
Neuman, S 663
New Age movement 531
and belief 788
and community 791
and objectives of 793
and replacement of traditional religion 179
and rhetoric of 793
New Education Fellowship 811
New Left 212
New Religious Movements (NRMs) 397, 609, 723
and change 8
and characteristics of 725
and charismatic authority 729
and conversion to 731–4
affiliation-disaffiliation sequence 733
class origins 724
mode of connection 732–3
movement development 733–4
multi-dimensional nature of 732, 733
source of impetus 732
symbolic and social dimensions 732
and definition of 725, 726
and development of 734–5
charismatic leadership 735
death of founder 735
prophetic failure 735
and esotericism 794
and gender 730
and impact of 20–1
and larger social order 724
and limited impact of 723–4
and opposition to 736–7
movement-counter movement relationship 736–7
and origination of religious organization 724
and origins of 726
as protest against modernity 728–9
and religious diversity 511
and research on 737
and rise of 3
and significance of 723–4
(p. 1032) and social dislocation 727–31
religious economy 730
temporal markers of 730–1
and social problems theory 926
and typology of religious organization 726
and urban successes 724
and youth 730
New Religious Studies (NRS) 21, 737
and challenge facing 738
and contribution of 724–5, 737
and issues addressed by 737–8
and origins of 723
New Spirituality Movements (NSMs), and impact of 20–1
New Thought 531
Newton, Isaac 308
Nhat Hanh, Thich 823
Nicaragua 461
Nichiren Shoshu 481
Niebuhr, H Richard 653
and just war 900
and typology of religious organization 528, 529
Nietzsche, Friedrich 84, 92, 912, 919
Non-Overlapping Magisteria (NOMA) 304
nonviolence 891
Novak, Philip, and altruism 877, 880–1
nuclear family, and religious power 203
Numbers, Ronald 311
Nuri, Mirza Hussein Ali 554
Nynäs, Peter 285
occultism 784, 795
see also esotericism
OʼConnor, June 143
OʼConnor, Sandra 468
Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives 932
OʼGrady, Kevin 970, 971, 974, 977, 979
Oldenberg, Hermann 67, 68
ontological security 197–8
and collective enhancement of 201
and modernization 207
and prayer 200
and religion 202
and religious empowerment 199–200
and religious power 199, 208
and symbolic power 198–9
ontology, and definition of religion 265–7, 274
Opus Dei 947
Orangi Project 769
order, and religious violence 905
organic religion 2
Orientalism 217
and hierarchy of religions 86
Origen 900
Orsi, Robert A 1000
Ortega y Gasset, José, and generations 620
Ortner, Sherry 55
and practice theory 57
and the Sherpas 56–8
and Weber 58–9
Oser, Fritz 290, 291
Østberg, Sissel 974, 975
other:
and national identity 461
and relativization 463
Ottoman Empire 555
Ozarak, Elisabeth 284
Pace, Enzo 611
Pakistan 453, 768–9
panentheism 762
pantheism 762
Papua New Guinea 361
parish nursing 848
Parliament of World Religions 823, 828
Parsis 495
Parsons, Talcott 59, 80, 311
and Weber 82
Pascal, Blaise 487
and Pascal's wager 329
Pecora, Vincent P 452
Peirce, Charles S 252, 994–5
Pentecostal Christianity:
and accommodation of spirit beliefs 155
and Africa 155
and capitalism 155–6
and cultural hybridity 503
and development of 154
and doctrine 154–5
and growth of 153–4
and Latin America 155
and lay participation 366
and modernity 153–6
and organization of 154
and politics of 154, 156, 164
and Prosperity Gospel 156
and women ministers 585
performance:
and conceptual models 255–6, 257
and ritual 675
Perkins, H Wesley 884
persecution 920, 921
personality, and Weber 81–2
Peterson, B 870
(p. 1033) phenomenology of religion 70–1, 139
philosophy of science, and conceptual models 248–50
Piaget, Jean 289–90
Pickering, W S F, and Durkheim's concept of the sacred 34, 35
piety:
and spirituality 743
and Weber 81, 83, 90
pillarization, and the Netherlands 206–7
Pinker, Steven 312
Pippin, R:
and modernity 174
and postmodernism 175
Plato 308, 880
pluralism:
and new religious vitality 8
