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date: 23 August 2017

(p. 675) Index

a priori segmentation386, 392–6
application of396–8
AA1000416
Accenture644
accountability35, 405–24
definition405
external social audit407, 416–19
counter-accounting406, 418–19
crisis reports418
monitoring129–30, 417–18
Framework Convention on Corporate Accountability586
stand-alone reports406–7, 408–11
assurance procedures416
challenges413–16
problems411–13
to stakeholders277–8
Triple Bottom Line412, 419, 520
accountable actors601
accounting12–13, 319–22, 431–6
costing433–5
activity-based433–4
eco-efficiency indicators434–5
energy-related167–8
green products367–70
life cycle321, 435
material flow320, 431
physical flow/eco-balance analysis434
product/service434
quality434
total cost assessment321
definition of432
environment-related cost information431
monitoring435–6
environmental audit114–15, 231, 435
internal reporting436
operational and capital budgeting432–3
and sustainability438–9
Triple Bottom Line412, 419, 520
acid rain4
Ackerman, Frank, Priceless: On Knowing the Price of Everything and the Value of Nothing163
action formation330
activism84, 87–9
collective actionsee collective action
direct confrontation257
global261
industrial organization of133–4
interest group pressure234
organized255–6
activity-based costing433–4
Addams, Jane543
advocacy544, 580
aesthetics634–5
affect heuristics371
Agassi, Shai600
Age of Enlightenment541
Agenda21621, 622
agricultural lobby544–5
air pollution251, 546
smog542, 546
Alcoa305
alertness73
Allied Chemical547
Alpha-Ecos386
altruism332, 339
Amazon328
Amazon rainforest, destruction of549
American Carbon Registry601
American Institute of Certified Public Accountants446–7
American Marketing Association354
Amoco237
Anan, Kofi550
Anderson, Ray565, 615
Apple280, 328
Appreciative Inquiry (AI)16 (p. 676)
Appropriate Community Technology demonstration547
arbitrage pricing theory492
arsenic329
astroturf organizing15, 223
audit
Eco-management and Audit Scheme (EMAS)236, 328, 428, 528, 562
environmental114–15, 231, 435
external social407, 416–19
supplier435
Audubon Society84, 133, 543
Australia, Superannuation Legislation Amendment Act477
B&NE4, 195, 519
certification106–10
collective responsibility110–12
critical analysis576–82
critical research agenda582–7
organizational culture194–210
B2B market351, 357–8
balanced scorecard approach436, 515
bargaining power57, 135
Baumol, William660
Bear Stearns, collapse of597
behavioral change631
behavioral segmentation386, 392–6
application of398–400
belief-action outcome330, 339
beliefs330–1
formation of331–3
Ben & Jerry's349
Benuys, Janine670
Berry, Thomas670
Best Available Control Technology126
Better Place project600
beyond compliance strategies230
Bhopal pesticide disaster6–7, 29, 53, 112, 236, 408, 454, 548, 620
biodegradability349
biodiversity251
biotechnology251
Blue Angel350
BMW303
Body Shop349
Bookchin, Murray662
Boone and Crockett Club542
Bosch297, 302
bottled water industry557–8
bottom-up initiatives591, 600, 603, 604
Bowen, Howard520
boycotts256, 257
brand credence368
brand marketing349
Brent Spar oil rig549, 620
British Airways408
British East India Company648–9
British Petroleum, Deepwater Horizon disaster62, 640
British Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce545
British Standard for Environmental Management (BS7750)528
Brückner, Eduard483
Brundtland Commission349, 408, 520, 612, 621, 624
budget
capital432–3, 503
operational432–3
built environment563
bundling168–9, 377
Burke, Edmund649
Bush, George W.668
business lawsee legal issues
business management5–9
business and natural environmentsee B&NE
business research9–10
relevance of23
business strategy11
and industrial ecology312–14
business-to-consumer goods302
buyer-supplier relations239–40
4C association248
C-Suite639–46
CEOs and Presidents642–3
(p. 677)
CIOs and CFOs643–4
CLO, CRO and CSO644–5
COO and CPO644
cap-and-trade emissions213
capabilities35–6
differences in55
capital522
capital asset pricing theory465, 492, 506see also net present value
capital budgeting432–3, 503
capitalism640–1, 647, 660
and degenerative globalization664–5
externalization of costs and risks662–3
and financial myopia665–7
freedom from regulation667–8
and growth of throughput660–2
inclusive653–4
mutual reinforcement668–9
political and regulatory capture663–4
reformation of669–71
carbon
emissions328–9
footprint4, 279
lock-in595–6
management systems337–8
pricing256
trading127
Carbon Disclosure Project39, 41, 329
Carnegie, Andrew650
Carson, Rachael, Silent Spring5, 250–1, 546, 660
Carver, George Washington544
cash flow506–7, 510
catastrophe bonds488
certification106–10, 318–19, 360
benefits of108
empirical evidence107
and environmental performance107
independent114–15
social explanations109–10
stakeholder confusion109see also regulatory issues; standards
Challenger space shuttle explosion548
chaos theory593–4
chartered corporations649
chemical management services320
Chemical Manufacturers Association, Responsible Care program32, 41, 111, 112, 114, 116, 217, 231, 236, 528, 621
chemurgy movement544–5
Chernobyl accident7, 408, 548
Chicago Climate Exchange260
Chicago Mercantile Exchange494
Chichilnisky, Graciela488
Chief Accounting Officers (CAOs)643
Chief Creativity Officers (CCOs)645
Chief Executive Officerssee CEOs
Chief Financial Officers (CFOs)643
Chief Innovation Officers (CIOs)645
Chief Investment Officers (CIOs)643
Chief Legal Officers (CLOs)644–5
Chief Marketing Officers (CMOs)644–5
Chief Operating Officers (COOs)644
Chief Procurement Officers (CPOs)644
Chief Responsibility Officers (CROs)644–5
Chief Sustainability Officers (CSOs)644–5
Chief Technology Officers (CTOs)645
China, Three Gorges Dam project549
Chiquita564
choice architecture166
cholera542
Chouinard, Yvon615
Churchill, Winston670
Civilian Conservation Corps544
Clean Air Act123, 127, 149, 152, 303, 547
Amendments (1990)452
clean energy600
Clean Water Act123, 142, 303, 547
cleantech213
climate change4, 7, 164, 484, 489, 591
Framework Convention140
institutional dynamics221–2see also global warming; weather risks
climate cycles483–4
climate governance595–8
Climate Leaders128
clockspeed277
and environmental impact279
of supply chains273
