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date: 23 October 2018

(p. 607) Index

(p. 607) Index

abbesses 70, 450, 455, 457, 547, 550, 551, 555, 556
Abelard, Peter 32, 264, 455
and Heloise 3, 28–30, 547, 592
Abels, Richard 500
Abortion 89–90, 92, 94, 354, 358; see also birth control; reproduction
Abū Muḥammad ibn Qutayba 89
Acre 491
Acts of Paul and Thecla 22, 531, 532–3, 538
Adalbero, archbishop of Reims 78
Adela of Blois 328–9, 340, 548
Adelheid, Empress 68, 71, 73, 77–8, 79–80
Adelheid, West Frankish queen 73
Adomnán of Iona, Abbot 425, 487
adultery:
canon law 171–3
in Islam 58
parodied in Decameron 129–30
Adversus hereses (Irenaeus) 498
Aelfric 352
Aelred of Rivaulx 384–5
Aers, David 520
Aethelberht, King of Kent 421
Aethelburh 541
Æthelflæd of Mercia 3
Aethelgifu 314, 317
Aethelwulf 71
Against Jovinian (Jerome) 25–6, 32
Agnes de Bossones 295
Agnes of Poitou, Empress 78–9, 459
Aisha 55, 56–7, 62
Aistulf 111–2, 113
Alan of Lille 28, 389
Albert the Great 31, 381
Alberti, Leon Battista 301
Aldhelm of Canterbury 27, 487, 541
Alfonso I the Great, King of Castile-Leon 76
Alfonso II, King of Aragon 399
Alfonso IV, King of Aragon 143
Alfonso of Jaën 515
Alfonso VI, King of Aragon 76
Alfonso X, King of Castile 136
Ali ibn Abi Talib 62
al-Ghazālī, Abū Ḥāmid (Algazel) 90
al-Jazzār, Abū Ja’far Aḥmad ibn Ibrāhīm ibn 88–9, 93, 94
al-Kitāb al-Kāmil fī aṣ-ṣinā’a aṭ-ṭibbiya 88
al-Kulliyāt fī al-ṭibb 91
al-Majūsī, Alī ibn al-‘Abbas (Haly Abbas) 88, 95, 97, 346, 355
al-Mansur, caliph 59
al-Rāzī, Muḥammad ibn Zakariyā (Razes, Rhazes) 90, 97, 349
al-Shifā (Ibn Sīnā) 91, 92
al-Zahrawi 346, 353, 355
Ambrose, St, bishop of Milan 24, 25, 172, 264, 435, 482, 486, 490
Amer, Sahar 389
Anatomy of the Uterus (Galen) 97
Ancrene Wisse 518
Angelos, Mark 154
Angenendt, Arnold 465
Anna Comnena 327, 363, 366
Annals of Quedlinburg 77
Anne de Beaujeu, Duchess of Bourbon 349, 600
Anne of Brittany, Queen of France 600
Anne of Kiev, Queen of France 79
Anno II, bishop of Cologne 483
Anskar, St 426–7
Anson, John 539
Anthony, St 435, 441, 486
anti-woman discourse, see misogyny
Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles 538
Archer, Rowena 336
Arculf 487
(p. 608) aristocratic women:
Carolingian era 233–5
courtly traditions 396–411
domestic life 8
Duby on 329–31
economic activity 327–42
estate and household management 337–9
land and property 331–7
role summarized 339–40
Aristotle 30–1, 85, 88, 91, 95–6, 158
Arnauda de Lamothe 471, 505, 507
Arnold, John 271
Art of Courtly Love (Capellanus) 401–2
Art of Love (Ovid) 593
Arthur, King (fictional) 398, 400, 401
Aspergen, Kerstin 530
Assembly of Ladies 249
Astell, Mary 602
Athanasius of Alexandria 441, 486, 489, 534
Aucassin and Nicolette 405, 406
Augustine of Canterbury, St 422
Augustine of Hippo, St 25–6, 30, 110, 264, 351, 418, 498–9
Aurelian of Arles 437, 439
Auxerre 417, 423
Averroes see Ibn Rushd
Avicenna see Ibn Sīnā
Avignon 305
Azema, Alaïs 315
Babylonian Talmud 36–48
Baille, Sybille 316
Bandel, Betty 3
Baraita de-Niddah 44
Barber, Elizabeth 313
Barcelona 143, 150, 287, 303
Bard, Christine 590
Bardsley, Sandy 321
Barron, Caroline 298
Bartholomew of Trent 488
Bartolus of Sassoferato 151
Basel 392, 467, 474, 585
Basil II, Emperor 364
Basil, St 72, 435
Baskin, Judith R. 92
Battiferra, Laura 602
Baudonivia 422, 486–7, 490
Beach, Alison 458
Beatrice, Empress 80
Beatrice, Queen of Portugal 75, 76
beguines and beguinages 31, 262–78, 464–479, 484, 514, 553; see also holiness; lay piety
monasticism
Beheim, Michel 380–2, 391
Bellomo, Manlio 155
Benedict of Aniane 442
Benedict of Nursia, St 435, 438, 472; see also Rule of Benedict
Benedictow, Ole 185
Bennett, Judith 14, 252, 297–8, 312, 319, 321–2
Bentivoglio, Nicolao 119–28
Bergen 320, 457
Berman, Constance 318, 453, 454, 459
Bern 356
Bernard, abbot of Clairvaux 450, 453, 483
Bernardino of Siena 391
Bernart de Ventadorn 406
Bernold of Constance 454
Béroul 406
Berthold of Regensburg 391
Bertrada 70
Bestiary of Love (Richard Fournival) 407
Bible; see also Eve; Jesus; Mary and Martha; Mary Magdalene; Virgin Mary:
‘Bride of Christ’ 534–8
early feminist writing 595, 600
fear of female sexuality 453, 530
female rulers 71–2
gendered thinking 2, 22, 25, 433–4
heresy 498, 501, 502
in Judaism 36, 37, 38, 40, 42, 43, 47, 213, 217, 218, 219, 220–1
law 104, 112
lay devotion 474
monasticism 433–4, 437, 455
motherhood 262
same-sex relations 381, 387
sex and reproduction 89, 92, 93, 96, 422
Bieiris de Romans 389, 407
bigamy 169, 217
Biller, Peter 502
Birka 426–7
birth control 89–90, 92, 94, 189–90; see also abortion; reproduction
Bischofsheim 425, 426
(p. 609) Bisson, Thomas 550
Black Death 182, 185, 298, 321–2
Black, Christopher 513
Blamires, Alcuin 6, 591
Blanche of Castile, Queen of France 79, 555, 557
Blanche of Navarre, Queen 76–7, 349, 549, 557
Blanche, Countess Palatine of Troyes 335
Blandina of Lyon, St 417, 418, 485
Blannbekin, Agnes 466, 470, 474
Blumenfeld-Kosinski, Renate 350
Boccaccio, Giovanni 129–30, 352, 595, 600
Bocksten, Sweden 201
Bodarwé, Katrinette 434–5
bodily culture, see also medicine and natural philosophy:
Byzantine Empire 362–78; see also Byzantine Empire
Judaism 42–6
Boileau, Étienne 303
Bois, Guy 318, 322
Bokenham, Osbern see Osbern of Bokenham
Bolland, Jean 436
Bologna 118, 119, 121, 122, 123, 124, 126, 127, 164, 254, 305, 350, 353, 355, 392, 484
Bonaventure, St 516
Boniface V, Pope 541
Boniface, St 425–6, 435, 482