and rational choice theory of religion 121–2, 126–8
and religious vitality 7, 400–1
Poland:
and nationalism 415
and religion/state relations 395
and religious structuring of legal system 420
political, and civil religion 471
political activism, and religious familism 637
political religion 467, 471
and theocracy 453
politics and religion 15–16, 399–400, 452
and religionalization of politics 892
and religious influence on political actions 403
Pollock, Sheldon 53–4
polygamy, and Tunisia 441
popular culture:
and esotericism 796
and spiritualities of life 760
popular religion, and implicit religion 805
population control 830
Porterfield, Amanda 620
positive emotions, and altruism 881–2
possession 15, 375
and shamanism 384–5
and trance 380–1
post-colonialism:
and gender theory 136–7,145–6
and religious studies 136–7, 140, 145–6
Postman, Neil 627
postmodernism 12
and critiques of 185–6
critiques of 186–7
and decline in traditional religiosity 176–7, 184–5
and deregulation of religion 656
and fundamentalist backlash 179–81
and Islam 182–4
and knowledge and beliefs as product of environment 175
and meta-narratives 175, 177
and narratives 175
and orientation to religious phenomena 655–6
and political economy 175
and rejection of modernism 174
applied and political 175
theoretical and methodological 175
and relativism 175
and religious revival 177–9
and truth 175, 177
post-structuralism 33
Powell, Walter 848
power:
and capabilities and desire 196–7
and congregations 574
and culture 218
and definition of 195–6
and imbalances in 971
and practice theory 57
and religion 105,106–9
Bourdieu 102, 107–8, 110
Foucault 105–6, 108–9, 110
Habermas 106–7, 110
and religious power 194
bearers of 200–2
capitalism 203
collective self-empowerment 201
convertibility of 205
cultural effects of 203–4
definition of 196
nuclear family 204
ontological security 199
pillarization 206–7
political power 205
practical role 204–5
priests 201–2, 203
religious empowerment 199–200
religious regimes 205–6
strength of 202–3
symbolic power 198–9
and symbolic power 198–9
practice:
and nature of 369
and repetition 370
and spiritual practice 369
practice theory:
and Ortner 57
and ritual 681–4
and Weber 49
(p. 1034) prayer:
and health 836–7, 847
and ontological security 200
pre-animism 67
preferences, and religious market models 163
prestige goods 43
Prestonwood Baptist church 360, 364–5
priests, and religious power 201–2, 203
printing, and development of 688
Prison Fellowship 870
prisons, and faith-based prison programs 870–1
privacy, and dissolution of idea of 467
Promisekeepers 638
prophecy, and Weber 74
pro-social behavior, and role of religion in promoting 868–71
Prosperity Gospel, and Pentecostal Christianity 156
Protestant ethic:
and emergence of capitalist spirit 51–2, 64–5
and religious power 203
Protestantism:
and Kant 85
and science 304
and women ministers 584–5
see also clergy
psychiatry, and science/religion relations 312
psychoanalysis, and science/religion relations 312
psychology:
and science/religion relations 311–14
and violence 895–6
public space:
and contest over 6
and religion's renewed influence 6–7
public sphere:
and Habermas 99–100
and role of religion in 101
Pufendorf, Samuel 432
Puritanism:
and Weber 92
and work 65
Putnam, Robert 569, 663
Putney, Snell 322
Qizilbash 555
Quakerism:
and origins and features of 674
and worship meeting 673
community development 675–6
differences in 674
emotion and belief 675
interpretations of 674, 684
meaning of 677
play 675
structure of 679–80
symbolism in 677
Quine, William V Orman 254
Rabiʼal-ʼAdawiyya 383
Radcliffe-Brown, A R, and ritual 675, 676
radicals, and political management of religion 1–2
Ragin, Charles 237
Rahner, Karl 803, 917
Raj, D S 970
Ram-Prasad, C 978
Rapoport, David C 898, 919
Rappaport, Roy 41–2, 824
Rashtriya Svayamsevak Sangh (RSS) 564, 902
Rastafarianism 511
rational choice theory (RCT) of religion 12, 116, 312–13