(p. 678)
closed-loop supply chains290–309
control and operation307
definition of290
design306
forward293–4, 298
interdisciplinary research307
as process flow291–2
product recovery294, 295, 298–306
recycling in305–6
reverse293, 294–8
Club of Rome6, 251, 595, 621
Coal Combustion By-Products Program128
Coca Cola418
mission statement562
cognitive bias161–75, 386
discounting the future162–3
egocentrism164–5
overcoming165–71
defaults166–7
delay of wise policies169–71
policy bundling168–9
salience of energy costs167–8
positive illusions163–4
cognitive forces216–17
cognitive heuristics161
collaboration283
collapse of ecosystems601–3
collective action249, 598
issue framing254–5
logic of540
mobilization254–5
political opportunities254see also activism
collective responsibility110–12
empirical evidence111–12
and environmental performance111
industry benefits112
research112
command and control regulation126
commercial returns301–2
community527
community action research358
community interest groups234
Companie des Indes648
competition40–2
competitive structure and environmentsee CSE
competitor pressure235
complementary assets35
complex dynamic systems593
complex systems357–8, 591–608
challenges to intervention598
collapse and emergence601–3
economy-environment linkages594–5
environmental action in599–601
environmental applications592–5
far-from-equilibrium conditions600
recognition of crisis597–8
understanding and simulating596–7
complexity catastrophe603
compliance147–9, 428
economic pressures148
licensing148–9
operational435
sanctions115
social pressure130–3, 148
symbolic259
compliance companies626
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Actsee Superfund legislation
confrontation134–6, 257, 260
conservation251, 542, 543
Conservation International and Environmental Defense Fund131
consumer culture theory359
consumer decision-making366–83
cost-benefit trade-off369
emotional decisions371–4
avoidance of green trade-offs372–3
and evaluation of green benefits371–2
ignoring of information373–4
environmental identity376–8
free riding370
green actions vs green outcomes367–9
inferences on green attributes369–70
influences on374–6
context effects375
joint vs separate evaluation375
monetary value and preference374–5
rejection vs selection of options374
repurchasing378–9
consumer demand350
consumer mistrust368
consumer preferencesee preference (p. 679)
consumption
sustainable levels of355–7
technology as driver for539–40
contamination251see also pollution
context effects375–6
contextual identity376
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES)140
Conventionals395
convergence600
cooperation40–2, 134–6, 257, 260–1
cooperative federalism142
cooptation260
coordination314–16
Copenhagen Earth Summit164, 591, 598, 599, 604, 626
corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards259
corporate boards91–2
Corporate Conservation Council549
corporate decision-making502–16
managerial agency502–3, 514–15
corporate environmental disclosuresee disclosure of information
corporate environmental financial reporting444–61
definition444
disclosure of information128–9, 144, 444–5, 446–51
and market valuation451–4see also accounting
corporate environmental integration430
corporate environmentalism4, 5–9, 248, 260, 556–71
future research567
greenwashing129, 221–2, 259, 274, 329, 368, 414, 559, 560–1
as regulatory compliance5–6
as strategic management6–7
as sustainability7–9
corporate geneology648–51
corporate lobbying249
corporate models651
corporate policies200
corporate response to environmental problems218
corporate social performance522
corporate social responsibility9, 413, 519–36, 538, 612, 625
agendas529–31
as cluster concept520
definition520–1
economic theories522–3
environmental issues as drivers527–30
instrumental theories521–2
business case437, 521–2
network theories523–5
ecofeminism524
stakeholder theory358, 523–4
sustaincentrism524–5
political theories525–7
ecological citizenship526–7
new corporate environmentalism526
corporate welfare663–4
Corporation20/20 552–3
corporations
chartered649
management502
ownership502
redefinition of551–3
stakeholder552
cost-benefit analysis317, 435
cost-benefit trade-off369
costs433–5
activity-based433–4
eco-efficiency indicators434–5
energy-related167–8
externalization of662–3
green products367–70
life cycle321, 435
material flow320, 431
physical flow/eco-balance analysis434
product/service434
quality434
total cost assessment321see also accounting
Council on Economic Priorities417
counter-accounting406, 418–19 (p. 680)
counter-movements222–3
creative destruction73
credence attributes368
crisis recognition597–8
crisis reports418
critical engagement586–7
critical management studies572–90
emergence of573–6
critical research agenda582–7
engagement586–7
global environmental governance585
limits of green management583–4
paradigmatic research583
political economic approach584–5
CSE29–49
adjoining fields32–3
critiques and recommendations40–3
differentiation31
environmental/financial performance36–7
implementation33–6
methodology37–40
relatedness31
resource-based view30–1
customer preference614
customers89–91, 271
buyer-supplier relations239–40
pressure from235
Cuyahoga River disaster546
Daly, Herman163
data-led studies42–3
death anxiety187
death awareness186–7
decision-making15–16
cognitive biases161–75
corporate502–16
decoupling223
Deepwater Horizon disaster62, 640
defaults166–7
deforestation253
degenerative globalization664–5
degree-days493–4
Delmas, Magali110, 129
dematerialization317, 320, 358
denaturalization575
Design for Environment312, 313, 621
design thinking333
design-science research333
Desrochers, Pierre545
development127, 576
differentiation strategies31
digital business327–44
blogs329
e-waste329, 336
Facebook329
wikis329
dioxins6
dirty industries42see also pollution
disasters
man-madesee man-made disasters
natural events7, 484
El Niño602
Hurricane Katrina7, 597, 642see also weather risks
disclosure of information128–9, 144, 444–5, 446–51, 484–5
content analysis448–9
mandated145
motivation449–51
sustainability565–6
discounting510
future162–3
intergenerational182–3
social180
temporal181–2
displacement253
disposition296–7
disrupters652
distributed solutions652
