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date: 27 March 2017

(p. 675) Index

a priori segmentation386, 392–6
application of396–8
AA1000 416
Accenture 644
accountability35, 405–24
definition405
external social audit407, 416–19
counter-accounting406, 418–19
crisis reports418
monitoring129–30, 417–18
Framework Convention on Corporate Accountability586
stand-alone reports406–7, 408–11
assurance procedures416
challenges413–16
problems411–13
to stakeholders277–8
Triple Bottom Line412, 419, 520
accountable actors 601
accounting12–13, 319–22, 431–6
costing433–5
activity-based433–4
eco-efficiency indicators434–5
energy-related167–8
green products367–70
life cycle321, 435
material flow320, 431
physical flow/eco-balance analysis434
product/service434
quality434
total cost assessment321
definition of432
environment-related cost information431
monitoring435–6
environmental audit114–15, 231, 435
internal reporting436
operational and capital budgeting432–3
and sustainability438–9
Triple Bottom Line412, 419, 520
acid rain 4
Ackerman, Frank, Priceless: On Knowing the Price of Everything and the Value of Nothing 163
action formation 330
activism84, 87–9
collective action see collective action
direct confrontation257
global261
industrial organization of133–4
interest group pressure234
organized255–6
activity-based costing 433–4
Addams, Jane 543
advocacy544, 580
aesthetics 634–5
affect heuristics 371
Agassi, Shai 600
Age of Enlightenment 541
Agenda 21621, 622
agricultural lobby 544–5
air pollution251, 546
smog542, 546
Alcoa 305
alertness 73
Allied Chemical 547
Alpha-Ecos 386
altruism332, 339
Amazon 328
Amazon rainforest, destruction of 549
American Carbon Registry 601
American Institute of Certified Public Accountants 446–7
American Marketing Association 354
Amoco 237
Anan, Kofi 550
Anderson, Ray565, 615
Apple280, 328
Appreciative Inquiry (AI) 16 (p. 676)
Appropriate Community Technology demonstration 547
arbitrage pricing theory 492
arsenic 329
astroturf organizing15, 223
audit
Eco-management and Audit Scheme (EMAS)236, 328, 428, 528, 562
environmental114–15, 231, 435
external social407, 416–19
supplier 435
Audubon Society84, 133, 543
Australia, Superannuation Legislation Amendment Act 477
B&NE4, 195, 519
certification106–10
collective responsibility110–12
critical analysis576–82
critical research agenda582–7
organizational culture194–210
B2B market351, 357–8
balanced scorecard approach436, 515
bargaining power57, 135
Baumol, William 660
Bear Stearns, collapse of 597
behavioral change 631
behavioral segmentation386, 392–6
application of398–400
belief-action outcome330, 339
beliefs 330–1
formation of 331–3
Ben & Jerry's 349
Benuys, Janine 670
Berry, Thomas 670
Best Available Control Technology 126
Better Place project 600
beyond compliance strategies 230
Bhopal pesticide disaster6–7, 29, 53, 112, 236, 408, 454, 548, 620
bias 15–16
biodegradability 349
biodiversity 251
biotechnology 251
Blue Angel 350
BMW 303
Body Shop 349
Bookchin, Murray 662
Boone and Crockett Club 542
Bosch297, 302
bottled water industry 557–8
bottom-up initiatives591, 600, 603, 604
Bowen, Howard 520
boycotts256, 257
brand credence 368
brand marketing 349
Brent Spar oil rig549, 620
British Airways 408
British East India Company 648–9
British Petroleum, Deepwater Horizon disaster62, 640
British Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce 545
British Standard for Environmental Management (BS7750) 528
Brückner, Eduard 483
Brundtland Commission349, 408, 520, 612, 621, 624
budget
capital432–3, 503
operational 432–3
built environment 563
bundling168–9, 377
Burke, Edmund 649
Bush, George W. 668
business law see legal issues
business management 5–9
business and natural environment see B&NE
business research 9–10
relevance of 23
business strategy 11
and industrial ecology 312–14
business-to-consumer goods 302
buyer-supplier relations 239–40
4C association 248
C-Suite 639–46
CEOs and Presidents 642–3
(p. 677)
CIOs and CFOs 643–4
CLO, CRO and CSO 644–5
COO and CPO 644
cap-and-trade emissions 213
capabilities 35–6
differences in 55
capital 522
capital asset pricing theory465, 492, 506see also net present value
capital budgeting432–3, 503
capitalism640–1, 647, 660
and degenerative globalization664–5
externalization of costs and risks662–3
and financial myopia665–7
freedom from regulation667–8
and growth of throughput660–2
inclusive653–4
mutual reinforcement668–9
political and regulatory capture663–4
reformation of669–71
carbon
emissions 328–9
footprint4, 279
lock-in 595–6
management systems 337–8
pricing 256
trading 127
Carbon Disclosure Project39, 41, 329
Carnegie, Andrew 650
Carson, Rachael, Silent Spring5, 250–1, 546, 660
Carver, George Washington 544
cash flow506–7, 510
catastrophe bonds 488
certification106–10, 318–19, 360
benefits of108
empirical evidence107
and environmental performance107
independent114–15
social explanations109–10
stakeholder confusion109see also regulatory issues; standards
Challenger space shuttle explosion 548
chaos theory 593–4
chartered corporations 649
chemical management services 320
Chemical Manufacturers Association, Responsible Care program32, 41, 111, 112, 114, 116, 217, 231, 236, 528, 621
chemurgy movement 544–5
Chernobyl accident7, 408, 548
Chicago Climate Exchange 260
Chicago Mercantile Exchange 494
Chichilnisky, Graciela 488
Chief Accounting Officers (CAOs) 643
Chief Creativity Officers (CCOs) 645
Chief Executive Officers see CEOs
Chief Financial Officers (CFOs) 643
Chief Innovation Officers (CIOs) 645
Chief Investment Officers (CIOs) 643
Chief Legal Officers (CLOs) 644–5
Chief Marketing Officers (CMOs)644–5
Chief Operating Officers (COOs) 644
Chief Procurement Officers (CPOs) 644
Chief Responsibility Officers (CROs)644–5
Chief Sustainability Officers (CSOs)644–5
Chief Technology Officers (CTOs) 645
China, Three Gorges Dam project 549
Chiquita 564
choice architecture 166
cholera 542
Chouinard, Yvon 615
Churchill, Winston 670
Civilian Conservation Corps 544
Clean Air Act123, 127, 149, 152, 303, 547
Amendments (1990)452
clean energy 600
Clean Water Act123, 142, 303, 547
cleantech 213
climate change4, 7, 164, 484, 489, 591
Framework Convention140
institutional dynamics221–2see also global warming; weather risks
climate cycles 483–4
climate governance 595–8
Climate Leaders 128
clockspeed 277
and environmental impact 279
of supply chains 273
(p. 678)
closed-loop supply chains 290–309