and assessment of 129–30
and criticisms of:
empirical applications 126–9
ethnocentric bias 125
foundations of 124–6
preferences 126
religion as matter of choice 124–5
religious belief 125–6
sects and cults 128–9
secularization and pluralism 126–8
and definition of religion 268–9
and empirical applications:
sects and cults 122–3, 128–9
secularization and pluralism 121–2, 126–8
and foundations of 117–21
exchange relations with gods 118
market competition 120
religion as collective affair 119
religious capital 121
religious market 119–20
religious organizations 119
religious systems of explanation 118
rewards 117
social capital 121
rationality:
and epistemic rationality 124–5
and religion as social problem 936–7
and religious statements 107
rationalization, and Weber 79–81
Read, G T 966
Reagan, Ronald 403
reality, and definition 266
reason, and morality 342
Redfield, Robert 992
Reeve, R 979
(p. 1035) Reformation 393
and individuality 105
and secularization 608
Regnerus, M 884
regulation, and religious vitality 400–1
reincarnation 973
relational and contextual reasoning (RCR) 281, 293
relativism, and postmodernism 175, 185
relativization, and globalization 463
religion:
and benefits of 329–30
and definition of 13, 118,194–5, 230–1, 246, 277, 748, 876
approaches to 264
cognitive science perspective 284–5
confusion surrounding 457
development of science 276
difficulties with 273–4
dimensions of 283–4
epistemological dimension 267–70, 274
ethnocentrism 350
functional 269, 747
goals of religion 347
mapping 263–4
methodological dimension 270–3, 274
modernization 275–6
ontological dimensions 265–7, 274
position of the definer 276–7
practice of definition 275
pragmatic approach to 274–5
substantive 269, 747
and dimensions of 975
and etymology of 84
and features of 391
and force of 5
and global perspective on 1, 2, 9, 10
as ideology 9
and ontological security 202
and organic understanding of 1, 2, 9–10
and political management of 1–2, 9, 427
and renewed social influence 6–7
and scope of 5
and spirituality 270, 744–5
relationship between 746–8
and survival 198
and transcendence 197, 198
Religion in Public Life Survey 324
Religious and Moral Pluralism (RAMP) study 234, 606
religious capital:
and rational choice theory of religion 121, 128–9
and reproduction and transmission of 663–5
religious collectivities, and classification of 17–18
religious development:
and children 286–7
and epistemic cognition 291–4
matching thought form and problem structure 293–4
ontological development 291–2
reflecting on epistemic issues 292–3
and features of 288–9
and stage-structural theories of 290–1
religious diversity 17, 507–8
and consequences of 514
conflict 515–16
context of 516
institutional impact 515
social cohesion 514–15
social effects 516
and consumerism 512
and contemporary picture of 509–10
and definition of 507
and globalization 513
and increase in 507
and likelihood of 511
and management of 516–19
aims of 517
difficulties with 518
laissez-faire approach 517, 518
post-industrial societies 517–18
religious freedoms 518–19
suppression 517
value of difference 517
and measurement of 508–9
and migration 513–14
and New Religious Movements (NRMs) 511
and new religious vitality 8
and pluralism 508
and plurality 508
and privatization of religion 512
within religious groups 510
and renewed interest in 507
and social cohesion 511–12, 514–15
and social tensions 512–13
and sources of 510–11
religious education:
and aims of 966, 974
and citizenship education 974, 975
and congregations 566–7
and ethnographic study of 970
and multiculturalism 974
religious freedom:
and management of religious diversity 518–19
and national unity 468–9, 470
Religious Judgement, Theory of 290
(p. 1036) religious power 194
and bearers of 200–2
priests 201–2, 203
and collective self-empowerment 201
and convertibility of 205
and cultural effects of 203–4
capitalism 203