Bonnassie, Pierre 150
Book of Almansor (Rhazes) 349
Book of Aphorisms (Maimonides) 92
Book of Fortune’s Transformations (Pizan) 594–5
Book of Generation 93
Book of Husbandry (Fitzherbert) 317
Book of Peace (Pizan) 598
Book of St Gilbert 455
Book of the Body Politic (Pizan) 598
Book of the Courtier (Castiglione) 564
Book of the Duke of True Lovers (Pizan) 594
Book of the Ways of God (Elizabeth of Schönau) 457
Boone, Marc 247
Boswell, John 11, 386, 392
Bouchard, Constance 330
Bourchier, Lady Isabel 489
Boynton, Susan 404
Braudel, Fernand 563
Bray, Alan 385
Bresc, Henri 285
bride of Christ 1, 23, 486, 530, 531, 533–8, 541
brideprice 148–62
Bridget of Sweden, St 466, 470, 484, 513, 515, 592
Brigstock 315
Brown, Judith C. 298
Brown, Peter 416
Brownmiller, Susan 123
Bruges 295, 297, 300, 302, 303, 350, 388, 562
Brundage, James 164
Bryan, Jennifer 518
Bullough, Vern 183
Burgh, Elizabeth de 338–9, 340
Burnette, Joyce 322
Burns, Jane 385
Burrus, Virginia 533
Bury St Edmunds 513
Butler, Sara 171
Bynum, Caroline Walker 4, 12, 31–2, 248, 488, 520
Byzantine Empire:
bodily culture 362–78
castration 371–5
clothed body 366–7
demonic bodies 371
elite bodies 364–6
gender categories 362, 375–6
imperial bodies 367
marriage law, see canon law
sources of body imagery 362–3
Cabré i Pairet, Montserrat 349
Caesarius, bishop of Arles 419, 434, 435, 439–42, 443
Cáin Adomnán 425
Cameron, Averil 370–1
Canon (Ibn Sīnā) 353, 355
canon law:
adultery 171–3
gender and marriage litigation 163–6
gender in 163–6
marriage formation 166–8
marriage separation and dissolution 173–5
married life 169–71
remarriage 168–9
women’s role summarized 175–6
Canterbury Tales (Chaucer) 390
(p. 610) Capellanus, Andreas 401–2
capitalism, gender and growth of 561–76
Carolingian era:
aristocratic households 233–5
domestic ideology 238–9
domestic life 229–45
economic resources for women 236–7
household economies 233–5
marriage 230–3
peasant households 233–5
queenship 70–2
sources 229–30
women’s influence and role summarized 239–40
Casey, Kathleen 298
Castiglione 564
Cathars 270, 471, 497, 500, 502, 505, 579; see also heresy and heretics
Catherine of Alexandria, St 481
Catherine of Siena, St 9, 13, 268, 467, 470–1, 513
celibacy, of clergy, see also chastity; priests’ wives
and church reform: 447–62
priests as ‘third gender’ 546–8
Celsus 346
Cereta, Laura 602, 603
Chabot, Isabelle 155
Chalons, Burgundy 188
Charageat, Martine 168, 171
Charles I the Bald, King of France 71
Charles III, King of Navarre 77
Charles IV, Emperor 256
Charles IV, King of France 74
Charles V, King of France 251, 594
Charles VII, King of France 598
Charles VIII, King of France 600
Charles, Prince of Viana 77
Chastising of God’s Children 518
Chaucer, Geoffrey 5, 252, 257, 390, 489
Chelĭcký, Peter 502
childbearing, see reproduction
chivalry, see courtly traditions
Chlotar 421
Chrétien de Troyes 7, 401
Christianity, see also Bible; canon law; church reform; holiness; Jesus; martyrs; saints; Virgin Mary:
Christianization of Europe 415–31
Christianization of local cultures 422–3
church as bride of Christ 1
church reform 447–62; see also church reform
clerical celibacy 447–62, 546–8; see also celibacy
conversion narratives 415–6
cults of saints 480–95; see also saints
gendered thinking 21–35, 428, 433–5
heresy and gender 496–510; see also heresy
interrelations with Jews 213–4, 223–4
missionary activity 420–2, 424–6
monasticism 432–46; see also monasticism
virginity 6, 529–44; see also virginity
Christina of Markyate 468, 513, 555
Christina of Stommeln 473
Christina the Astonishing 466, 474
Christine de Pizan 6, 590–606
church courts, see canon law
church reform 447–462
church, see Christianity
Cicely, Duchess of York 518
Cicero 384
City of God (Augustine) 264–5
City of Ladies (Pizan) 595–8, 599, 600
civic courts, see law
Cixous, Hélène 520
Clanvowe, Sir John 382–4
Clare of Assisi 465, 484, 513
Clark, Elizabeth 533
Clark, Robert 519
Clemence of Barking 592
Clergue, Mengarde 315
Clodosinda 421
Clothild 421
clothing and material culture 197–204
sumptuary laws 153, 202, 206–7
Clover, Carol 183
Clovis, King of the Franks 421
Coach, The (Marguerite de Navarre) 600
Code of Justinian 138, 387
Code of Tortosa 136, 139–40, 142
Cohen, Esther 217
Coignard, Gabrielle de 601
Coleman, Emily 183
Colins, Alice 506
Cologne 298, 483
Colonna, Vittoria 602
Columbanus, St 418, 438, 441
compensation tariffs, see wergeld
(p. 611) Concordance of Discordant Canons see Decretum
Concordance of Rules (Benedict) 442
concubines 126–7
Carolingian 237
in Islam 60
Conferences (Cassian) 438, 440
Conrad of Marchthal 453, 455
Constance of Sicily, Empress 75, 76, 79
Constantine, Emperor 481, 529
Constantinus Africanus 94
Contemplation of the Dread and Love of God 518
Council of Auxerre 421
Council of Chalcedon (451) 443
Council of Metz 233
Council of Orange 423
Council of Vienne 270
courtly traditions:
chivalry and love service 396–7
court as performance space 397–400
ethos of knighthood and chivalry 396
as gendered discourse 408
gendered roles in 396–411
literary accounts 397–400
women in 403–7
coverture, see femme sole; marriage
Cremona 185
criminal law, see law; rape
cross-dressing 203–4, 391–2, 539
in literature 405, 406
Croxton Play of the Sacrament 564
Culler, Jonathan 540
cults of saints, see saints
Customs of Amalfi 335–6
Cyprian, Bishop 23–4
Damian, Peter, St 27, 381, 449, 459
Dante Alighieri 332, 390, 564