control and operation 307
definition of 290
design 306
forward293–4, 298
interdisciplinary research 307
as process flow 291–2
product recovery294, 295, 298–306
recycling in 305–6
reverse293, 294–8
Club of Rome6, 251, 595, 621
Coal Combustion By-Products Program 128
Coca Cola 418
mission statement 562
cognitive bias161–75, 386
discounting the future162–3
egocentrism164–5
overcoming165–71
defaults166–7
delay of wise policies169–71
policy bundling168–9
salience of energy costs167–8
positive illusions163–4
cognitive forces 216–17
cognitive heuristics 161
collaboration 283
collapse of ecosystems 601–3
collective action249, 598
issue framing254–5
logic of540
mobilization254–5
political opportunities254see also activism
collective responsibility 110–12
empirical evidence 111–12
and environmental performance 111
industry benefits 112
research 112
command and control regulation 126
commercial returns 301–2
community 527
community action research 358
community interest groups 234
Companie des Indes 648
competition 40–2
competitive structure and environment see CSE
competitor pressure 235
complementary assets 35
complex dynamic systems 593
complex systems357–8, 591–608
challenges to intervention598
collapse and emergence601–3
economy-environment linkages594–5
environmental action in599–601
environmental applications592–5
far-from-equilibrium conditions600
recognition of crisis597–8
understanding and simulating596–7
complexity catastrophe 603
compliance147–9, 428
economic pressures148
licensing148–9
operational435
sanctions115
social pressure130–3, 148
symbolic259
compliance companies 626
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act see Superfund legislation
confrontation134–6, 257, 260
conservation251, 542, 543
Conservation International and Environmental Defense Fund 131
consumer culture theory 359
consumer decision-making 366–83
cost-benefit trade-off 369
emotional decisions 371–4
avoidance of green trade-offs 372–3
and evaluation of green benefits 371–2
ignoring of information 373–4
environmental identity 376–8
free riding 370
green actions vs green outcomes 367–9
inferences on green attributes 369–70
influences on 374–6
context effects 375
joint vs separate evaluation 375
monetary value and preference 374–5
rejection vs selection of options 374
repurchasing 378–9
consumer demand 350
consumer mistrust 368
consumer preference see preference (p. 679)
consumption
sustainable levels of 355–7
technology as driver for 539–40
contamination 251 see also pollution
context effects 375–6
contextual identity 376
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) 140
Conventionals 395
convergence 600
cooperation40–2, 134–6, 257, 260–1
cooperative federalism 142
cooptation 260
coordination 314–16
Copenhagen Earth Summit164, 591, 598, 599, 604, 626
corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards 259
corporate boards 91–2
Corporate Conservation Council 549
corporate decision-making 502–16
managerial agency502–3, 514–15
voting 512–13 see also net present value
corporate environmental disclosure see disclosure of information
corporate environmental financial reporting 444–61
definition 444
disclosure of information128–9, 144, 444–5, 446–51
and market valuation 451–4 see also accounting
corporate environmental integration 430
corporate environmentalism4, 5–9, 248, 260, 556–71
future research567
greenwashing129, 221–2, 259, 274, 329, 368, 414, 559, 560–1
as regulatory compliance5–6
as strategic management6–7
as sustainability7–9
corporate geneology 648–51
corporate lobbying 249
corporate models 651
corporate policies 200
corporate response to environmental problems 218
corporate social performance 522
corporate social responsibility9, 413, 519–36, 538, 612, 625
agendas529–31
as cluster concept520
definition520–1
economic theories522–3
environmental issues as drivers527–30
instrumental theories521–2
business case437, 521–2
network theories523–5
ecofeminism524
stakeholder theory358, 523–4
sustaincentrism524–5
political theories525–7
ecological citizenship526–7
new corporate environmentalism526
corporate welfare 663–4
Corporation 20/20 552–3
corporations
chartered 649
management 502
ownership 502
redefinition of 551–3
stakeholder 552
cost-benefit analysis317, 435
cost-benefit trade-off 369
costs 433–5
activity-based 433–4
eco-efficiency indicators 434–5
energy-related 167–8
externalization of 662–3
green products 367–70
life cycle321, 435
material flow320, 431
physical flow/eco-balance analysis 434
product/service 434
quality 434
total cost assessment 321 see also accounting
Council on Economic Priorities 417
counter-accounting406, 418–19 (p. 680)
counter-movements 222–3
creative destruction 73
credence attributes 368
crisis recognition 597–8
crisis reports 418
critical engagement 586–7
critical management studies 572–90
emergence of 573–6
critical research agenda 582–7
engagement 586–7
global environmental governance 585
limits of green management 583–4
paradigmatic research 583
political economic approach 584–5
CSE 29–49
adjoining fields 32–3
critiques and recommendations 40–3
differentiation 31
environmental/financial performance 36–7
implementation 33–6
methodology 37–40
relatedness 31
resource-based view 30–1
customer preference 614
customers89–91, 271
buyer-supplier relations239–40
pressure from235
Cuyahoga River disaster 546
Daly, Herman 163
data-led studies 42–3
death anxiety 187
death awareness 186–7
decision-making 15–16
cognitive biases 161–75
corporate 502–16
decoupling 223
Deepwater Horizon disaster62, 640
defaults 166–7
deforestation 253
degenerative globalization 664–5
degree-days 493–4
Delmas, Magali110, 129
dematerialization317, 320, 358
denaturalization 575
Design for Environment312, 313, 621
design thinking 333
design-science research 333
Desrochers, Pierre 545
development127, 576
differentiation strategies 31
digital business 327–44
blogs 329
e-waste329, 336
Facebook 329
wikis 329
dioxins 6
dirty industries 42 see also pollution
disasters
man-made see man-made disasters
natural events7, 484
El Niño602
Hurricane Katrina7, 597, 642see also weather risks
disclosure of information128–9, 144, 444–5, 446–51, 484–5
content analysis448–9
mandated145
motivation449–51
sustainability565–6
discounting 510
future 162–3
intergenerational 182–3
social 180
temporal 181–2
displacement 253
disposition 296–7
disrupters 652
distributed solutions 652