nuclear family 204
and definition of 196
and ontological security 199, 208
and political power 205
and practical role 204–5
and religious empowerment 199–200
and religious regimes 205–6
pillarization 206–7
and strength of 202–3
and symbolic power 198–9
religious revival:
and globalization 469
and postmodernist perspective 177–9
religious studies:
and emergence of 966
and ethnography 967
and relationship with theology 966
religious vitality:
and concerns over 5
and contest over public space 6
and diversity of 7, 8
and implications of 9–10
and meaning of 4–5
and pluralism 121–2, 126–8
and reasons for renewal of 3–4
and religious belief 5–6
and social impact of 6
and sociological interest in 3
and state regulation 400–1
as worldwide phenomenon 3, 5–6
religous education 966
Renan, Ernest 407
Renfield, James 998, 999
repetition, and religion 370
representation, and ethnography 990–4
levels of 991–3
reproduction and transmission of religion 19–20
and Alpha Course 19, 658–9
and alternative community structures 654
and Berger 652
and collective structures 657
and community fragmentation 653
and deregulation of religion 656
and deviant belief systems 652–3
and difficulty of 653
and Durkheim 651
and evangelical Christians 652–3
and evolutionary perspective on religion 650–1
and family 660–2
and ideologies of progress 651
and institutions 657, 663
and intergenerational 19
and McDonaldization 658–60
and orientation to religious phenomena 655–6
and postmodernist perspective 655–6
and religious capital 663–5
and religious identity 658
and resource mobilization perspective 663–5
and secondary institutions 654
and secularization 651–2, 653
and small group meetings 654
and spiritual capital 664–5
and strategies for 652–3
and sustainability of collective structures 655
and weakening of traditions 656–7
Republican Party (USA):
and religion 315
and science 315
resource mobilization, and reproduction and transmission of religion 663–5
Rey, Terry 664
Richards, J M, Jr 883
Richman, Michèle 39
Riesebrodt, Martin 898
Riis, Ole 1000
Rimmer, Harry 483
rites of passage, and sacred/profane binary 35
ritual 20
and belief 675
and Bourdieu 108
and definition of, problems with 672, 684
as distinct from participants 683–4
and diversity of behavior described by 671
and emotional states 674–5
and esotericism 789–90
participatory model 789
Scientology 789–90
and function of 673–8
and healing 847
and instrumental nature of 676
and interpretations of 684–5
and meaning of 671–2, 677–8
and media and religion 692
and nature of 672
and performance 675
and playfulness 675
as practice:
actions 683
participants' attitudes 682
ritualization 681–2, 683
and practice theory 681–4
and ritualization 339
and setting of 682–3
and similarities of different rituals 672–3
and social cohesion 676
and structure of 678–81
modes of being 678
tripartite 678
violence 680–1
and symbols 677
and theories of 673
Ritzer, George 657
Robbins, Joel 361
Robbins, T 728
Roberts, John 423
Roberts, R 177
Robertson, Pat 691
Robertson, Roland 265
and church-sect theory 527, 532
Robertson-Smith, W:
and ritual 676
and sacrifice 893
Roco, Mihail 314, 331
Rodinson, Maxime 87
Rogers, CArl 880
Roheim, Geza 312
Rokeach, Milton 883
Roiston, Holmes 824
Roman Catholicism:
and cross-generational religious trends 628–9
and Latin America 394–5
and religion/state relations:
Brazil 394–5
Poland 395
and Weber 83
see also clergy
Roof, Wade Clark 693, 745, 750, 754, 996, 1000
Rose, Stuart 745
Rosicrucianism 531, 787
Rouget, Gilbert 378
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques 212, 403, 432, 434–5, 471, 880
Rubin, Beth 999
Rubington, Earl 944
Rue, Loyal 284
Ruether, Rosemary 825
Rupp, George 828
Rushdie, Salman 463
Rushton, J Philippe 879–80
Russia:
and desecularization 605
and hierarchy of religions 424
and law and religion 426–7
and religious structuring of legal systems 420–1
Russian Orthodox Church 420–1, 423