Dati, Gregorio 154
Datini da Prato, Francesco and Margherita 281, 290, 295
Davies, Wendy 314
De Ceremoniis 363, 365–6
De heresibus (Augustine) 498–9
de Moor, Tine 322
De secretis mulierum (On the Secrets of Women) 31, 96
De secularium religionibus (Nyder) 467–8
De villis 234
deaconesses 29–30
Dean, Trevor 121
Deane, Jennifer 251
Decameron (Boccaccio) 129–30, 352, 600
Decor puellarum (John) 519
Decretum (Gratian) 134, 151, 164, 172
demography:
death rates 182–6
fertility rates 186–90
and gender 181–96
migration 190–1
mortality rates 182–6
sex ratios 183–6, 188, 191
sources 181–2
demonic bodies 371
Demonolatry (Remy) 577
Denis, St 419, 420, 482
Deventer 269
devotion, see holiness
Dhuoda 3, 239, 240
Disibodenberg 455
Divine Comedy (Dante) 390
divorce and separation, see also marriage
canon law 173–5
in early Christianity 423
in Islam 55–6, 60
in Judaism 38–42, 46, 217–9
in western law 109
Doctrine of the Heart 249, 266, 272
Domesday Book 80, 314
domestic life, see also marital status:
bourgeois domesticity 571–2
Carolingian domesticity 229–45
demographic change and 181–96
gendered thinking 8–9
household management by aristocratic women 337–9
in Judaism 213–28; see also Judaism
material culture of 197–212
and piety, see holiness
space 246–61; see also space
violence 107, 233
Donahue, Charles 165
Donatus, bishop of Besançon 438
Dorothy of Montau 466
Douai 157
Douceline of Digne 265, 267
dower 112, 250, 332
dowry 149–59, 250, 300–1
Carolingian 236–7
Christian 148–62
elite women 331–3
Jewish 41–2, 218–9
(p. 612) Duby, Georges 4, 103, 157, 230, 232, 329–31, 335, 545
Dragmaticon philosophie (William of Conches) 94–5
Drell, Joanna 314
Dubrovnik see Ragusa
Dulcia of Worms 213–5, 216, 219, 221, 222
East Harling 513
Eberhard of Friuli 235, 236, 238–9
Ecdicia 26
Eckhart, Meister 469, 472, 473, 514
economic activity, see also domestic life; women’s work:
aristocratic women 327–42; see also aristocratic women
gender and growth of merchant capitalism 561–76; see also merchant capitalism
gendered thinking 9–10
Jewish women 219–20; see also Judaism
Muslim women 59; see also Islam
rural women 311–26, 550–2; see also rural women
urban women 295–310, 552–4; see also urban women
education 546, 547, 556, 591, 601
in Christine de Pizan 599–600
in Islam 63–4
in Judaism 38, 40
learned women 434, 601–2, 590–606
Edward II, King of England 390
Edward III, King of England 75
Edward the Confessor, King of England 546
Edwin of Northumbria 541
Egeria 490
Einhard 229–30, 239, 240
Eleanor of Aquitaine, Queen 80, 330, 400, 401, 548, 549
Eleanor of Castile, Queen 205
Eleanor of Provence, Queen 249
Eleazar ben Judah 44, 213, 216
Elisabeth of Hungary, St 466, 469–70, 483
Elisabeth of Schönau 455, 457, 458
Elizabeth of Spalbeck 484
Elkins, Sharon 454
Elliott, Dyan 458
Emma, Queen 235
Engels, Friedrich 499
Epfach 447, 457
Epilogus (Bartholomew of Trent) 488
Epstein, Steven 287
Erec et Enide 397
Eric IV, King of Denmark 257
Erler, Mary C. 330
Ermengard of Narbonne 400, 401, 548
Ermessenda de Cabrenys 138–9
Ermine de Reims 487–8
Errores gazariorum 579, 581, 584
Escoufle (Renart) 402, 407
Esther (Biblical) 72, 73, 81
Etchingham, Elizabeth 382–4
Ethne 415
Etymologies (Isidore) 86–7
Eudes de Sully 352
Eugenia, martyr 538–40
Eulalia, St 485
eunuchs 355, 371–4
Eusebius of Caesarea 415, 418, 419
Eustochium 533–8
Evagrius Ponticus 437–8, 440
Eve (Biblical) 22, 197
clothing of 197
and painful childbirth 22
‘daughters of Eve’ 94
as exemplar of female evil 1, 14, 32, 451, 497, 530, 601
as exemplar of female lustfulness 87, 94
Lilith and 48
rehabilitation through marriage 26, 28, 30, 164
Eve of Liège 467, 470
Evergates, Theodore 330, 331, 334, 337
Eymeric, Nicholas 584
Facinger, Marion C. 4, 545, 548
fama (reputation) 125–9, 140–3
family law, see also dowry; guardianship; inheritance; marriage:
Christian 107–10, 148–62; see also canon law
Islamic 52–67
Jewish 41–2
family life, see domestic life
Fedelm 415
Felicitas martyr 485
Fell, Christine 318
(p. 613) femininity, feminine, see also inferiority of women:
alternative ideals of, see bride of Christ; ‘male woman’
Biblical fears of 453, 530
Byzantine culture 365
characteristics 423
in Christian theology 530–1
courtly traditions 403, 404, 408
devotional cultures 520–1, 523
divine aspects 47, 64
domestic life 8
heresy 498
holiness 12, 265, 271, 418, 419, 421, 453, 460
law 105
men gendered as 1, 90, 498
negative concept of 69
pursuits 599
and queens 70, 71, 81
space 9, 207, 248, 249, 250, 254, 258
witchcraft 585
work 318
feminism, see also Christine de Pizan:
growth of female literacy 590–2
medieval origins 6, 590–606
post-medieval developments 601–3
feminist history and understandings of Middle Ages 3–5
femme sole 296, 298–300, 566
Ferriolus, bishop of Uzès 439
fertility 186–90; see also demography; reproduction
and infertility 353
Fleming, Robin 183
Florence 119, 122, 126, 137, 141, 148, 151, 153, 155, 156, 185, 187, 189, 191, 202, 207, 251, 253, 256, 281, 287, 300, 304, 305, 321, 353, 388, 484, 565, 569
Flowing Light of the Godhead (Mechthild of Magdeburg) 474
Flynn, Maureen 513
Fonte, Moderata 602
food
and consumption 206–7
Jewish 216, 223–4
and piety 265–6
Forli 203
Form of Living (Rolle) 518
Formicarius (Nider) 579–80, 586
Fortunatus, Venantius 27, 486
Foucault, Michel 11
Fournier, Jacques 506, 508
Francis of Assisi, St 484, 485, 517
Franciscan movement 484; see also monastic and mendicant orders