distributive justice636
divergence600
domestic law141, 142
Dominant Social Paradigm and New Ecological Paradigm9
dominion of nature paradigm539
challenges to540–5, 548, 549
Dow Jones Sustainability Index417, 419, 581
Dubner, Stephen J., Freakonomics164
Duke Energy642
DuPont642
Dutton, Denis632
e-waste329, 336
Earth Days6, 212, 251, 349, 546
Earth First!213
eco-balance analysis434
Eco-Centrics386
Eco-Chics386
eco-efficiency20, 278, 317, 439, 467, 578, 582, 612, 613
indicators of434–5
and investor returns473
eco-industrial parks603
eco-labels350, 372
Eco-management and Audit Scheme (EMAS)236, 328, 428, 528, 562
Eco-Mark350
Eco-Moms386, 395
eco-seals369
eco-visualization331–2
ecocentric paradigm579
ecocentrism523, 524–5
ecodistricts604
ecofeminism524
ecolabelling109
ecological citizenship526–7
ecological footprint439, 527
Ecomagination643
economic incentives8, 14–15
environmental entrepreneurship72–4
use/abuse of natural resources540
Economically Ecos386
economies of scale652
economy-environment linkages594–5
economy-wide material flow analysis320
ecosystem collapse601–3
egocentrism164–5
EGrid database39
El Niño602
electric cars596
embedded value354
embodied learning634
embodied understanding633–4
emergence theory600, 601–3
experimentation for600–1
emerging economies58–9
Emerson, Ralph Waldo250
emissions
cap-and-trade213
taxation of126
tradable permits126–7
trading127, 145, 486
carbon127
sulfur dioxide127, 486
emotional decisions371–4
avoidance of green trade-offs372–3
and evaluation of green benefits371–2
ignoring of information373–4
emotional infrastructure633
emotional transformation631
employees91
end-of-life products291
end-of-use products291
Endangered Species Act142, 547
endocrine disruption4
energy consumption, feedback on167–8
energy reduction300–1
EnergySTAR350
enforcement agencies147
engagement, critical586–7
enterprise sustainability632–5
aesthetics634–5
embodied understanding633–4
emotional infrastructure633
entrepreneurship43, 70–82, 257
economic incentives72–4
future studies77–9
institutional context75–7
market failure73
personal motivation74–5
published articles71–2
environmental action
leadership in198
and organizational culture196–7see also activism; collective action
environmental activismsee activism
environmental audit114–15, 231, 435
environmental champions198–9, 437
Environmental Choice350 (p. 682)
Environmental Defense Fund133, 135, 213
environmental degradation542
environmental deprivation253
Environmental Finance419
environmental governance122–39, 314–16
climate595–8
confrontation and cooperation134–6
definition of123–4
environmental activism133–4
global585
monitoring and enforcement129–30
private politics130–3
regulation and instrument choice126–9
information disclosure128–9
voluntary regulation127–8
weak regulatory capacity129
environmental history539–40
themes in541
environmental identity376–8
environmental impact assessment435
environmental incidents
information on485–6
man-made disasterssee man-made disasters
environmental information483–6
corporate disclosuressee disclosure of information
environmental incidents485–6
weather events483–4
environmental interest groups234
environmental issues3–4
in business management5–9
in business research9–10
corporate response218
environmental justice219, 253
environmental lawsee legal issues
environmental management control
definition of427
internal428
environmental management control systems425–43
accounting12–13, 319–22, 431–6
costingsee costing
definition of432
environment-related cost information431
monitoring435–6
operational and capital budgeting432–3
integration with management systems429–31
win-win opportunities436–7
environmental management systems55, 428–9
efficiency of239
elements of429
emerging approaches270–3
integration with management control systems429–31
environmental movement218–19, 222–3, 545–50, 577
business response to259–60
effect on business organizations255–7
grievances252–4
historical role of250–2
internalization of influence258–9
mobilization254–5
strategies and tactics255
environmental outcomes578
environmental performance36–7, 472
and certification107
and collective responsibility111
corporate social522
information systems in335–6
and investor returns471–6
standards144–5
environmental protection103–21
Environmental Protection Agency142
environmental stewardship259, 347, 407, 420, 426, 427, 431, 566
reward systems34–5
environmental strategy231
and institutional pressures232–8
non-market constituents233–4
environmental taxes145
environmental technology563–4
environmental terrorism548
environmentalism as social responsibility216
Enviropreneurial Marketing model351
Equator Principles113, 114
errors-in-expectations hypothesis467–8, 476
Ethical Investment Research Services419
ethics540
European Commission, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies329
European Union141–2, 548–9
Eco-management and Audit Scheme (EMAS)236, 328, 428, 528, 562
Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals (REACH) regulation141, 269
Restriction of the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment Regulations (RoHS) legislation304, 351–2
Waste Electrical and Electronics Equipment (WEEE) regulation284, 303, 305
EVA framework294
evaluation of green benefits371–2
joint vs separate375
Evangelical Climate Initiative8, 601
exploitation538
exploitative reasoning75
extended producer responsibility315
external social audit407, 416–19
counter-accounting406, 418–19
crisis reports418
monitoring129–30, 417–18
external stakeholders271
externalities435
estimation of439
global standardization53–4
and market failures132
mitigation of122
regulation of124–30
self-regulation105, 110
extractive industries575–6
Exxon Valdez oil spill7, 29, 408, 454, 548, 620
face validity38
Facebook329
Fair Trade270, 281, 285, 315, 350, 417
coffee351
false failures301–2
far-from-equilibrium conditions600
farm products544–5
fashion fads249
fast-moving institutions214
FDI50, 53, 57
pollution-intensive industries56, 63–4
FedEx248
feedback167–8
field213
financesee accounting; costs
Financial Accounting Standards Board437
financial myopia665–7
financial performance36–7
as investment goal470
financial returns466
financialization665, 669
firm-stakeholder networks93–5