distributive justice 636
divergence 600
domestic law141, 142
Dominant Social Paradigm and New Ecological Paradigm 9
dominion of nature paradigm 539
challenges to540–5, 548, 549
Dow Jones Sustainability Index417, 419, 581
Drifters 395 (p. 681)
Dubner, Stephen J., Freakonomics 164
Duke Energy 642
DuPont 642
Dutton, Denis 632
e-waste329, 336
Earth Days6, 212, 251, 349, 546
Earth First! 213
eco-balance analysis 434
Eco-Centrics 386
Eco-Chics 386
eco-efficiency20, 278, 317, 439, 467, 578, 582, 612, 613
indicators of434–5
and investor returns473
eco-industrial parks 603
eco-labels350, 372
Eco-management and Audit Scheme (EMAS)236, 328, 428, 528, 562
Eco-Mark 350
Eco-Moms386, 395
eco-seals 369
eco-visualization 331–2
ecocentric paradigm 579
ecocentrism523, 524–5
ecodistricts 604
ecofeminism 524
ecolabelling 109
ecological citizenship 526–7
ecological footprint439, 527
Ecomagination 643
economic incentives8, 14–15
environmental entrepreneurship72–4
use/abuse of natural resources540
Economically Ecos 386
economies of scale 652
economy-environment linkages 594–5
economy-wide material flow analysis 320
ecosystem collapse 601–3
egocentrism 164–5
EGrid database 39
El Niño 602
electric cars 596
embedded value 354
embodied learning 634
embodied understanding 633–4
emergence theory600, 601–3
experimentation for600–1
emerging economies 58–9
Emerson, Ralph Waldo 250
emissions
cap-and-trade 213
taxation of 126
tradable permits 126–7
trading127, 145, 486
carbon127
sulfur dioxide127, 486
emotional decisions 371–4
avoidance of green trade-offs 372–3
and evaluation of green benefits 371–2
ignoring of information 373–4
emotional infrastructure 633
emotional transformation 631
employees 91
end-of-life products 291
end-of-use products 291
Endangered Species Act142, 547
endocrine disruption 4
energy consumption, feedback on 167–8
energy reduction 300–1
EnergySTAR 350
enforcement agencies 147
engagement, critical 586–7
enterprise sustainability 632–5
aesthetics 634–5
embodied understanding 633–4
emotional infrastructure 633
entrepreneurship43, 70–82, 257
economic incentives72–4
future studies77–9
institutional context75–7
market failure73
personal motivation74–5
published articles71–2
environmental action
leadership in 198
and organizational culture 196–7 see also activism; collective action
environmental activism see activism
environmental audit114–15, 231, 435
environmental champions198–9, 437
Environmental Choice 350 (p. 682)
Environmental Defense Fund133, 135, 213
environmental degradation 542
environmental deprivation 253
Environmental Finance 419
environmental governance122–39, 314–16
climate595–8
confrontation and cooperation134–6
definition of123–4
environmental activism133–4
global585
monitoring and enforcement129–30
private politics130–3
regulation and instrument choice126–9
information disclosure128–9
voluntary regulation127–8
weak regulatory capacity129
environmental history 539–40
themes in 541
environmental identity 376–8
environmental impact assessment 435
environmental incidents
information on 485–6
man-made disasters see man-made disasters
environmental information 483–6
corporate disclosures see disclosure of information
environmental incidents 485–6
weather events 483–4
environmental interest groups 234
environmental issues 3–4
in business management 5–9
in business research 9–10
corporate response 218
environmental justice219, 253
environmental law see legal issues
environmental management control
definition of 427
internal 428
environmental management control systems 425–43
accounting12–13, 319–22, 431–6
costing see costing
definition of432
environment-related cost information431
monitoring435–6
operational and capital budgeting432–3
integration with management systems 429–31
win-win opportunities 436–7
environmental management systems55, 428–9
efficiency of239
elements of429
emerging approaches270–3
integration with management control systems429–31
environmental movement218–19, 222–3, 545–50, 577
business response to259–60
effect on business organizations255–7
grievances252–4
historical role of250–2
internalization of influence258–9
mobilization254–5
strategies and tactics255
environmental outcomes 578
environmental performance36–7, 472
and certification107
and collective responsibility111
corporate social522
information systems in335–6
and investor returns471–6
standards144–5
environmental protection 103–21
Environmental Protection Agency 142
environmental stewardship259, 347, 407, 420, 426, 427, 431, 566
reward systems34–5
environmental strategy 231
and institutional pressures 232–8
non-market constituents 233–4
environmental taxes 145
environmental technology 563–4
environmental terrorism 548
environmentalism as social responsibility 216
Enviropreneurial Marketing model 351
Equator Principles113, 114
errors-in-expectations hypothesis467–8, 476
Ethical Investment Research Services 419
ethics 540
European Commission, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies 329
European Union141–2, 548–9
Eco-management and Audit Scheme (EMAS)236, 328, 428, 528, 562
Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals (REACH) regulation141, 269
Restriction of the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment Regulations (RoHS) legislation304, 351–2
Waste Electrical and Electronics Equipment (WEEE) regulation284, 303, 305
EVA framework 294
evaluation of green benefits 371–2
joint vs separate 375
Evangelical Climate Initiative8, 601
exploitation 538
exploitative reasoning 75
extended producer responsibility 315
external social audit407, 416–19
counter-accounting406, 418–19
crisis reports418
monitoring129–30, 417–18
external stakeholders 271
externalities 435
estimation of 439
global standardization 53–4
and market failures 132
mitigation of 122
regulation of 124–30
self-regulation105, 110
extractive industries 575–6
Exxon Valdez oil spill7, 29, 408, 454, 548, 620
face validity 38
Facebook 329
Fair Trade270, 281, 285, 315, 350, 417
coffee351
false failures 301–2
far-from-equilibrium conditions 600
farm products 544–5
fashion fads 249
fast-moving institutions 214
FDI50, 53, 57
pollution-intensive industries56, 63–4
FedEx 248
feedback 167–8
field 213
finance see accounting; costs
Financial Accounting Standards Board 437
financial myopia 665–7
financial performance 36–7
as investment goal 470
financial returns 466
financialization665, 669
firm-stakeholder networks 93–5
firms
