- List of Figures
- List of Tables
- List of Abbreviations
- List of Contributors
- Retrospective, Perspective, and Prospective: Introduction to the Oxford Handbook on Business and the Natural Environment
- Competitive Strategy and the Environment: A Field of Inquiry Emerges
- International Business and the Environment
- Environmental Entrepreneurship
- The Value of Managing Stakeholders
- Industry Self-Regulation and Environmental Protection
- Environmental Governance
- Business and Environmental Law
- Cognitive Barriers to Environmental Action: Problems and Solutions
- Intergenerational Beneficence and the Success of Environmental Sustainability Initiatives in Organizational Contexts
- Organizational Culture and Environmental Action
- Institutional Approaches to Organizations and the Natural Environment
- Institutional Pressures and Organizational Characteristics: Implications for Environmental Strategy
- Social Movements, Business, and the Environment
- Greener Supply Chain Management
- Closed-Loop Supply Chains
- Industrial Ecology: Business Management in a Material World
- Information Systems, Business, and the Natural Environment: Can Digital Business Transform Environmental Sustainability?
- From Green Marketing to Marketing for Environmental Sustainability
- Why not Choose Green? Consumer Decision Making for Environmentally Friendly Products
- Using Market Segmentation Approaches to Understand the Green Consumer
- Sustainability and Social Responsibility Reporting and the Emergence of the External Social Audits: The Struggle for Accountability?
- Environmental Management, Measurement, and Accounting: Information for Decision and Control?
- Corporate Environmental Financial Reporting and Financial Markets
- Values-Driven and Profit-Seeking Dimensions of Environmentally Responsible Investing
- Environmental Risks and Financial Markets: A Two-Way Street
- Corporate Decision-Making, Net Present Value, and the Environment
- The Relevance of the Natural Environment for Corporate Social Responsibility Research
- Business, Society, and the Environment
- The New Corporate Environmentalism and the Symbolic Management of Organizational Culture
- Critical Perspectives on Business and the Natural Environment
- Approaching Business and the Environment with Complexity Theory
- Beyond the Brave New World: Business for Sustainability
- Looking Back, Thinking Forward: Distinguishing Between Weak and Strong Sustainability
- Enterprise Sustainability 2.0: Aesthetics of Sustainability
- Tomorrow's C-Suite Agenda
- The Third-Generation Corporation
- Capitalism Critique: Systemic Limits on Business Harmony with Nature
Abstract and Keywords
This article describes the current state of social accountability and how it is evolving to embrace environmental, social, and sustainability accountability, reporting, and disclosure. Some of the ways in which the relationships between civil society, the market, and the state might be better mediated in the interests of democracy are suggested. The stand-alone reports say a lot about what an organization would like the reader to see as its responsibility. A priori reasoning would suggest that it is much more likely to be the case that all commercial organizations are actually un-sustainable. The possibility of providing a report only once can always challenge a business' strategy, reputation, and perception. The role of the researcher is critical: not least because so much research seems content to ignore the wider data, ignore the wider context, and accept a business-as-usual scenario as beyond consideration.
School of Management, University of St Andrews
Rob Gray, Professor of Social and Environmental Accounting, Director of the Centre for Social and Environmental Accounting Research, School of Management, University of St Andrews, Scotland.
Haskayne School of Business, University of Calgary
Irene M. Herremans, CMA-Alberta Faculty Fellow, Haskayne School of Business, and adjunct Professor in Environmental Design, University of Calgary.
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