firms
internationalsee MNEs
locally owned57–8
relatedness31
resource-based view30–1
first-generation corporations648
Florman, Samuel5
flourishing613
Ford, Henry544
Ford Motor Company313, 650
foreign direct investmentsee FDI
Forest Principles142
Forest Stewardship Council109, 116, 129, 131, 136, 270, 281, 285, 417
forward supply chains293–4, 298
Framework Convention on Climate Change140
Framework Convention on Corporate Accountability586
framing201
France
Companie des Indes648
Nouvelles Régulations Economiques437
weather risk quantification490–2
Franklin Research and Development assessment38
Freakonomics164
free riding16, 370, 512, 513, 514 (p. 684)
Friedman, Milton614, 651
Friedman, Tom329
Friends of the Earth84, 586, 668
Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice (FCOJ) future contract490
FTSE 4Good419
FTSE KLD Social Index417
fuel efficiency
gallons per mile167–8
miles per gallon167
future discounting162–3
future lock-in170
G3 Guidelines409
Gap418
gasoline, leaded544
GDP661, 664, 666
GE Medical Services313
Geertz, Clifford196
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade141
General Electric624, 642, 643, 650
General Motors617
General Social Survey77
General Wildlife Federation544
generativity186
genetically modified foods251
“gentle brands”369–70
geographic communities87–9
George, Susan667
Gilded Age650
Gladwin, Tom524
global activism261
Global Climate Coalition236
Global Compact550–1
Global e-Sustainability Initiative329
global ecosystem251
Global Environment Outlook GEO-4 report657–8
global environmental governance585
Global Reporting Initiative39, 41, 231, 270, 405, 409, 410, 456
Guidelines411–12
Global Roundtable on Climate Change259
global standardization51–2
evolution of52
external determinants53–4
internal characteristics54–6
vs national fragmentation51–2
global supply chains50, 59–60, 64, 281
regulatory issues60–1
global terrorism8
global warming62, 223, 253, 438, 583, 604
Copenhagen conference164, 591, 598, 599, 604
globalization, degenerative664–5
Goldstein, Daniel166
good-dominant logic354
Gould, Jay650
government intervention117
Great Depression650
Great Recession352
Green Campus Initiative163
Green Consumers384–402
green dot regulations283
Green Gauge (Roper)396
Green Guides349
green manufacturing270
green marketing307, 318, 347–65
challenges for353–5
future directions357–61
history of348–53
1960s to 1970s348–9
1980s and 1990s349–51
2000s351–3
myopia352–3, 354
Green parties252
green products366–83
bundling168–9, 377
costs and benefits367–70
labelling of368, 369
positive attributes369–70
repurchasing378–9
as status signal377–8see also entries under “product”
green purchasing283
Green Wall350
greenhouse gases7, 39, 182, 279–80
Urban EcoMap331–2
greening20, 613
of business582
customer preference614 (p. 685)
economic aspects14–15, 36
limits of583–4
of organizational culture566
of supply chains274
Greening of Industry Network (GIN)9, 611
Greenpeace131, 133, 257
Brent Spar oil rig549
digital business329
Rainbow Warrior548
greenwashing129, 221–2, 259, 274, 329, 368, 414, 559, 560–1
Grieder, William662
grievances252–4
gross domestic productsee GDP
growth
population3
vs sustainable development359–60
Guattari, Felix635
guidelinessee standards
Guitang Group313
Gulf War549
Hamilton, Alice543, 544
Hardin, Garrett, “Tragedy of the Commons”553
Harich, Jack671
Hart, Stuart44
Hawken, Paul657, 661
The Ecology of Commerce642
Hayek, Friedrich651
Hayes, Rutherford B.649
hazardous waste4, 89
Heinzerling, Lisa, Priceless: On Knowing the Price of Everything and the Value of Nothing163
heuristics161, 166
affect371
cognitive161
Hewlett, Bill641
Hewlett-Packard297–8, 352
history
environmental539–40, 541
of green marketing348–53
of weather risk488
Hoffman, Andrew110
Holcim Vietnam Plant113
Hoover Dam544
host countries, impact of MNEs56–7
Hudson's Bay Company648
human effects on ecosystem3–4
Human Environment Conference6
human resource management564
Hurricane Katrina7, 597, 642
hyperbolic discounting369
IBM297, 352
ICLEI Climate Program599, 601
identity204–5, 253, 376–8
and consumer preference376–7
contextual376
environmental376–8
moral376–7
as status signal377–8
idiosyncratic risk465
Immelt, Jeffrey643
implementation33–6
capabilities35–6
leadership, power and reward systems34–5
proactivity33–4
implementation-oriented agreements127–8
impression management451
incentives199
indigenous communities575–6
industrial chemistry545
industrial ecology4, 310–27
accounting and finance319–22
and business strategy312–14
definition311
governance and coordination314–16
marketing318–19
operations and technology316–17
system boundaries314
industrial ecosystems277
industrial environmentalism216
industrial metastandards528–9
Industrial Revolution250
effect on pollution541–2
industrial symbiosis276–8, 311
industries
characteristics of240
environmentally sensitive240 (p. 686)
polluting effects of541–2
pressure from235–6
response to environmental movements259–60
self-regulationsee self-regulation
influence277–8
informal law141, 142–3
informating328
information35
environmental483–6
ignoring of373–4
information systems327–44, 414
application of330–1
and belief formation331–3
carbon management337–8
and environmental/economic performance335–6
and sustainability328–30, 333–5
information technology8
infrastructure builders601
innovation284–5, 351, 352, 627
input-output analysis321
input-output tables321
Institute of Nuclear Power Operations111, 112, 236
institutional dynamics211–28
climate change221–2
cognitive forces216–17
corporate response to environmental problems218
environmental justice219
environmental movement218–19
greenwashing221–2
movements/counter-movements222–3
normative forces215–16
policy223–4
published studies217–20
regulatory forces214–15
research on213–17
sustainabilitysee sustainability
institutional entrepreneurship73–4
institutional pluralism18
institutional pressures229–47
and environmental strategy232–8
market constituents235–8
non-market constituents233–4
moderation of impact238–40
institutional sociology229
institutional theory32–3
environmental entrepreneurship75–7
integrative social contract theory525
Intel328–9
interest groups234
Interface Carpets565, 615, 642
intergenerational beneficence176–93