Franco, Veronica 602
Frauendienst (Service of the Lady) 203
Frederick I Barbarossa, Emperor 80, 399
Frederick II, Emperor 79, 335
French, Katherine 251, 254, 465, 473
Fribourg 579
Fulbert 28–9
furnishings and material culture 204–8
Gadelrab, Sherry Sayed 90
Gaius 135
Galen 28, 30, 31, 85, 86, 88–9, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96–7, 129
Garden of Delights (Herrad) 457
Garden of Prayer 518
Garver, Valerie 234
Gaucher of Aureil, St 454
Geiler, Johann 391
gender and medieval history 1–17, 545–60; see entries for specific topics
gender subversion 1, 6, 11, 24–5, 248–9, 443, 591; see also ‘male woman’
gendered thinking, see also stereotypes:
domestic life 8–9
economic activity 9–10
intolerance of minorities 1–2
and key events in medieval history 13–4
law and 7–8
learned traditions 6
in literature 6
and men 521
natural philosophy 1
religion 5–6, 9, 12–3
sexuality 11–2
sources of 5–7
Generation of Animals (Aristotle) 91, 96
Gennadius of Marseille 434, 436
Genoa 154–5, 284, 287, 302, 303, 333, 340, 484, 562
Genovefa of Paris, St 417, 419, 420, 426, 482
Geoffrey of Monmouth 398
Geonim 38
Gerberga 233
(p. 614) Gerbert of Aurillac (later Pope Sylvester II) 73, 78
Germanus, St 417
Gershom ben Judah 40, 217
Gerson, Jean 465, 487–8, 523
Gertrude of Ortenberg 465, 467, 468–9, 471, 475
Ghent 299, 564, 565, 568, 570–1
Giladi, Avner 357
Gilchrist, Roberta 249
Gildas 422
Giles of Rome 245, 255, 258
Gilomen-Schenkel, Elsanne 456
Giovanni d’Andrea 151
Gisela, d. of Louis the Pious 235, 236, 238–9
Givry 189
Gold, Penny Schine 515
Goldberg, Jeremy 251, 298, 322
Golden Legend (Voragine) 265, 274, 488
Gonzalo de Berceo 488
Goodman, Jordan 298
Gospel of Thomas 530
Gottfried of Strasbourg 389, 405
Gottschalk 443
Gouges, Olympe de 590
Gournay, Marie le Jars de 601, 602
Gower, John 206
Gozbald, bishop of Wurzburg 230
Gratian 134, 135, 151, 158, 159, 164, 172, 356
Gravdal, Kathryn 123
Great Yarmouth 142
Green, Monica 87, 94
Gregory I the Great, Pope 422, 515–6, 541
Gregory VII, Pope 447, 459
Gregory IX, Pope 348, 470
Gregory of Tours 420, 421, 482
Gregory, monk of Nicetas 369
Griselda (fictional) 155
Grosseteste, Robert, Bishop 204, 205, 338
Grote, Geert 468
Grundmann, Herbert 453, 504
guardianship 111, 135, 137, 299, 335–6
of children 139
and wedding gifts 149, 150
Guglielma 503–4
Gui, Bernard 583–4
Guibert de Nogent 499
Guide for Anchorites 272, 275
Guide for the Perplexed (Maimonides) 92
Guillaume de Lorris 593
Guiscard, Robert 327
Guy de Chauliac 353, 356
gynaecea 234, 283, 500
Gynaikeia (Soranus) 86, 87, 88, 93
Gynecology (Muscio) 348, 353
Hadewijch of Brabant 407, 470, 513
hagiography, see saints
Hakluyt, Richard 565, 573
Haly Abbas see al-Majūsī
Hamburger, Jeffrey 516
Hamm, Berndt 465
Hanawalt, Barbara 251
Harald Bluetooth, King 426
Harrison, Ellen 500
Hartmann, Mary 466
Hatcher, John 322
Heers, Jacques 285
Heilke of Staufenberg 468–9, 474
Heinrich von Veldeke 389
Heldris de Cornuaille 405
Helena, St 482, 490
Heller, Sarah-Grace 198
Heloise 3, 28–30, 547, 592
Henry I, King of England 75
Henry I, King of France 79
Henry I, King of Navarre 77
Henry II of Bavaria, Duke 78
Henry II, Emperor 71
Henry II, King of England 75, 80, 399, 400, 592
Henry III, Count of Bar 77
Henry III, Emperor 78
Henry III, King of England 249, 459, 483
Henry IV, Emperor 78–9
Henry V, Emperor 75
Henry of Langenstein 381
Heptaméron (Marguerite de Navarre) 600
heresy and heretics 174, 271, 496–510, 581; see also Cathars, Hussites, Lollards, Waldensians
Herlihy, David 4, 9–10, 155, 184, 304, 312, 313, 314, 319, 339
Herluca of Epfach 447–8, 451, 457, 458
(p. 615) Herrad of Hohenbourg 457, 547
Hetzeldorfer, Katherina 391–2
Heywood, Thomas 565
Hild, abbess of Whitby 424
Hildegard of Bingen 3, 28, 45, 95, 457–8, 487, 547
Hildegard, Queen 426
Hildelith, abbess of Barking 27, 541
Hilton, Walter 518
Hincmar, archbishop of Reims 72, 231, 232, 235, 239
Hippocrates 85, 86, 88–9
historiography of medieval women 1–17
History of the Kings of Britain (Geoffrey of Monmouth) 398
holiness, see also monasticism; saints; virginity:
bodily, in Byzantine Empire 368–71
Carolingian morality 238–9
communities of women 513–5
devotional cultures 511–26
in domestic life 9, 262–78
and gender 12–3, 418–9, 520–1
historiography and historical sources 464–6, 469–75, 511–2, 522–3
images and objects of devotion 515–7
individual pieties 265–8
Jewish mysticism 46–8
of laity 464–79, 512–3
and material culture 271–3
vowed women 423–4
Hollywood, Amy 514
Holy Letter 47
Homobonus of Cremona 467
homosexuality, see same-sex relations
Honorius III, Pope 348, 472
Horowitz, Elliott 217
Hostiensis 467
Hours of Jeanne d’Evreux 274
Hours of Margaret of Cleves 519–20
households, see domestic life
Howell, Martha 157, 248, 250, 298
Hrabanus Maurus 487
Hrotswit of Gandersheim 3, 488, 513, 592
Hubert 233
Hucbald 231
Hugh Capet 73, 74
Hugh of Digne 265
Hugh of St Cher 266, 272
Hugh of St Victor 28
Hughes, Diane Owen 149
Hus, Jan 502, 587
Hussites 499, 502–3, 506; see also heresy and heretics
Ibn al-Nafīs 97
Ibn ‘Arabi 64
Ibn Battuta 63
Ibn Khaldun 354, 357
Ibn Rushd, Al-Walīd Muḥammad (Averroes) 91, 95, 96
Ibn Sīnā, Abū Alī al-Ḥusayn (Avicenna) 31, 88–9, 90–2, 95, 97, 353, 355
Ida of Louvain 466, 473
If You Know Not Me, You Know Nobody (Heywood) 565
Imitation of Christ (Thomas à Kempis) 274
Imma, wife of Einhard 229–30, 240
Imma, wife of Guy 237
inferiority of women, see also male superiority; misogyny:
in Christianity 31, 69
in Islam 59
in Judaism 37
medical theories 30, 31, 92, 95
presumption of 2, 5, 6
and property ownership 249
and queens 69
witchcraft 586
working women 252, 313
inheritance 300, 314–5, 333–5, see also family law
Carolingian 236–7
and dowries 151–2
elite women 548
in Islam 60–1
in Judaism 42
western law 111–2
Innocent III, Pope 141, 171, 464, 484
Innocent IV, Pope 172
Institutions (Cassian) 438, 440
Instructions for a Virgin (Evagrius) 437–8, 440
Introduction to History (Muqaddimah) (Ibn Khaldun) 354
Irenaeus of Lyons 498
Isaac ben Joseph of Corbeil 40
(p. 616) Isaac ben Menahem 222
Isabel of Portugal 208
Isabella of France 75
Isabella, Queen of Majorca 75
Isidore of Seville 84, 86–7
Islam:
agency and authority of women 61–5
early Islam and pre-Islamic cultures 53–7
gendered thinking 2, 5–6, 52–67
law and gender 57–61
sexuality 57–61
sources 52–3
Isserles, Moses 41, 45
ius commune
fama 140–3
and gender 133–147
multiple legal identities for women 138–40
Ivo, bishop of Chartres 348
Jacques de Vitry 31, 470, 472, 473, 497
Jean de Meun 407, 593–4
Jeanne, Countess of Flanders 74, 548, 553
Jerome, St 32, 533–8
Jerusalem 512
Jerusalem Talmud 37
Jesus, see also bride of Christ:
birth 200, 536
devotion to 266, 427, 428, 488, 489–90, 517, 536; see also martyrs
equality in 433
femininity of passion 248
immaculate conception 530
and ‘male woman’ 530
on marriage 21
and Mary and Martha 263–4
and Mary Magdalene 488
as mother 2, 4, 12, 516
on private prayer 263
visions of 488, 521
Joan I of Naples 76
Joan I of Navarre 75, 77
Joan II of Navarre 74, 77
Joan of Arc 203, 263, 507, 598
João of Avis 75, 76
John Cassian, St 438, 440
John Chrysostom 24, 25
John Ducas 366
John of Salisbury 399
Jonas of Orléans 232, 238
Jordan, William Chester 219–20
Jovinian 25
Juan I of Castile 75, 76
Judaism:
and bodily culture 42–6
domestic life 213–28
family law 41–2
family life 215–6
gendered thinking 2, 5–6, 36–51
historiography 36–7
interrelation with Christian society 213–4, 223–4
late medieval medical writings 93–6
legal traditions 39–41
marriage law and practice 216–8
mysticism 46–8
rabbinic literature 37–9
religious practice 220–3
women’s role summarized 48, 224–5
Judith (Biblical) 71
Judith, abbess of Kemnade 457
Judith, Queen 71
Julia Eustochium 434, 436
Julian of Norwich 470, 474, 516, 518, 531, 592
Juliana of Cornillon 467, 470
Jung, Carl 530–1
Kaminsky, Howard 564
Karo, Joseph 41
Karras, Ruth Mazo 285
Kay, Sarah 247
Kelly, Joan (also Joan Kelly-Gadol) 4, 13, 298, 449, 545
Kempe, Margery 13, 206, 465–6, 470, 473, 474, 491, 512, 515, 518, 521, 592
Khadija 55
King’s Langley 205
Kirshner, Julius 155–6
Klapisch-Zuber, Christiane 4, 155, 184, 517
Knight of the Cart (Chrétien de Troyes) 404
Knighton, Henry 201
knights and chivalry, see courtly traditions
Koch, Gottfried 499
Kotromanić, Elizabeth 492
Kowaleski, Maryanne 298, 330
(p. 617) Kramer, Heinrich 31, 577, 579, 584, 585–7
Kristeva, Julia 520
Kuehn, Thomas 150, 155, 249
Kunigunde, Empress 71, 80
Labé, Louise 599, 601
labor, see work
Lai du Lecheor 404
Laiou, Angeliki 172
Lame Margaret of Magdeburg 467, 474
Lamothe-Langon, Baron de 578
land and property:
aristocratic women 331–7
law of 110–3
marriage law 148–62
rural women 313–6
Lanfranc of Milan 355
Lanfredi, Tomasina 119–28
Langland, William 305
Lanval (Marie de France) 406
Laon 499
Lapidge, Michael 487
Laqueur, Thomas 96–8
Lausanne 579–80, 584
law, see also family law; guardianship:
canon law 163–78; see also canon law
civic court cases 118–32
confession under torture 124–5
early medieval period 103–17
and fama 125–9, 140–3
Islamic 57–61; see also Islam
ius commune and gender 133–47
Jewish 39–42; see also Judaism
land and property 110–3
legal identities of women 138–40
marriage 107–10, 148–62
sodomy 387–8
wergeld 104–7
lesbianism, see same-sex relations
Le Roy Ladurie, Emmanuel 315, 322, 508
Leah (Biblical) 71
Lefebvre-Teillard, Anne 171
Legaré, Anne-Marie 600
Legend of Good Women (Chaucer) 489
Leiden 298
L’Empereur Constant 407
Leo V the Armenian, Emperor 365
Leoba 425–6, 428, 435
Letter of the Churches of Lyons and Vienne 485
Letter to Eustochium Concerning Virginity (Jerome) 533–8
Lex Salica 104
Leyser, Conrad 452, 459
Liber Extra (Raymond of Peñafort) 164
Liber vitae patrum (Rosweyde) 436
Life of Ambrose (Paulinus) 486
Life of Caesarius 441
Life of Philarete (Nicetas) 365
Life of Saint Catherine (Clemence) 592
Life of Saint Matrona of Perge 369
Life of St Antony (Athanasius) 441, 486
Life of St Martin of Tours (Sulpicius Severus) 486
Life of St Radegund (Fortunatus) 486
Lindquist, Sherry 523
literatures, see also education; readers and reading; women writers:
and devotional cultures 511–526
and Christian virginity 529–44
courtly traditions 396–411
and feminism 590–606; see also Christine de Pizan; feminism
same-sex relations in 389–90
Little Book on the Various Orders and Callings 454
Liutberga, St 234, 239
Livingstone, Amy 330, 334–5, 339
Lóegaire Ua Néill, King 415
Lollards 271, 493, 500–1, 502, 503, 506; see also heresy and heretics
love and affective bonds 385–6
Lombard, Peter 28
London 142, 157, 185, 200, 201, 202, 203–4, 251, 252, 253, 254, 257, 295, 296, 298, 301, 303, 305, 346, 392, 518, 565
Lorris, Guillaume de 593
Lothar I, King 73
Lothar II, King of Lotharingia 233
Louis I the Pious, King of Aquitaine 70, 233
Louis IX, King of France 273
Louis of Taranto 76