international see MNEs
locally owned 57–8
relatedness 31
resource-based view 30–1
first-generation corporations 648
Florman, Samuel 5
flourishing 613
Ford, Henry 544
Ford Motor Company313, 650
foreign direct investment see FDI
Forest Principles 142
Forest Stewardship Council109, 116, 129, 131, 136, 270, 281, 285, 417
forward supply chains293–4, 298
Framework Convention on Climate Change 140
Framework Convention on Corporate Accountability 586
framing 201
France
Companie des Indes 648
Nouvelles Régulations Economiques 437
weather risk quantification 490–2
Franklin Research and Development assessment 38
Freakonomics 164
free riding16, 370, 512, 513, 514 (p. 684)
Friedman, Milton614, 651
Friedman, Tom 329
Friends of the Earth84, 586, 668
Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice (FCOJ) future contract 490
FTSE 4Good 419
FTSE KLD Social Index 417
fuel efficiency
gallons per mile 167–8
miles per gallon 167
future discounting 162–3
future lock-in 170
G3 Guidelines 409
Gap 418
gasoline, leaded 544
GDP661, 664, 666
GE Medical Services 313
Geertz, Clifford 196
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 141
General Electric624, 642, 643, 650
General Motors 617
General Social Survey 77
General Wildlife Federation 544
generativity 186
genetically modified foods 251
“gentle brands” 369–70
geographic communities 87–9
George, Susan 667
Gilded Age 650
Gladwin, Tom 524
global activism 261
Global Climate Coalition 236
Global Compact 550–1
Global e-Sustainability Initiative 329
global ecosystem 251
Global Environment Outlook GEO-4 report 657–8
global environmental governance 585
Global Reporting Initiative39, 41, 231, 270, 405, 409, 410, 456
Guidelines411–12
Global Roundtable on Climate Change 259
global standardization 51–2
evolution of 52
external determinants 53–4
internal characteristics 54–6
vs national fragmentation 51–2
global supply chains50, 59–60, 64, 281
regulatory issues60–1
global terrorism 8
global warming62, 223, 253, 438, 583, 604
Copenhagen conference164, 591, 598, 599, 604
globalization, degenerative 664–5
Goldstein, Daniel 166
good-dominant logic 354
goods 511–12
Gould, Jay 650
government intervention 117
Great Depression 650
Great Recession 352
Green Campus Initiative 163
Green Consumers 384–402
green dot regulations 283
Green Gauge (Roper) 396
Green Guides 349
green manufacturing 270
green marketing307, 318, 347–65
challenges for353–5
future directions357–61
history of348–53
1960s to 1970s348–9
1980s and 1990s349–51
2000s351–3
myopia352–3, 354
Green parties 252
green products 366–83
bundling168–9, 377
costs and benefits 367–70
labelling of368, 369
positive attributes 369–70
repurchasing 378–9
as status signal 377–8 see also entries under “product”
green purchasing 283
Green Wall 350
greenhouse gases7, 39, 182, 279–80
Urban EcoMap331–2
greening20, 613
of business582
customer preference614 (p. 685)
economic aspects14–15, 36
limits of583–4
of organizational culture566
of supply chains274
Greening of Industry Network (GIN)9, 611
Greenpeace131, 133, 257
Brent Spar oil rig549
digital business329
Rainbow Warrior548
greenwashing129, 221–2, 259, 274, 329, 368, 414, 559, 560–1
Grieder, William 662
grievances 252–4
gross domestic product see GDP
growth
population 3
vs sustainable development 359–60
Guattari, Felix 635
guidelines see standards
Guitang Group 313
Gulf War 549
Hamilton, Alice543, 544
Hardin, Garrett, “Tragedy of the Commons” 553
Harich, Jack 671
Hart, Stuart 44
Hawken, Paul657, 661
The Ecology of Commerce642
Hayek, Friedrich 651
Hayes, Rutherford B. 649
hazardous waste4, 89
Heinzerling, Lisa, Priceless: On Knowing the Price of Everything and the Value of Nothing 163
heuristics161, 166
affect371
cognitive161
Hewlett, Bill 641
Hewlett-Packard297–8, 352
history
environmental539–40, 541
of green marketing 348–53
of weather risk 488
Hoffman, Andrew 110
Holcim Vietnam Plant 113
Hoover Dam 544
host countries, impact of MNEs 56–7
Hudson's Bay Company 648
human effects on ecosystem 3–4
Human Environment Conference 6
human resource management 564
Hurricane Katrina7, 597, 642
hyperbolic discounting 369
IBM297, 352
ICLEI Climate Program599, 601
identity204–5, 253, 376–8
and consumer preference376–7
contextual376
environmental376–8
moral376–7
as status signal377–8
idiosyncratic risk 465
Immelt, Jeffrey 643
implementation 33–6
capabilities 35–6
leadership, power and reward systems34–5
proactivity 33–4
implementation-oriented agreements 127–8
impression management 451
incentives 199
indigenous communities 575–6
industrial chemistry 545
industrial ecology4, 310–27
accounting and finance319–22
and business strategy312–14
definition311
governance and coordination314–16
marketing318–19
operations and technology316–17
system boundaries314
industrial ecosystems 277
industrial environmentalism 216
industrial metastandards 528–9
Industrial Revolution 250
effect on pollution 541–2
industrial symbiosis276–8, 311
industries
characteristics of 240
environmentally sensitive 240 (p. 686)
polluting effects of 541–2
pressure from 235–6
response to environmental movements 259–60
self-regulation see self-regulation
influence 277–8
informal law141, 142–3
informating 328
information 35
environmental 483–6
ignoring of 373–4
information systems327–44, 414
application of330–1
and belief formation331–3
carbon management337–8
and environmental/economic performance335–6
and sustainability328–30, 333–5
information technology 8
infrastructure builders 601
innovation284–5, 351, 352, 627
input-output analysis 321
input-output tables 321
Institute of Nuclear Power Operations111, 112, 236
institutional dynamics 211–28
climate change 221–2
cognitive forces 216–17
corporate response to environmental problems 218
environmental justice 219
environmental movement 218–19
greenwashing 221–2
movements/counter-movements 222–3
normative forces 215–16
policy 223–4
published studies 217–20
regulatory forces 214–15
research on 213–17
sustainability see sustainability
institutional entrepreneurship 73–4
institutional pluralism 18
institutional pressures 229–47
and environmental strategy 232–8
market constituents 235–8
non-market constituents 233–4
moderation of impact 238–40
institutional sociology 229
institutional theory 32–3
environmental entrepreneurship 75–7
integrative social contract theory 525
Intel 328–9
interest groups 234
Interface Carpets565, 615, 642
intergenerational beneficence 176–93