Sacks, Jonathan 470
sacred:
and criticism of concept 33
and Durkheim 32–4, 221
anti-structural aspect of 38
effervescence of group gatherings 38–40
evolutionary sociality 41–4
as marker of shared identity 36–7
sacred/profane binary 34–5
violations of 37–8
as way of reading history of religion 35–6
and linguistification of 99
and sacred authority 347–8
sacrifice:
and conceptual models 250–1
and sacrificial violence 893–5
Sadat, Anwar 396
al-Sadr, Muqtada 554
Sagan, Eli 896
Said, Edward 988
and orientalism 217
and power imbalance 971
St Marie of the Incarnation 382
St Teresa of Avila 382
Salafis 545, 546
Sallman, Warner 365
Salvation Army 529
Sambur, Bilal 970
San Francisco Bay Area Study 624
Sanneh, Lamin 469, 470
Sarkozy, Nicolas 408
Satanism 792, 926
Saudi Arabia 439, 453
Savarkar, V D 902
Sayyid Qutb 182
Scarlett, George 289
Scharper, Stephen 828
schema violations 371
Schiller, Glick 500
schismatic movements, and rational choice theory of religion 122–3
Schluchter, Wolfgang 87
Schmidtz, David 881–2
Schneider, Joseph 935
Schurman, J G 320
Schutz, A 945
science:
and conceptual models 248–50
(p. 1038) and definition of religion 276
and esotericism 784
and influence of 314–15
and lack of public understanding 315
and unification of 314, 331
science and religion 13, 14, 303
cognitive science 311–14
cosmology 306–9
evolution 309–11
fundamentalism 482–5
geocentrism 306–9
psychology 311–14
relations between 303–6, 315–16
affinities 303–4
Christian evangelical option 306
conflict 305, 331
constructivist traditional option 306
critical post-Enlightenment option 306
environmental issues 304–5
modern option 305–6
postmodern constructivist option 306
typology of 304, 305
and unchurched spirituality 755
unified science 314–15
Scientology 304, 397, 421, 423
Scopes, John T 483
Searle, John 255
secondary institutions, and reproduction and transmission of religion 654
sectarianism 3
sects:
and beliefs and practices 527
and definition of 122
and leadership 527
and membership 527
and origins of 726
and rational choice theory of religion 122–3, 128–9
and typology of religious organization 529, 726
secularism 3
secularization:
and analytical levels 600
and appearance of 178
and atheism 327
and Belgium 603–4
and changes in social role of religion 600
and communism 94
and conflicting evaluations of secularization theory 599
and definition of 600, 747
and definition of religion 269–70, 600
and democratization of education 604–5
and desecularization 605
and differentiation 336–7
and esotericism 795–6
post-secular esotericism 796
and European Union 19
and existential security 612
and family 661
and France 602–3
and globalization 94, 481
and individual secularization 19, 605–7
compartmentalization 606–7
continuing religious sensitivity 606
loss of religious authority 606
and individuation of religion 607–8
and institutional differentiation 361–2
and introduction of the clock 604
and Islam 611–12
and legal changes 610–11
and manifest secularization 602, 610–11
future of 612–13
and meaning of 599–600
and modernity 164–5
and modernization theory 165
and nationalism 408, 416
and organizational level of religions 608–10
Christmas 609–10
New Religious Movements (NRMs) 609
and postmodernism 176–7, 184–5
and professionalization of medical profession 604–5
and rational choice theory of religion 121–2, 126–8
and Russia 605
and societal and organizational 602–5
and theoretical background of secularization theory 600–2
disenchantment of the world 601–2
functional differentiation 600–1
functional rationality 601
societalization of subsystems 601, 602
and Weber 75, 94
Secularization theory, and religion's declining influence 5
segregation, and congregations 568
selective absorption:
and arts and religion 364–5
and education 364
self-sacrifice:
and Christianity 877
and Judaism 877–8
see also altruism
sensory deprivation, and trance 378
September 11 terrorist attacks:
and impact of 23