Louis VII, King of France 399
Louis X, King of France 74
Louis, King of Cyprus 156
Lübeck 296, 471
Lucca 388
(p. 618) Ludmila, St 483
Luiten van Zanden, Jan 322
Luongo, Thomas 470
Lusanna 141–2
Luther, Martin 493
Luttrell Psalter 206, 276
Lynch, Katherine 472
Lyon 302
Mabillon, Jean 436
MacDonald, Dennis 533
Macrina 435
Macy, Gary 30, 475
Magdalen Reading, The (van der Weyden) 274
Magen avot (Simon ben Zemah Duran) 92
magic, see witch craze
Maimonides, Moses 40, 43, 45, 91–2
Mainz 472
Malaterra, Gregory 327–8
‘male woman’ 530, 538–41
Malleus maleficarum (Kramer) 31, 577, 585, 586
Map, Walter 399
Mappah (Isserles) 41
Marbode, bishop of Rennes 450
Margaret of Anjou 249
Margaret of Antioch, St 517
Margaret of Burgundy 208, 597, 600
Margaret of Cleves 519–20
Margaret of Denmark 76
Margaret of Flanders 523, 548, 553
Margaret of Norway, Queen of Scotland 75
Margaret, Countess of Lincoln 204–5, 332–3, 338
Margherita of Cortona 484, 488
Marguerite de Navarre 600–1
Marguerite de Valois 601
Maria, Empress 366
Marie de France 406, 592
Marie of Champagne 549, 557
Marina, St 596
marital status, see singlewomen; widows; wives
Marks, Richard 513
marriage, see also adultery; bigamy; celibacy; domestic life; dowry; polygamy; remarriage:
and canon law 107–10, 148–62; see also canon law
Carolingian era, see Carolingian era
Islamic 57–61; see also Islam
Jewish 216–8; see also Judaism
Marrow, James 519
Marseille 333, 349, 353, 357, 481
Martha de Cabanis 295
Martin I the Younger 76
Martin of Tours, St 417, 482
martyrs, see also saints:
bishops 419
bride of Christ 486
choice of martyrdom 374, 592
and gender subversion 22, 434
as inspiration 417, 482, 595, 596
‘male woman’ 538–40
relics 229
transcendence of femininity 418–9
triumph of martyrdom 433
veneration of 480, 481, 485–90, 512
virgin 419, 426, 432, 487, 489, 592
visions of 421
Marx, Karl 282
Mary and Martha 263–5, 269, 270, 271, 276
Mary Magdalene 28, 274, 472, 474, 488, 489, 497
Mary of Burgundy 274–5, 491
Mary of Egypt, St 370
Mary of Oignies 31, 265, 466, 470, 497
masculinity, masculine:
authority in domestic life 234
Byzantine bodily culture 365
celibacy 423, 450, 506
Christianity 531
church reform 448, 452
consistency as characteristic 365
courtly traditions 397, 403, 404, 408
diversity 1
female rulership 72, 73, 81
gender, see entries at gender
God as 12, 28, 47
heresy 506
image of 595
law 158
male superiority 2, 5, 6, 105, 155, 158–9; see also inferiority of women
material culture 199, 201, 204–5, 207
men as human standard 1, 2, 11, 14
‘one-sex body’ 97
positive concept of 69
proving of 547
qualities of 70, 546
slavery 285, 290
space 9, 205, 207, 248, 252, 257, 258
women gendered as 70, 391, 433–4
material culture:
clothing 197–204
domestic life and gender in relation to 197–212
household furnishings 204–8
women’s identity in relation to 208–9
Matilda of Tuscany 449, 459
Matilda the Great of Courtenay 548–9
Matilda, Empress 75, 548
Matteo di Termini (Agostino Novello) 484
Maury, Guillemette 316
Mayr-Harting, Henry 468
McCormick, Michael 284
McIntosh, Marjorie 298, 313, 319
McKee, Sally 306
McKitterick, Rosamond 434–5
McLaughlin, Megan 459
McNamara, Jo Ann 4, 8, 14, 69, 103, 107, 113, 331, 425, 450, 451, 452, 453, 545, 546, 550, 557
McSheffrey, Shannon 173, 500, 502
Mechthild of Magdeburg 407, 470, 474, 513, 514
medicine and natural philosophy, see also abortion; birth control; bodily culture; menstruation; midwives; reproduction:
body and identity 345–6
caesarean sections 350–4
care of women 345–61
emphasis on women’s reproductive care 12
gendered thinking 84–100
hermaphroditism 61, 163, 354–6
Islamic writing on sex and sexuality 88–92
late medieval writings 93–6
new areas of cross-cultural study 356–8
‘one-sex body’ model of sexual difference 96–8
pregnancy 346–50
sexed body and sexuality in 84–7
Medieval Academy of America 4, 5
Medieval Feminist Forum 3
Medieval Woman’s Mirror of Honor (Pizan) 337–8
Meditations on the Life of Christ 517, 518
Meek, Christine 174
Meersseman, Giles Gerald 473
Melania the Elder 24–5, 419, 434, 436
Melania the Younger 25
Ménagier de Paris 208, 266, 295
menstruation
age of first 189
in Judaism 43–5
in medical writings 87, 89, 92, 94, 95–6
merchant capitalism:
bourgeois domesticity 571–2
class and male honor in relation to 563–5
gender and growth of 561–76
historiography 561
late medieval market economy in relation to 562–3
patriarchal nexus 565–7
women’s role summarized 572–3
women’s space and work 567–71
Metz, René 163
migration and demographic change 190–1
Milan 137, 156, 482, 484, 499
Miller, Maureen 452
Miller’s Tale (Chaucer) 5
Mirour de l’omme (Gower) 206
Mirror of Simple Souls (Porete) 507, 518, 592
Mishnah 37
Mishneh Torah 40
misogyny, see also inferiority of women:
Christian 32, 448, 451–4, 456, 458, 556
courtly traditions 407
early feminism and 591, 595–6, 597
heresy 498, 502
in Islam 59, 60
medicine 91, 95–6
rural communities 315
witchcraft 586
missionaries, see Christianity
Molho, Anthony 155, 156
monasteries, specific:
Arles 443
Barking 27
Bernried 447
Champmol 523
Cluny 452
Engelberg 456
Fontevrault 455, 515
Helfta 516
(p. 620) Interlaken 456
Kemnade 457
le Lys (Melun) 557
Lérins 439, 441
Marbach 456
Marcigny 452
Markyate 456
Maubuisson 555
Monte Cassino 356
Paraclete 455
Prémontré 454
Saint-Antoine-des-Champs (Paris) 555, 556
St Catherine (Sinai) 363
St Denis 512
St Germain-des-Prés 183
St Walburg 516