factors affecting 177
interpersonal distance 179–81
intertemporal distance 181–2
legacies 186–8
positive influences 183–6
power 184–6
reciprocity 183–4
psychological approach 178–9
intergenerational discounting 182–3
intergenerational identification 188
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 7
internal reporting 436
International Biological Program 6
international business see multinational enterprises
International Chamber of Commerce 413
International Federation of Accountants 405
International Integrated Reporting Committee 405
international law 141
International Monetary Fund584, 664
International Organization for Standardization see ISO standards
Internet privacy protection 131
interpersonal distance 179–81
intertemporal distance 181–2
intrinsic stakeholder commitment 83
investment, environmentally responsible 462–81
appraisal 433
decisions on 431
errors-in-expectations hypothesis467–8, 476
implications of 476–8
motivation 468–71
mutual funds471, 477
performance and returns 471–6 (p. 687)
profit-seeking462, 463–4, 466–8, 469
values-driven462, 463, 464–6, 469see also environmental performance
Investor Responsibility Research Center 84
investor returns 471–6
iron triangle theory 214
ISEA 3000 416
ISEAL Alliance 115
ISO standards 142
ISO 2009 318
ISO 9000107, 108, 116, 236
ISO 1400132–3, 41, 42–3, 60, 61, 107, 108, 110, 116, 217, 230, 231, 239, 281, 285, 328, 562, 621
ISO 26000107, 528
pressures to adopt 229–47
isomorphism 223
issue framing 254–5
jargon 202
Jevons, Stanley 484
Johnson, Eric 166
Jones Lang LaSalle 643
Judis, John 668
jurisdictional competition 147
just-in-time deliveries 274
Kahneman, Daniel 161
Kelly, Florence 543
Kennedy, Robert (CEO Union Carbide) 112
Kennedy, Robert F. Jr. 668
Kepone 547
Keynes, John Maynard 669
Killer Coke campaign 8
Kimberly-Clark 257
Kinder, Lydenberg, & Domini (KLD) assessment 38
knowledge-sharing 328
KPMG International 456
Krieger, Lou 640
Kyoto Protocol 222
labelling of green products368, 369
Larrick, Richard 167
lawsuits 256
lead 329
leadership 34
actions of 198
in environmental action 198
organizational 627
in sustainability 198
lean systems 270
learning organizations with operational performance excellence 300
legal issues 140–57
compliance 147–9
delay of wise policies 169–71
design of 144–6
domestic law141, 142
as driver for reuse 303–4
formulation of 143–4
future research 152–3
global aspects 150–1
impacts of 149–50
informal law141, 142–3
international law 141
Martin v. Wadell 543
Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railway Company 650
soft laws141, 142–3
sources of 140–3 see also individual laws
legislation
as constraint to commercial use 540
as driver for reuse 303–4
Superfund452, 454
take-back303see also legal issues; and individual laws and Acts
legitimacy theory112, 450–1
Leopold, Aldo, Sand County Almanac 546
Levitt, Steven D., Freakonomics 164
LexisNexis 84
licensing 148–9
life cycle 293
analysis4, 274, 278–80, 311, 438, 582, 604
costing321, 435
management 317 (p. 688)
Lifestyle of Health and Sustainability see LOHAS segmentation
Lippmann, Walter 544
litigation risk486, 487
lobbying222, 398, 406, 649, 664
agricultural sector544–5
business sector150, 582, 663
climate change248
corporate sector249
stakeholders110see also activism; collective action
local initiatives 599
localization 616
locally owned firms 57–8
location 56–7
logistics, reverse 295–6
LOHAS segmentation 394–5
loss aversion, reduction of 168–9
Love Canal547, 620
3M299–300, 563–4
Pollution Prevention Pays process299
Maastricht Treaty (1993) 549
McDonalds 351
Machiavelli, Niccolo, The Prince 671
McMillan, John, Reinventing the Bazaar 647
MacNeill, Jim 621
Malthus, Thomas 541
man-made disasters 253
Bhopal6–7, 29, 53, 112, 236, 408, 454, 548, 620
Challenger space shuttle explosion 548
Chernobyl7, 408, 548
Cuyahoga River 546
Deepwater Horizon62, 640
disclosure of information 485–6
Exxon Valdez7, 29, 408, 454, 548, 620
Love Canal547, 620
Seveso 620
Three Mile Island112, 236, 547, 598
Management Institute for Environment and Business 9
management models 537–8
management-based regulation144, 145–6
managerial agency501–3, 514–15
mandated disclosure 145
mapping applications 331–2
Marine Stewardship Council 654
market constituents 235–8
customer pressures 235
industry pressure 235–6
shareholder pressures 236–7
combined pressures 237–8
market failures73, 104–5, 252, 538
and externalities132
market forces 232
profit-seeking investment462, 463–4, 466–8
values-driven investment462, 463, 464–6
market segmentation 384–402
a priori386, 392–8
application of 396–400
behavioral386, 392–6, 398–400
individuals in 391–2
LOHAS 394–5
models of 385–6
natural/revealed 391
requirements for 387–90
targeted 391
market valuation 451–4
experimental investigations 454
reaction studies 453–4
research 452–3
market-based instruments144, 145
marketing12, 318–19
brand349
context effects375–6
definition of354–5
value creation85, 93–5, 347see also consumer decision-making
marketing logic 354–5
marketing mix 354–5
marketing myopia352–3, 354
Marketing Science Institute 43
Marks & Spencer 351
Martin v. Wadell 543
Marx, Karl538, 649
marxism 665
mass media 597
Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Act 145
matching 512–13
material and energy flow analysis 320
material flow analysis 320
material intensity per unit of service (MIPS) 321 (p. 689)
material loops 313
materials flow cost analysis320, 431
materials reduction 300–1
through reuse 304
meaning, filter/frame for 200–3
means standards 144
Merchant Adventurers 648
mercury 329
Messick, David 165
metals recycling 305
methodology21–2, 37–40
qualitative analysis39–40
quantitative analysis38–9
methyl isocyanate 6–7
METNEXT 493
Millennium Development Goals22, 550
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment3, 8, 657
Miller, Herman 563
mission statements 561–2
MIT program on Technology Business, and Environment 611
Mitsubishi Corporation 234
MNEs50–69, 530
emerging economies58–9
environmental strategies51–9
global standardization
evolution of52
external determinants53–4
internal characteristics54–6
vs national fragmentation51–2
global supply chains50, 59–60
impact in host countries56–7
location decisions56–7
regulatory issues60–1, 64–5
subsidiaries
capability differences55
conduct of57–8
emerging economies59see also entries under corporate
mobility options matrix 617
mobilization 254–5