and religious violence 892
(p. 1039) Serageldin, Ismail 827
sermons, and congregations 567
Serrano, Andre 371
sexuality:
and Christianity 104
and cults 382–3
and Freud 222
and Roman Catholic priests 589
and shamanism 385
and trance 382–3, 386
Shaffer, Boyd 406
shamanism 375
and possession 384–5
and sexual aspects of 385
and trance 384–6
cults 381–3
shariʼa law, and resurgence of Islam 158–9
Sharpe, Eric 31–2
Shaw, Rosalind 143
Sherpas 56–8
Shiʼi Islam 18, 545
and authority 88
and common ground with Sunni Islam 546
as dissident branch 545–6
and historical origins of Shiʼite schism 547–8
and Mahdism:
Hidden Imam 552–3
Mahdist movements 553–4
and Mahdism/millenarianism 552–3
and martyrdom 918
of Hussein 550–1, 918
and sanctity of Ali 548
as sect 545, 546
and sectarian splits 551–2
Assassins 551
Druze 552
Ismaʼilis 551–2, 558
sectarianism in modern politics 556–7
Zeydi Shiʼism 551
and theology of Imamism 549–50
and Weber 88
see also Islam
Shirazi, Sayid Ali Muhammad 553–4
Shirokogoroff, S M 384, 385
Shostak, Marjorie 992
Siebeck, Hermann 68
signification 223
Siikala, Anna-Leena 385
Sikes, P 974
Sikhism, and religious violence 902–3
Simmel, Georg 69, 70, 775
Singapore 497–8
Sittler, Joseph 822
Sivan, Emmanuel 896
Skeie, Geir 972
Skinner, B F 880
Smalley, Sarah 979
small group meetings, and reproduction and transmission of religion 654
Smart, Ninian 231, 809, 975
and definition of religion 283
Smilde, David 238
Smith, Anthony 411
Smith, Christian 661, 778
Smith, George H 320
Smith, Greg 954
Smith, H 884
Smith, Jonathan Z 32, 36–7, 147–8
and culture and religion 217–18
and typology of religious systems 38
Smith, Wilfred Cantwell 904
and culture and religion 216–17
Smith, W Robertson 33, 34, 35, 250
Snow, D 732
social capital, and rational choice theory of religion 121, 128–9
social cohesion 468
and religion 7
and religious diversity 8, 511–12, 514–15
and religious freedom 470
and ritual 676
social constructionism, see constructionism
social-constructivist theories 211, 217
social control theory, and crime 868
social desirability, and altruism 887
social development, and religion 100
social dislocation, and New Religious Movements (NRMs) 727–31
social inference theory of religion 313–14
social problems and religion 24, 925–6, 938–9, 943–4
and concept of social problem 944–5
and cults 926
and definition of social problem 926–7, 944, 948
contextual constructionism 929
labeling approach 927
social constructionist approach 928–9
and development of sociological study of social problems 944–5
and happiness 948–50
and horizons of significance 956–7
and individual responses to social problems 950–3
altruism 951
expectations 952–3
role of church 952–3
role of religion 951–2
and institutional responses to social problems 953–5
accepting help from 955
attitude of public sector 955
challenge of 957–8
psycho-social services 955
relationship with larger society 954–5
resources 953
role of 958
social welfare 953–4
tension between spiritual and social role 954
and methodological considerations 937–8
and New Religious Movements (NRMs) 926
and relationship between 925–6, 945–8
and religion as social problem 933–4, 947
ethics 934–5
healthiness/medicalization 935–6
heresy 936
pseudo-religion 937
rationality 936–7
and religion as solution to 930–1, 945–7
claims making 929, 931
claims of community 932–3
material claims 931–2
spiritual claims 933
and role of religion 945–8
empowered 946
growing relevance of 946–7
holism 946–7
and solidarity 956, 957
and traditional approach to intersection of 929–30
Society of Biblical Literature (SBL) 210
Socrates 326, 880
Soka Gakkai 5, 481
solidarity:
and religious institutions 957
and social problems 956
Soper, David 824
Sorokin, Pitirim A:
and altruism 882
and secularization and revival 327–8
Sorrentino, Richard M 879–80
Soul of Britain survey 762
Spector, M 926, 928, 948
speech acts, and conceptual models 256
Sperber, D 677
Spe