Santa-Maria-in-Via-Lata (Rome) 551
Sempringham 455
Syon 492
Watton 453
monastic and mendicant orders:
Carthusian 518, 523
Cistercian 453, 456, 459, 483
Dominican 267
Franciscan 267, 484, 512
Premonstratensian 455–456
monasticism, see also abbesses; asceticism; virginity:
monasteries; specific
church reform 447–62; see also church reform
diversity and standardizing 442–3
double monasteries 27, 424, 455–6, 515
female roots 439–42
foundational narratives and myths 436–7
gendered thinking 433–5
historiography 432–3
post-Carolingian 444
monks, see monasticism
Montaillou 315–6
Montpellier 295, 296, 300, 302, 303, 304, 305, 314
Moore, R. I. 451–2
Morgan, Margaret 142–3
mortality rates and demographic change 182–6
Moshe ben Maimon see Maimonides, Moses
motherhood, see also reproduction:
Bible references to 262
gendered thinking 22
Jesus as mother 2, 4, 12, 516
legal identity 138
queens and 71
Muhammad 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 62, 89, 371
Muhammad II the Conqueror 375
Murray, James 300
Muscio 87, 93, 348, 353
Myrrour of the Blessid Lif of Ihesu Crist (Love) 200
mysticism 407, 520–1; see also holiness; lay piety:
beguines and laywomen 514–5
in Christianity 31–2
in Islam 64–5
in Judaism 46–8
Nablus 387
Nadi, Gaspare 353
Nathalia, St 596
natural philosophy, see medicine and natural philosophy
Neville, Sir William 382–4
Newman, Barbara 28
Newton, Stella Mary 198
Nicephoros Botaniates 366
Nicephoros I, Patriarch 370
Nicetius, bishop of Trier 421
Nider, Johannes 579–80, 584, 586
Nizam al-Mulk 62–3
Nizzahon Vetus 43
noblewomen, see aristocratic women
Nogarola, Isotta 601–2
Norbert of Xanten 454
nuns, see monasticism
Nuremberg 320, 474, 522
Nyder, John 467–8
Odo of Cluny 450
Offenbarungen (Blannbekin) 474
Ogilvie, Sheilagh 313
Olaf Skötkonung, King 426
Olav Tryggvasson, King 426
On Friendship (Cicero) 384
On Holy Virginity (Augustine) 26
On Illustrious Men (Gennadius) 437
On Illustrious Men (Jerome) 434
(p. 621) On Spiritual Friendship (Aelred) 384–5
On the Conditions of Women 94
On the Good of Marriage (Augustine) 26
On the Good of Widowhood (Augustine) 26
On the Hidden Illness (al-Rāzī) 97
On the Holy Paces (Adomnán) 487
On the Rule of Princes (Giles of Rome) 246
On the Use of Parts (Galen) 96–7
On Virginity (Aldhelm) 541
ordines, coronation 71–2
Origen of Caesarea 536
Origo, Iris 285
Orléans 388
Osbern of Bokenham 489, 523
Otis-Cour, Leah 173
Otto I 73
Otto III 77–8
Ovid 593
Oxenbridge, Agnes 382–4
Pachomius 435, 437, 439
Padua 253
paganism 422, 427–8
Pagels, Elaine 531
Palestinian Talmud, see Jerusalem Talmud
Paradiso (Dante) 332
Paris 157, 251, 256, 273, 296, 303, 318, 350, 353, 381, 419, 464, 482, 564, 566, 570, 580
Paschasius Radbertus 239
Passion of Anastasia 539
Passion of Eugenia 531, 538–40
Passion of Sebastian 539
Paston, John 327
Path of Long Study (Christine de Pizan) 594
Patrick (Pátraic), St 415, 418–9, 422, 426, 482
Paul of Aegina 365, 373
Paul of Bernried 447–8, 450, 451, 458
Paul, St 21–3, 164, 387, 418, 532
Paula 25, 419, 434, 439, 533–7
Paulinus, bishop of Nola 486
Pearson, Andrea 274, 520
peasant women, see rural women
Pelagia, St 25, 434, 436
Penn, Simon 321
Periculoso 456
Pernoud, Régine 298
Perpetua, St 22, 417, 433–4, 436, 485–6
Perpignan 300
Perugia 203, 253
Peter of Dacia 473
Peter the Chanter 381
Peter, Count of Salerno 336
Petershausen, chronicle 455
Peyronette of Beauregard 496, 503, 505, 508
Pez, Bernhard 436
Philip II Augustus, King of France 385, 548
Philip of Harvengt 483
Philip VI, King of France 74–5
Piers Plowman (Langland) 305
Pietro d’Abano 96
Pippin I, King 70
Pirenne, Henri 235, 247
Pisa 141, 202
Pisetzky, Rosita Levi 198
Pistoia 296
Plaint of Nature (Alan of Lille) 28, 389
Pliny 95
Poitiers 422, 486, 601
Polemo 363
Policraticus 399
politics, see queens and queenship
Polycarp of Smyrna, St 481
polygamy 56, 422
Pons de Léras 551
poor women, see rural women; urban women
Pope Joan 2, 3
Porete, Marguerite 407, 507, 513–4, 592, 601
Post, Paul 198
Power, Eileen 3
Practica inquisitionis heretice pravitatis (Gui) 583
Praetextata 534
Prague 256, 484, 503, 506
pregnancy, see abortion; reproduction
priests’ wives 27, 29, 423, 448, 449–50, 458, 546; see also celibacy, of clergy
procreation, see reproduction
property, see land and property
Prose Lancelot 401, 406
prostitutes 296; see also sexuality; women’s work:
expulsion 143
and poverty 305–6
and rape 142
sumptuary legislation 202
Protoevangelium of James 24
Prown, Jules David 197
(p. 622) Psellos, Michael 364
public and private 246–261, 561–576
queens and queenship 68–83
Carolingian 70–2
consorts 79–80
historiography 68–9, 548–9
perceptions of female power 70
regent queens 77–9
reigning queens 75–7
Qur’an 6, 52, 54, 55, 57, 58, 59, 60, 62
Rabbenu Tam (Jacob ben Meir) 218–9
rabbinic teachings, see Judaism
Rabi’a of Basra 64
Rachel (Biblical) 71
Radegund, St 264, 421–2, 486, 490
Raguin, Virginia Cheiffo 247
Ragusa (Dubrovnik) 152, 298
rape 95, 118–32, see also raptus
charges 119–23
in criminal trials 118, 119–29
and female reputation (fama) 125–9
laws 121–2
and relational identity 139–40
and slaves 288–90
raptus 105, 108, 121, 232, 237, see also rape
Rashi (Solomon ben Isaac) 216–7
Raunds Furnell 183
Ravenna 363, 482
Raymond of Capua 268
Raymond of Peñafort 164
Raymond, Count of Toulouse 231
Razes, see al-Rāzī
readers and reading 533–9; see also education; literatures; women writers
Rebecca (Biblical) 71
