Abstract and Keywords
This article reviews the historical significance of the environmental movement for corporate environmental practices. It investigates the basic processes and mechanisms that lead from the identification of grievances and collective mobilization to the response and internalization of such challenges in businesses. The success of social movements in affecting environmentally relevant practices of businesses is evaluated. The globalization of the environmental movement itself has often taken the form of participating in international policy-making and targeting multinational companies headquartered in developed countries, and less successfully of planting local movements across the globe. The environmental movements can direct technological and social innovation aligned with movement goals, create consumer demand for these products, and develop legitimacy and positive reputations for organizations that address their concerns. Finally, the implications and emergent directions of research in studies on the environmental movement and businesses are explained.
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