factors affecting177
interpersonal distance179–81
intertemporal distance181–2
legacies186–8
positive influences183–6
power184–6
reciprocity183–4
psychological approach178–9
intergenerational discounting182–3
intergenerational identification188
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change7
internal reporting436
International Biological Program6
international businesssee multinational enterprises
International Chamber of Commerce413
International Federation of Accountants405
International Integrated Reporting Committee405
international law141
International Monetary Fund584, 664
International Organization for Standardizationsee ISO standards
Internet privacy protection131
interpersonal distance179–81
intertemporal distance181–2
intrinsic stakeholder commitment83
investment, environmentally responsible462–81
appraisal433
decisions on431
errors-in-expectations hypothesis467–8, 476
implications of476–8
motivation468–71
mutual funds471, 477
performance and returns471–6 (p. 687)
profit-seeking462, 463–4, 466–8, 469
values-driven462, 463, 464–6, 469see also environmental performance
Investor Responsibility Research Center84
investor returns471–6
iron triangle theory214
ISEA 3000416
ISEAL Alliance115
ISO standards142
ISO 2009318
ISO 9000107, 108, 116, 236
ISO 1400132–3, 41, 42–3, 60, 61, 107, 108, 110, 116, 217, 230, 231, 239, 281, 285, 328, 562, 621
ISO 26000107, 528
pressures to adopt229–47
isomorphism223
issue framing254–5
jargon202
Jevons, Stanley484
Johnson, Eric166
Jones Lang LaSalle643
Judis, John668
jurisdictional competition147
just-in-time deliveries274
Kahneman, Daniel161
Kelly, Florence543
Kennedy, Robert (CEO Union Carbide)112
Kennedy, Robert F. Jr.668
Kepone547
Keynes, John Maynard669
Killer Coke campaign8
Kimberly-Clark257
Kinder, Lydenberg, & Domini (KLD) assessment38
knowledge-sharing328
KPMG International456
Krieger, Lou640
Kyoto Protocol222
labelling of green products368, 369
Larrick, Richard167
lawsuits256
lead329
leadership34
actions of198
in environmental action198
organizational627
in sustainability198
lean systems270
learning organizations with operational performance excellence300
legal issues140–57
compliance147–9
delay of wise policies169–71
design of144–6
domestic law141, 142
as driver for reuse303–4
formulation of143–4
future research152–3
global aspects150–1
impacts of149–50
informal law141, 142–3
international law141
Martin v. Wadell543
Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railway Company650
soft laws141, 142–3
sources of140–3see alsoindividual laws
legislation
as constraint to commercial use540
as driver for reuse303–4
Superfund452, 454
take-back303see also legal issues; and individual laws and Acts
legitimacy theory112, 450–1
Leopold, Aldo, Sand County Almanac546
Levitt, Steven D., Freakonomics164
LexisNexis84
licensing148–9
life cycle293
analysis4, 274, 278–80, 311, 438, 582, 604
costing321, 435
management317 (p. 688)
Lifestyle of Health and Sustainabilitysee LOHAS segmentation
Lippmann, Walter544
litigation risk486, 487
lobbying222, 398, 406, 649, 664
agricultural sector544–5
business sector150, 582, 663
climate change248
corporate sector249
stakeholders110see also activism; collective action
local initiatives599
localization616
locally owned firms57–8
location56–7
logistics, reverse295–6
LOHAS segmentation394–5
loss aversion, reduction of168–9
Love Canal547, 620
3M299–300, 563–4
Pollution Prevention Pays process299
Maastricht Treaty (1993)549
McDonalds351
Machiavelli, Niccolo, The Prince671
McMillan, John, Reinventing the Bazaar647
MacNeill, Jim621
Malthus, Thomas541
man-made disasters253
Bhopal6–7, 29, 53, 112, 236, 408, 454, 548, 620
Challenger space shuttle explosion548
Chernobyl7, 408, 548
Cuyahoga River546
Deepwater Horizon62, 640
disclosure of information485–6
Exxon Valdez7, 29, 408, 454, 548, 620
Love Canal547, 620
Seveso620
Three Mile Island112, 236, 547, 598
Management Institute for Environment and Business9
management models537–8
management-based regulation144, 145–6
managerial agency501–3, 514–15
mandated disclosure145
mapping applications331–2
Marine Stewardship Council654
market constituents235–8
customer pressures235
industry pressure235–6
shareholder pressures236–7
combined pressures237–8
market failures73, 104–5, 252, 538
and externalities132
market forces232
profit-seeking investment462, 463–4, 466–8
values-driven investment462, 463, 464–6
market segmentation384–402
a priori386, 392–8
application of396–400
behavioral386, 392–6, 398–400
individuals in391–2
LOHAS394–5
models of385–6
natural/revealed391
requirements for387–90
targeted391
market valuation451–4
experimental investigations454
reaction studies453–4
research452–3
market-based instruments144, 145
marketing12, 318–19
brand349
context effects375–6
definition of354–5
value creation85, 93–5, 347see also consumer decision-making
marketing logic354–5
marketing mix354–5
marketing myopia352–3, 354
Marketing Science Institute43
Marks & Spencer351
Martin v. Wadell543
Marx, Karl538, 649
marxism665
mass media597
Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Act145
matching512–13
material and energy flow analysis320
material flow analysis320
material intensity per unit of service (MIPS)321 (p. 689)
material loops313
materials flow cost analysis320, 431
materials reduction300–1
through reuse304
meaning, filter/frame for200–3
means standards144
Merchant Adventurers648
mercury329
Messick, David165
metals recycling305
methodology21–2, 37–40
qualitative analysis39–40
quantitative analysis38–9
methyl isocyanate6–7
METNEXT493
Millennium Development Goals22, 550
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment3, 8, 657
Miller, Herman563
mission statements561–2
MIT program on Technology Business, and Environment611
Mitsubishi Corporation234
MNEs50–69, 530
emerging economies58–9
environmental strategies51–9
global standardization
evolution of52
external determinants53–4
internal characteristics54–6
vs national fragmentation51–2
global supply chains50, 59–60
impact in host countries56–7
location decisions56–7
regulatory issues60–1, 64–5
subsidiaries
capability differences55
conduct of57–8
emerging economies59see also entries under corporate
mobility options matrix617
mobilization254–5