modern environmental movement3, 5
modernity 576
Monbiot, George 667
monetary value of green products 374–5
monitoring129–30, 417–18, 435–6
environmental audit114–15, 231, 435
internal reporting436
Monks, Robert 662
Monsanto 581
Montreal Protocol (1987)140, 548, 620
moral identity 376–7
morality540, 577
Morgan, J.P. 650
Most Admired rankings 417
motivation 74–5
Move-On 134
MPG illusion 167
Muir, John250, 542
multi-actor processes 626
multinational enterprises see MNEs
multiple selves phenomenon 169
mutual funds471, 477
National Accounting Matrix including Environmental Accounts (NAMEA) 320
National Coast Anti-Pollution League 544
national security 8
National Wildlife Federation213, 549
natural capital 522
natural environment 18–19
natural events7, 484
El Niño602
Hurricane Katrina7, 597, 642see also weather risks
natural resources 539
economic incentives for use 540
limits on 541
Natural Resources Defense Council 213
Natural Step program 231
natural/revealed segmentation 391
Naturalites 395
negotiated rulemaking 143
neo-liberalism 667
neoinstitutionalism 212
Nestle 418
net present value 503–4
environmental implications 508
foundations of 504–7
monetary 508–10
(p. 690)
Network of Expertise for the Global Environment 601
network theory 523–5
networks254, 601
Greening of Industry Network (GIN)9, 611
New American Dream 355
new corporate environmentalism526, 556
as management guide559
symbolic organizational theory559–60
NGOs11, 16–18, 53, 63, 122, 130–3, 270, 319
confrontation and cooperation134–6
environmental activism133–4
private politics130–3see also stakeholders
Nidumolu, Ram 645
NIELSEN 493
Nike194, 418
NIMBYism 132–3
nitrogen dioxide trading 127
Nixon, Richard M. 546
non-governmental organizations see NGOs
non-market constituents 233–4
community and environmental interest groups 234
political and regulatory pressures 233–4
non-market spillovers 59
non-market strategies 11
Noranda Minerals 408
norm of reciprocity 215
Norm Thompson Outfitters 565
normative forces 215–16
Norsk Hydro 408
North, Douglass 105
notice-and-comment rulemaking 143–4
Nuclear Regulatory Commission 111
Obama, Barack 21
off-shoring of operations 272
oil prices 595
Ontario Hydro 621–2
operational budget 432–3
operational compliance 435
operations12, 316–17, 428
opportunities 21–2
organ donation 168
organic products 106–7
Organization and Natural Environment 577
organizational culture194–210, 556–71
built environment and transportation563
definition195–6
and environmental action196–7
environmental technology563–4
as filter and frame for meaning200–2
future directions203–5
greening of566
human resources564
and identity204–5
mission statements561–2
shared norms/values196, 197–203
stakeholder partnerships564
stories and rituals565
sustainability reporting565–6
and symbolic organizational theory557–61
as toolkit202–3
organizational leadership 627
organizations 16–18
behavior 11–12
characteristics 229–47
moderation of institutional pressures 238–40
diversity of 18
effect of environmental movement on 255–7
functions of 238–9
structural elements 562 see also MNEs
Organizations and the Natural Environment (ONE) group9, 29, 612
Original Equipment Manufacturers292, 304
outsourcing273, 277, 296
ozone depletion4, 7, 620
packaging135, 235, 274, 280, 349
green dot regulations283
labelling of products368, 369
Packard, Dave 641
panacea hypothesis71, 77
paradigm choices 19–20
paradigmatic research 583
participatory action research 358
partnerships 16–18
past-future connection 189
“pays to be green”14–15, 36–7
peer-pressure332, 339
pension funds 470–1
Pension Investment Research Consultants 419
performativity 574
perpetual reasoning 75
personal meaning 186
perverse resilience 596
pesticides 576
physical flow analysis 434
physical risk486, 487
Pinchot, Gifford 542
plague 541
planning 35
Polanyi, Karl 650
The Great Transformation 667
policy bundling see bundling
political constraints 124–6
political economics 584–5
political opportunities 254
political pressures 233–4
polluter pays policy 8
polluting activities, location of 56–7
pollution 452
air251, 546
developing countries 253
effects of Industrial Revolution 541–2
non-point sources 130
water251, 541
pollution havens56–7, 63–4
pollution prevention4, 7, 316–17, 547, 581
Pollution Prevention Pays process 299
Polman, Paul 643
population growth 3
Porter categories 31
Porter, Michael 150
positive illusions 163–4
Positive Organizational Scholarship (POS) 16
Potemkin Village 223
power34, 184–6
asymmetry in185
psychological effects185
Prahalad, C.K. 645
preference256, 385, 391
and identity376–7
and monetary value374–5
revealed387, 389
preference heterogeneity 391
Presidents 642–3
pressure campaigns 256
Priceless: On Knowing the Price of Everything and the Value of Nothing 163
pricing
arbitrage pricing theory 492
capital asset pricing theory465, 492, 506
carbon 256 see also costs
Prince's Accounting for Sustainability Project 406
Principles for Responsible Investment 463
private politics 130–3
definition of 131–3
pro-active management 7
proactivity 33–4
problem setting 201
process specifications 283
processes-based impact 280
Proctor & Gamble 650
product acquisition management 294–5
product characteristics 64
product design270, 280
design for environment312, 313
innovations in351
and reuse304
product life cycle see life cycle
product recovery294, 295, 298–306
commercial returns and false failures302–3
materials and energy reduction300–1
recycling216, 271, 295, 299
reuse299, 301–2
servicizing300–1, 305
product returns 110
product stewardship7, 30, 279, 581, 622
Product Sustainability Index 353
product/service costing 434
profit, as outcome 653
profit-seeking investment462, 463–4, 466–8, 469
conditions for467
implications of476–8
33/50 Program 128
progress 576 (p. 692)
Progressive era 543
Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) model 599
protests
media 256
spontaneous 249
street 256
proximity 524
public ecology 583
public health541, 542, 544
public policy 11
public politics 132
public voluntary programs 128
qualitative analysis 39–40
quality 270
quality costing 434
quality of life 359
quantitative analysis 38–9
racism, environmental 4
radical transactiveness 84
Radium Girls 544
Rainforest Action Network 234
Rainforest Alliance 564
Rangaswami, M.R. 645
Rawls, John 165
Raymond, Lee 641
Reagan, Ronald548, 651
Reaganomics 667
reason 541
ReCellular295, 298
reciprocity 183–4