modern environmental movement3, 5
modernity576
Monbiot, George667
monetary value of green products374–5
monitoring129–30, 417–18, 435–6
environmental audit114–15, 231, 435
internal reporting436
Monks, Robert662
Monsanto581
Montreal Protocol (1987)140, 548, 620
moral identity376–7
morality540, 577
Morgan, J.P.650
Most Admired rankings417
motivation74–5
Move-On134
MPG illusion167
Muir, John250, 542
multi-actor processes626
multinational enterprisessee MNEs
multiple selves phenomenon169
mutual funds471, 477
National Accounting Matrix including Environmental Accounts (NAMEA)320
National Coast Anti-Pollution League544
national security8
National Wildlife Federation213, 549
natural capital522
natural environment18–19
natural events7, 484
El Niño602
Hurricane Katrina7, 597, 642see also weather risks
natural resources539
economic incentives for use540
limits on541
Natural Resources Defense Council213
Natural Step program231
natural/revealed segmentation391
Naturalites395
negotiated rulemaking143
neo-liberalism667
neoinstitutionalism212
Nestle418
net present value503–4
environmental implications508
foundations of504–7
monetary508–10
(p. 690)
Network of Expertise for the Global Environment601
network theory523–5
networks254, 601
Greening of Industry Network (GIN)9, 611
New American Dream355
new corporate environmentalism526, 556
as management guide559
symbolic organizational theory559–60
NGOs11, 16–18, 53, 63, 122, 130–3, 270, 319
confrontation and cooperation134–6
environmental activism133–4
private politics130–3see also stakeholders
Nidumolu, Ram645
NIELSEN493
Nike194, 418
NIMBYism132–3
nitrogen dioxide trading127
Nixon, Richard M.546
non-governmental organizationssee NGOs
non-market constituents233–4
community and environmental interest groups234
political and regulatory pressures233–4
non-market spillovers59
non-market strategies11
Noranda Minerals408
norm of reciprocity215
Norm Thompson Outfitters565
normative forces215–16
Norsk Hydro408
North, Douglass105
notice-and-comment rulemaking143–4
Nuclear Regulatory Commission111
Obama, Barack21
off-shoring of operations272
oil prices595
Ontario Hydro621–2
operational budget432–3
operational compliance435
operations12, 316–17, 428
opportunities21–2
organ donation168
organic products106–7
Organization and Natural Environment577
organizational culture194–210, 556–71
built environment and transportation563
definition195–6
and environmental action196–7
environmental technology563–4
as filter and frame for meaning200–2
future directions203–5
greening of566
human resources564
and identity204–5
mission statements561–2
shared norms/values196, 197–203
stakeholder partnerships564
stories and rituals565
sustainability reporting565–6
and symbolic organizational theory557–61
as toolkit202–3
organizational leadership627
organizations16–18
behavior11–12
characteristics229–47
moderation of institutional pressures238–40
diversity of18
effect of environmental movement on255–7
functions of238–9
structural elements562see also MNEs
Organizations and the Natural Environment (ONE) group9, 29, 612
Original Equipment Manufacturers292, 304
outsourcing273, 277, 296
ozone depletion4, 7, 620
packaging135, 235, 274, 280, 349
green dot regulations283
labelling of products368, 369
Packard, Dave641
panacea hypothesis71, 77
paradigm choices19–20
paradigmatic research583
participatory action research358
partnerships16–18
past-future connection189
“pays to be green”14–15, 36–7
peer-pressure332, 339
pension funds470–1
Pension Investment Research Consultants419
performativity574
perpetual reasoning75
personal meaning186
perverse resilience596
pesticides576
physical flow analysis434
physical risk486, 487
Pinchot, Gifford542
plague541
planning35
Polanyi, Karl650
The Great Transformation667
policy bundlingsee bundling
political constraints124–6
political economics584–5
political opportunities254
political pressures233–4
polluter pays policy8
polluting activities, location of56–7
pollution452
air251, 546
developing countries253
effects of Industrial Revolution541–2
non-point sources130
water251, 541
pollution havens56–7, 63–4
pollution prevention4, 7, 316–17, 547, 581
Pollution Prevention Pays process299
Polman, Paul643
population growth3
Porter categories31
Porter, Michael150
positive illusions163–4
Positive Organizational Scholarship (POS)16
Potemkin Village223
power34, 184–6
asymmetry in185
psychological effects185
Prahalad, C.K.645
preference256, 385, 391
and identity376–7
and monetary value374–5
revealed387, 389
preference heterogeneity391
Presidents642–3
pressure campaigns256
Priceless: On Knowing the Price of Everything and the Value of Nothing163
pricing
arbitrage pricing theory492
capital asset pricing theory465, 492, 506
carbon256see also costs
Prince's Accounting for Sustainability Project406
Principles for Responsible Investment463
private politics130–3
definition of131–3
pro-active management7
proactivity33–4
problem setting201
process specifications283
processes-based impact280
Proctor & Gamble650
product acquisition management294–5
product characteristics64
product design270, 280
design for environment312, 313
innovations in351
and reuse304
product life cyclesee life cycle
product recovery294, 295, 298–306
commercial returns and false failures302–3
materials and energy reduction300–1
recycling216, 271, 295, 299
reuse299, 301–2
servicizing300–1, 305
product returns110
product stewardship7, 30, 279, 581, 622
Product Sustainability Index353
product/service costing434
profit, as outcome653
profit-seeking investment462, 463–4, 466–8, 469
conditions for467
implications of476–8
33/50 Program128
Progressive era543
Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) model599
protests
media256
spontaneous249
street256
proximity524
public ecology583
public health541, 542, 544
public policy11
public politics132
public voluntary programs128
qualitative analysis39–40
quality270
quality costing434
quality of life359
quantitative analysis38–9
racism, environmental4
radical transactiveness84
Radium Girls544
Rainforest Action Network234
Rainforest Alliance564
Rangaswami, M.R.645
Rawls, John165
Raymond, Lee641
Reagan, Ronald548, 651
Reaganomics667
reason541
ReCellular295, 298
reciprocity183–4
reconditioning275
recycling216, 271, 295, 299
closed-loop supply chains305–6
reduce, reuse, and recycle ordering299
reduction300–1
reflexivity575
refurbishment295
Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals (REACH) regulation141, 269
regulators86–7
regulatory agencies6
regulatory compliance5–6
regulatory environmentalism216
regulatory forces214–15
regulatory issues60–1, 64–5, 124–30
certificationsee certification
industry self-regulationsee self-regulation
instrument choice126–9
information disclosure128–9
voluntary regulation127–8
weak regulatory capacity129
monitoring and enforcement129–30
political constraints124–6
voluntary regulation127–8, 231see also certification; standards
regulatory pressures233–4
regulatory risk486, 487
relatedness31
religious morality8
remanufacturing271, 275, 295, 301
renewable resources73, 76–7
power generation31
repair295, 297
reporting
corporate environmental financial444–61
crisis reports418
internal436
and market valuation451–4
stand-along reports406–7, 408–11
repurchasing378–9
reputation417
risk486, 487
research
business9–10, 23
closed-loop supply chains307
collective responsibility112
community action358
critical research agenda582–7
design-science333
institutional dynamics213–17
market valuation452–3
paradigmatic583
participatory action358
research and development127
resource allocation73, 199, 503, 504see also net present value (p. 693)
resource availability54
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act123
resource dependence theory85
resource-based view30–1
Responsible Care program32, 41, 111, 114, 116, 217, 231, 236, 528, 621
industry benefits112
responsiveness34
Restriction of the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment Regulations (RoHS) legislation304, 351–2
reuse299, 301–2
legislation as driver for303–4
materials reduction and product design304
as profit center302see also product recovery; recycling
revealed preference387, 389
reverse logistics295–6
reverse supply chains293, 294–8
product acquisition management294–5
product recovery294, 295
product returns297–8
repair, service and warranty297
testing, sorting and disposition296–7
reward systems34–5
Risk Management Plans145
risks482–501
climate485
externalization of662–3
hedging against486–8
idiosyncratic465
information disclosure483–6
litigation486, 487
mitigation282–3
non-strategic482
physical486, 487
regulatory486, 487
reputation486, 487
sharing465
strategic482
Rockefeller, John650
role creation199
romanticism250
Roosevelt, Franklin Delano651
Roosevelt, Theodore542–4, 650
Ruckelshaus, William222, 547
rule of capture rationale539
Runnalls, David621
SA8000281, 286
sampling42–3
Samuelson, Bill166
sanctions115
Sand County Almanac546
sanitation541, 542
Santa Barbara oil spill6
Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railway Company650
Saro-Wiwa, Ken549
Schultz, P. Wesley167
science
as driver for consumption539–40see also technology
Scott, Lee642
Scott, Tom649
segmentation
a priori386, 392–8
behavioral386, 392–6, 398–400
LOHAS394–5
market384–402
natural/revealed391
targeted391
self-disclosure of violations233–4see also self-regulation
self-extension186–7
self-governance316
self-interests187, 253
self-organization316, 600, 601, 603
self-regulation103–21, 236, 558
categorization of105–13
certification106–10
collective responsibility110–12
mixed methods113, 114
credible enforcement114–15
gains from113–14
and government intervention117
peril and promise104–5
sanctions115
supportive institutional environment116
Sentis, Keith165 (p. 694)
service parts295
service-dominant logic354, 357
servicing297
servicizing300–1, 305
Seveso620
Seveso Directive6
Shapiro, Robert581
sharecropping650
shared norms/values196, 197–203
corporate policies200
environmental champions198–9
incentives199
leadership actions198
resource allocation199
role creation199
shareholder interests503
shareholder resolutions257
shareholders
free riding16, 370, 512, 513, 514
pressures from236–7
voting512–13see also stakeholders
Shell418, 624
Brent Spar oil rig549
short-termism666
shunned-stock hypothesis466
Sierra Club84, 133, 213, 543
founding of250
membership212
Silent Spring5, 250–1, 546, 660
Silicon Valley641
simulations of complex systems596–8
Smith, Adam104, 649
smog542, 546
Snow, John542
Social Audit Ltd417
social capital522
social discounting180
social entrepreneurs17
social environment18–19
social movements12, 248–65
characteristics of248–9
social pressure130–3, 148
social responsibility577
socialcentrism525
society537–55
interdependence with business537–8
sociotechnical transition602
soft laws141, 142–3
Soll, Jack167
sorting296–7
Spain, Plan General de Contabilidad437
specification144
Speth, Gus663
spontaneous protests249
stakeholders79
accountability to277–8
activists84, 87–9
attitude to certification109
as co-producers of value93
corporate boards91–2
customers89–91
dialogue257, 415, 576
employees91
firm-stakeholder networks93–5
geographic communities87–9
levels of271–2
partnerships with organizations564
regulators86–7
stakeholder capitalism83
stakeholder corporations552
stakeholder management32, 83–100
importance to firms85–95
stakeholder theory358, 523–4
stand-alone reports406–7, 408–11
assurance procedures416
challenges413–16
comparability414
diversity of responses414
diversity of views413–14
materiality and information systems414
selection and balance414
user needs and wants415–16
Global Reporting Initiative39, 41, 231, 270, 405, 409, 410
problems411–13
trends in409
standards360
AA1000416
industrial metastandards528–9
ISEA 3000416
ISO 2009318
ISO 9000107, 108, 116, 236
ISO 14001see ISO 14001 (p. 695)
ISO 26000107, 528
ISO142
performance144–5
SA8000281, 286
technology144see also certification
Starbucks351
stated preference388–9
status seeking377–8
Steiner, Rudolph250
stewardship
environmental34–5, 259, 347, 407, 420, 426, 427, 431, 566
Forest Stewardship Council109, 116, 129, 131, 136, 270, 281, 285, 417
product7, 30, 279, 581, 622
Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment621
stories and rituals565
strange attractors594
strategic environmentalism216
strategic management6–7
strategic niche management602
strategic stakeholder management83
strategic sustainability matrix616
“strong” brands369–70