reconditioning 275
recycling216, 271, 295, 299
closed-loop supply chains305–6
reduce, reuse, and recycle ordering 299
reduction 300–1
reflexivity 575
refurbishment 295
Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals (REACH) regulation141, 269
regulators 86–7
regulatory agencies 6
regulatory compliance 5–6
regulatory environmentalism 216
regulatory forces 214–15
regulatory issues60–1, 64–5, 124–30
certification see certification
industry self-regulation see self-regulation
instrument choice126–9
information disclosure128–9
voluntary regulation127–8
weak regulatory capacity129
monitoring and enforcement129–30
political constraints124–6
voluntary regulation127–8, 231see also certification; standards
regulatory pressures 233–4
regulatory risk486, 487
relatedness 31
religious morality 8
remanufacturing271, 275, 295, 301
renewable resources73, 76–7
power generation31
repair295, 297
reporting
corporate environmental financial 444–61
crisis reports 418
internal 436
and market valuation 451–4
stand-along reports406–7, 408–11
repurchasing 378–9
reputation 417
risk486, 487
research
business9–10, 23
closed-loop supply chains 307
collective responsibility 112
community action 358
critical research agenda 582–7
design-science 333
institutional dynamics 213–17
market valuation 452–3
paradigmatic 583
participatory action 358
research and development 127
resource allocation73, 199, 503, 504see also net present value (p. 693)
resource availability 54
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act 123
resource dependence theory 85
resource-based view 30–1
Responsible Care program32, 41, 111, 114, 116, 217, 231, 236, 528, 621
industry benefits112
responsiveness 34
Restriction of the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment Regulations (RoHS) legislation304, 351–2
reuse299, 301–2
legislation as driver for303–4
materials reduction and product design304
as profit center302see also product recovery; recycling
revealed preference387, 389
reverse logistics 295–6
reverse supply chains293, 294–8
product acquisition management294–5
product recovery294, 295
product returns297–8
repair, service and warranty297
testing, sorting and disposition296–7
reward systems 34–5
Risk Management Plans 145
risks 482–501
climate 485
externalization of 662–3
hedging against 486–8
idiosyncratic 465
information disclosure 483–6
litigation486, 487
mitigation 282–3
non-strategic 482
physical486, 487
regulatory486, 487
reputation486, 487
sharing 465
strategic 482
Rockefeller, John 650
role creation 199
romanticism 250
Roosevelt, Franklin Delano 651
Roosevelt, Theodore542–4, 650
Ruckelshaus, William222, 547
rule of capture rationale 539
Runnalls, David 621
SA8000281, 286
sampling 42–3
Samuelson, Bill 166
sanctions 115
Sand County Almanac 546
sanitation541, 542
Santa Barbara oil spill 6
Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railway Company 650
Saro-Wiwa, Ken 549
Schultz, P. Wesley 167
science
as driver for consumption 539–40 see also technology
Scott, Lee 642
Scott, Tom 649
segmentation
a priori386, 392–8
behavioral386, 392–6, 398–400
LOHAS 394–5
market 384–402
natural/revealed 391
targeted 391
self-disclosure of violations 233–4 see also self-regulation
self-extension 186–7
self-governance 316
self-interests187, 253
self-organization316, 600, 601, 603
self-regulation103–21, 236, 558
categorization of105–13
certification106–10
collective responsibility110–12
mixed methods113, 114
credible enforcement114–15
gains from113–14
and government intervention117
peril and promise104–5
sanctions115
supportive institutional environment116
Sentis, Keith 165 (p. 694)
service parts 295
service-dominant logic354, 357
servicing 297
servicizing300–1, 305
Seveso 620
Seveso Directive 6
Shapiro, Robert 581
sharecropping 650
shared norms/values196, 197–203
corporate policies200
environmental champions198–9
incentives199
leadership actions198
resource allocation199
role creation199
shareholder interests 503
shareholder resolutions 257
shareholders
free riding16, 370, 512, 513, 514
pressures from 236–7
voting 512–13 see also stakeholders
Shell418, 624
Brent Spar oil rig549
short-termism 666
shunned-stock hypothesis 466
Sierra Club84, 133, 213, 543
founding of250
membership212
Silent Spring5, 250–1, 546, 660
Silicon Valley 641
simulations of complex systems 596–8
Smith, Adam104, 649
smog542, 546
Snow, John 542
Social Audit Ltd 417
social capital 522
social discounting 180
social entrepreneurs 17
social environment 18–19
social movements12, 248–65
characteristics of248–9
social pressure130–3, 148
social responsibility 577
socialcentrism 525
society 537–55
interdependence with business 537–8
sociotechnical transition 602
soft laws141, 142–3
Soll, Jack 167
sorting 296–7
Spain, Plan General de Contabilidad 437
specification 144
Speth, Gus 663
spontaneous protests 249
stakeholders 79
accountability to 277–8
activists84, 87–9
attitude to certification 109
as co-producers of value 93
corporate boards 91–2
customers 89–91
dialogue257, 415, 576
employees 91
firm-stakeholder networks 93–5
geographic communities 87–9
levels of 271–2
partnerships with organizations 564
regulators 86–7
stakeholder capitalism 83
stakeholder corporations 552
stakeholder management32, 83–100
importance to firms85–95
stakeholder theory358, 523–4
stand-alone reports406–7, 408–11
assurance procedures416
challenges413–16
comparability414
diversity of responses414
diversity of views413–14
materiality and information systems414
selection and balance414
user needs and wants415–16
Global Reporting Initiative39, 41, 231, 270, 405, 409, 410
problems411–13
trends in409
standards 360
AA1000 416
industrial metastandards 528–9
ISEA 3000 416
ISO 2009 318
ISO 9000107, 108, 116, 236
ISO 14001 see ISO 14001 (p. 695)
ISO 26000107, 528
ISO 142
performance 144–5
SA8000281, 286
technology 144 see also certification
Starbucks 351
stated preference 388–9
status seeking 377–8
Steiner, Rudolph 250
stewardship
environmental34–5, 259, 347, 407, 420, 426, 427, 431, 566
Forest Stewardship Council109, 116, 129, 131, 136, 270, 281, 285, 417
product7, 30, 279, 581, 622
Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment 621
stories and rituals 565
strange attractors 594
strategic environmentalism 216
strategic management 6–7
strategic niche management 602
strategic stakeholder management 83
strategic sustainability matrix 616
“strong” brands 369–70