Strong, Maurice621
strong sustainability20, 621
examples622–4
Ontario Hydro621–2
paradigm for624–7
systems thinking625–6
structural equation modeling40
suboptimal choices372
subsidiaries
capability differences55
conduct of57–8
emerging economies59
substance-flow analysis320
sulfur dioxide
emissions149–50, 486
trading127, 486
sunspots484
Sunstein, Cass166
Superfund legislation452, 454, 547
supplier audit435
supply chains
broadening of276–7
clockspeed273
design274–8
extension of274–6
global50, 59–60, 64, 281
greening of274
life cycle assessment4, 274, 278–80
management269–89
managing across281–5
improvements283–4
new opportunities284–5
risk mitigation282–3
off-shoring of operations272
outsourcing273
stakeholders271
sustainable604
Sustainability 1.0636
Sustainability 2.0630–8
background631–2
sustainability7–9, 72, 220, 349, 351, 545
aesthetics of630–8
alternate pathways614
belief formation331–3, 615
business model220
in consumption355–7
current developments550–1
enterprise632–5
and environmental management systems438–9
experiments in600–1
future of587
implications of188–9
information systems328–30, 333–5
leadership in198
Millennium Development Goals22, 550
morality and ethics540
practices636–7
reporting565–6
strategies616–17
strong20, 621
examples622–4
Ontario Hydro621–2
paradigm for624–7
systems thinking625–6
Triple Bottom Line412, 419, 520
sustainable design635
Sustainable Forestry Initiative41, 109, 129, 131, 136
sustainable interaction design333
Sustainable Slopes Program111, 116, 231
sustaincentrism524–5, 579
symbolic gestures372
symbolic immortality186
symbolic organizational theory559–60
greenwashing129, 221–2, 259, 274, 329, 368, 414, 559, 560–1
System of Environmental and Economic Accounts (SEEA)320
systemic integration356–7
systems assessment435
systems dynamics602
systems thinking625–6
take-back legislation303
takeovers512–14
Target351
target-oriented agreements127–8
targeted segmentation391
taxes
emissions126
environmental145
technical compliance6
technocentric paradigm579
technological updates293
technology12, 316–17
as driver for consumption539–40
environmental563–4
standards144
technology-acceptance model333–4
TerraChoice368
testing296–7
Tetra Pak434
Thaler, Richard166
Thatcher, Margaret548, 651
Thatcherism667
The Ecology of Commerce642
The Great Transformation667
The Natural Step627
third-generation corporations647–56
corporate geneology648–51
rise of651–4
Thoreau, Henry David250
Three Gorges Dam project549
Three Mile Island accident112, 236, 547, 598
throughput, growth of660–2
Tiebout competition512–13
Tildon, Samuel649
Tobin's q38
toolkits202–3
top-down management604
total cost assessment321
total quality environmental management system434
total quality management434, 558
toxic sites547
toxic waste176, 182, 577
Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)38, 39, 128, 132, 145, 149, 240
traceability281
tradable emissions permits126–7
trade associations235
motivation by236
trade-offs391
alternatives to653–4
avoidance of372–3
cost-benefit369
trading companies648
trading emissions127, 145, 486
carbon127
sulfur dioxide127, 486
“Tragedy of the Commons”553
transaction cost analysis283
transcendentalism250
transparency237, 271, 281
transportation563
treadmill of production model253
Triple Bottom Line412, 419, 520
Trist, Eric622, 626
Tversky, Amos161
Udall, Stewart547
UK
Accounting Standards Board437
Energy Efficiency Scheme338 (p. 697)
National Industrial Symbiosys Program315
Operating and Financial Review437
uncertainty73
Unconcerned395
Uniform Prudent Investor Act463
Unilever643
Union Carbide, Bhopal pesticide disaster6–7, 29, 53, 112, 236, 408, 454, 548
Union of Concerned Scientists84
uniqueness of environmental issues204
United East India Company648
United Nations
Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED)7
Earth Summit29
Global Compact550–1
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment3, 8, 657
Principles for Responsible Investment8
University of Michigan
environmental data repository337
Environmental Task Force337
unsustainability631
Urban EcoMap331–2
US Climate Action Partnership599, 654
US Department of Energy337
US Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (1986)128
US Environmental Protection Agency212, 215, 217, 231, 337, 547
Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)38, 39, 240
US Occupational Safety and Health Administration217
US Securities and Exchange Commission446
Financial Reporting Release No.32446
Staff Accounting Bulletin No.92446
USCAP group248
USDA Organic standard351
use-based impact280
utility theory464
Valdez Principles237
Valley of the Drums547
value co-producers93
value creation85, 93–5, 347, 354–5
value-based management503
value-in-exchange354
value-in-use354
values-driven investment462, 463, 464–6, 469
financial market effects465
implications of476–8
vertical integration313
videoconferencing329
violations, self-disclosure233–4
Virginia Company648
Vision 2050641
voluntary actors601
voluntary disclosure408, 450
voluntary regulation127–8, 231
voting512–13
voting records87
Wal-Mart248, 351, 353, 418, 616, 624, 642
warranty297
wars, environmental effects of546
Washington Consensus667
waste disposal4, 7, 271
Waste Electrical and Electronics Equipment (WEEE) regulation284, 303, 305
waste generation278–9
wastewater treatment256
WasteWise128
water pollution251, 541
and cholera541
weak regulatory capacity129
weak sustainability20, 620–1
examples622–4
weather derivatives493–4
valuation of494
weather forecasting596–7
Weather Normalization Adjustment systems495
Weather Risk Management Association495
weather risks483–4, 486–96
climate changesee climate change
corporate management493
definition489
hedging against486–8
history of488
pluvius insurance488
quantification489–92
webs of significance196, 200 (p. 698)
Welch, Jack643
White, Curtis659
Whole Foods375, 389
wildlife protection543, 544
willingness-to-pay614
win-win approach436–7, 548, 558, 578, 583
business case437
World Bank584
World Business Council for Sustainable Development413, 580–1, 654
Vision 2050641
World Social Forum586
World Trade Organization141, 151, 584
World Wildlife Federation133
Climate Savers601
World Wildlife Fund for Nature658, 661
Zeckhauser, Richard166