Strong, Maurice 621
strong sustainability20, 621
examples622–4
Ontario Hydro621–2
paradigm for624–7
systems thinking625–6
structural equation modeling 40
suboptimal choices 372
subsidiaries
capability differences 55
conduct of 57–8
emerging economies 59
substance-flow analysis 320
sulfur dioxide
emissions149–50, 486
trading127, 486
sunspots 484
Sunstein, Cass 166
Superfund legislation452, 454, 547
supplier audit 435
supply chains
broadening of 276–7
clockspeed 273
design 274–8
extension of 274–6
global50, 59–60, 64, 281
greening of 274
life cycle assessment4, 274, 278–80
management 269–89
managing across 281–5
improvements 283–4
new opportunities 284–5
risk mitigation 282–3
off-shoring of operations 272
outsourcing 273
stakeholders 271
sustainable 604
Sustainability 1.0 636
Sustainability 2.0 630–8
background 631–2
sustainability7–9, 72, 220, 349, 351, 545
aesthetics of630–8
alternate pathways614
belief formation331–3, 615
business model220
in consumption355–7
current developments550–1
enterprise632–5
and environmental management systems438–9
experiments in600–1
future of587
implications of188–9
information systems328–30, 333–5
leadership in198
Millennium Development Goals22, 550
morality and ethics540
practices636–7
reporting565–6
strategies616–17
strong20, 621
examples622–4
Ontario Hydro621–2
paradigm for624–7
systems thinking625–6
Triple Bottom Line412, 419, 520
sustainable design 635
Sustainable Forestry Initiative41, 109, 129, 131, 136
sustainable interaction design 333
Sustainable Slopes Program111, 116, 231
sustaincentrism524–5, 579
symbolic gestures 372
symbolic immortality 186
symbolic organizational theory 559–60
greenwashing129, 221–2, 259, 274, 329, 368, 414, 559, 560–1
System of Environmental and Economic Accounts (SEEA) 320
systemic integration 356–7
systems assessment 435
systems dynamics 602
systems thinking 625–6
take-back legislation 303
takeovers 512–14
Target 351
target-oriented agreements 127–8
targeted segmentation 391
taxes
emissions 126
environmental 145
technical compliance 6
technocentric paradigm 579
technological updates 293
technology12, 316–17
as driver for consumption539–40
environmental563–4
standards144
technology-acceptance model 333–4
TerraChoice 368
testing 296–7
Tetra Pak 434
Thaler, Richard 166
Thatcher, Margaret548, 651
Thatcherism 667
The Ecology of Commerce 642
The Great Transformation 667
The Natural Step 627
third-generation corporations 647–56
corporate geneology 648–51
rise of 651–4
Thoreau, Henry David 250
Three Gorges Dam project 549
Three Mile Island accident112, 236, 547, 598
throughput, growth of 660–2
Tiebout competition 512–13
Tildon, Samuel 649
Tobin's q 38
toolkits 202–3
top-down management 604
total cost assessment 321
total quality environmental management system 434
total quality management434, 558
toxic sites 547
toxic waste176, 182, 577
Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)38, 39, 128, 132, 145, 149, 240
traceability 281
tradable emissions permits 126–7
trade associations 235
motivation by 236
trade-offs 391
alternatives to 653–4
avoidance of 372–3
cost-benefit 369
trading companies 648
trading emissions127, 145, 486
carbon127
sulfur dioxide127, 486
“Tragedy of the Commons” 553
transaction cost analysis 283
transcendentalism 250
transparency237, 271, 281
transportation 563
treadmill of production model 253
Triple Bottom Line412, 419, 520
Trist, Eric622, 626
Tversky, Amos 161
Udall, Stewart 547
UK
Accounting Standards Board 437
Energy Efficiency Scheme 338 (p. 697)
National Industrial Symbiosys Program 315
Operating and Financial Review 437
uncertainty 73
Unconcerned 395
Uniform Prudent Investor Act 463
Unilever 643
Union Carbide, Bhopal pesticide disaster6–7, 29, 53, 112, 236, 408, 454, 548
Union of Concerned Scientists 84
uniqueness of environmental issues 204
United East India Company 648
United Nations
Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) 7
Earth Summit 29
Global Compact 550–1
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment3, 8, 657
Principles for Responsible Investment 8
University of Michigan
environmental data repository 337
Environmental Task Force 337
unsustainability 631
Urban EcoMap 331–2
US Climate Action Partnership599, 654
US Department of Energy 337
US Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (1986) 128
US Environmental Protection Agency212, 215, 217, 231, 337, 547
Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)38, 39, 240
US Occupational Safety and Health Administration 217
US Securities and Exchange Commission 446
Financial Reporting Release No. 32 446
Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 92 446
USCAP group 248
USDA Organic standard 351
use-based impact 280
utility theory 464
Valdez Principles 237
Valley of the Drums 547
value co-producers 93
value creation85, 93–5, 347, 354–5
value-based management 503
value-in-exchange 354
value-in-use 354
values-driven investment462, 463, 464–6, 469
financial market effects465
implications of476–8
vertical integration 313
videoconferencing 329
violations, self-disclosure 233–4
Virginia Company 648
Vision 2050 641
voluntary actors 601
voluntary disclosure408, 450
voluntary regulation127–8, 231
voting 512–13
voting records 87
Wal-Mart248, 351, 353, 418, 616, 624, 642
warranty 297
wars, environmental effects of 546
Washington Consensus 667
waste disposal4, 7, 271
Waste Electrical and Electronics Equipment (WEEE) regulation284, 303, 305
waste generation 278–9
wastewater treatment 256
WasteWise 128
water pollution251, 541
and cholera541
weak regulatory capacity 129
weak sustainability20, 620–1
examples622–4
weather derivatives 493–4
valuation of 494
weather forecasting 596–7
Weather Normalization Adjustment systems 495
Weather Risk Management Association 495
weather risks483–4, 486–96
climate change see climate change
corporate management493
definition489
hedging against486–8
history of488
pluvius insurance488
quantification489–92
webs of significance196, 200 (p. 698)
Welch, Jack 643
White, Curtis 659
Whole Foods375, 389
wildlife protection543, 544
willingness-to-pay 614
win-win approach436–7, 548, 558, 578, 583
business case437
World Bank 584
World Business Council for Sustainable Development413, 580–1, 654
Vision 2050641
World Social Forum 586
World Trade Organization141, 151, 584
World Wildlife Federation 133
Climate Savers 601
World Wildlife Fund for Nature658, 661
Zeckhauser, Richard 166