Regalado, Nancy Freeman 400–1
Regula Caesarii ad virgines 434, 439–40
Regula Tarnatensis 439
Reid, Charles 165
religious women, see monasticism
remarriage
canon law 168–9
in Islam 60
in Judaism 42, 216, 219
Remy, Nicolas 577
Renart, Jean 406, 407
reproduction, see also medicine and natural philosophy; motherhood
denunciation of 27
fertility rates and demographic change 186–90
in Islamic writing 88–92
in late medieval writings 93–6
reputation, see fama
Reyerson, Kathryn 157
Rhazes see al-Rāzī
Richard I the Lionheart, King of England 385
Richard II, King of England 254
Rictrudis, St 231, 240
Riemer, Eleanor 149, 155, 299
Rimbert 427
Robert le Bougre 499
Robert of Arbrissel 455
Robert the Wise, King 76
Rocke, Michael 388
Roger of Howden 385
Roger of Sicily, Count 328
Rolle, Richard 518
Roman de Brut (Wace) 398
Roman de Silence (Heldris de Cornouaille) 11, 405
Roman d’Eneas 389
Roman du Hem 400–2, 408
Roman Empire
Christianity 416–7
dowry 148
medical practitioners 348
sex and legislation 387
slavery 282
Roman law 30, 118–9, 125, 134–7, 299
childbirth 348, 350
on dowries 157, 332
hermaphrodites 354
Romance of the Rose (Guillaume de Lorris) 593
Romance of the Rose (Jean de Meun) 389, 406, 593–4
Romance of the Rose or Guillaume de Dole, (Renart) 406–7
Romance of Tristan (Béroul) 406
Rondeau, Jennifer 521
Rose the Regrater (fictional) 305
Rosweyde, Herribert 436
Rotman, Youval 286
Rubin, Miri 247
Rucellai, Giovanni 154, 156, 301
(p. 623) Rufinus 24
Rule of Benedict 437, 438, 441–2
Rule of Grandmont 453
Rule of the Master 539
rulers, see abbesses; queens and queenship
rules 434, 438, 439–40
women within 435–9
Rules of Robert Grosseteste 338
rural women:
Carolingian 233–5
economic activity 311–26
and economic changes 550–2
gender division of labor 316–20
history of 312–3
land and property 313–6
wage labor 320–2
Rutebeuf 270
Rykener, Eleanor/John 203–4, 392
Sainte-Chapelle, Paris 483
saints, see also entries under individuals; martyrs:
achievement of sainthood 481–5
and gender 480–95
hagiography 485–9
veneration of 489–93
Salerno 94
Saluces, Georges de 579
same-sex relations, see also sexuality:
and eunuchs 373–4
in burial monuments 382–6
gendered thinking 11–2, 379–92
in Islam 60
literature 389–90
material culture 203–4
medical theories 90
in medieval Europe 379–95
as sodomy and sin 374, 380–2, 387–8, 390–2
Sanders, Paula 354–5
Sanok, Catherine 522–3
Saragossa 168
Saramita, Andreas 503–4
Sawyer, Birgit and Peter 320
Saxholmen castle, Sweden 205
Sayings for Monks (Evagrius) 437–8
Scale of Perfection (Hilton) 518
Schama, Simon 572
Schier, Volker 522
Schleif, Corinne 522
Schmid, Karl 230
Schönau 455
Schreiner, Klaus 465
Schultz, James 386
Schutte, Anne Jacobson 249
Scott, Joan 5
Secrets of Women see De secretis mulierum
Sedeira 506
Sefer Hasidim 44
Sefer Mitzvot Gadol (Moses of Coucy) 40
Sefer Mitzvot Katan (Isaac ben Joseph) 40
Sentences (Peter Lombard) 28
servants 296, 304, 320–1, 322; see also women’s work
and nuptiality 187
and slaves 289
sexual difference, see medicine and natural philosophy
Seville 87, 252
Sewell, Joanna 492
sexual exploitation; see also rape
of female slaves: 281–94
sexuality, see also adultery; chastity; prostitution; same-sex relations; virginity:
Christianity 93–6, 440, 448, 449, 450–1, 459, 530, 537
control of 61, 200, 375, 440
courtly traditions 397, 405
fear of 58, 369, 453, 530
heresy 507, 522
Islam 60, 88–92
Judaism 37, 45, 93–6
marriage and 30, 47
material culture 200, 201, 203–4
‘one-sex body’ 96–8
potential for social disruption 37, 45, 60, 85
rejection of 370–1, 450–1, 530; see also celibacy; virginity
Shahar, Shulamith 3
Sheba, Queen of (Biblical) 62
Shipman’s Tale (Chaucer) 252
Showings (Julian of Norwich) 518
Shulḥan Arukh (Karo) 41, 45
Siena 149, 185, 202, 257, 484, 491
Siete partidas 136
Simeon Stylites, St 490
Simeon, St 492
Simon ben Zemah Duran 92, 96
(p. 624) Simon Magus 498
singlewomen 187–8
lack of dowry 153, 156
marginalized 252
poverty 304
as urban migrants 191
Sion Pilgrims (Fabri) 275
Sir Gawain and the Green Knight 406
Sisters of the Common Life 514–5
slavery and women 281–294
Snorri Sturluson 428
Society for Medieval Feminist Scholarship 3
sodomy, see same-sex relations
Solomon ben Isaac, see Rashi
Solomon, King 62, 453
Someone’s Rules for Virgins 442
Song of Songs 47, 516, 521, 534, 536
Soranus of Ephesus 85, 86, 87, 89, 93, 95, 348
sorcery, see witch craze
Southern, Richard 450
space
courtly traditions 397–400
domestic piety 265–8
domestic spaces for new religious communities 268–71
feminine and masculine spaces 9, 205, 207, 248, 252, 257, 258
and gender 246–61
gendered conduct outside the home 252–5
historiography 246–9
and merchant capitalism, see merchant capitalism
public and private space 246–9, 255–7
women’s space and work 567–71
Speculum 5
Speyer 392
St Benet-at-Holm, Norfolk 483
St Leonard’s Church, London 253
Stafford, Pauline 103
Staley, Lynn 520
Stanbury, Sarah 247
Stephen the Younger, St 370
Stephen, Count of Auvergne 231, 232
Stephen of Hungary, St 483
stereotypes:
bodies and 363
heresy 498, 501, 502, 508
same-sex relations 390
legal 139
mysticism 514
queens 78, 81
saints 370
slavery 282
witchcraft 577, 578, 580, 581
Stuard, Susan Mosher 3, 164, 283, 331
Strasbourg 467
Strozzi, Alessandra (and family) 153, 281
Sturion, Maria 152
Suger, Abbot 512
Sulpicius Severus 423, 486
Summa theologica (Thomas Aquinas) 158–9, 474
Summit, Jennifer 515
sumptuary laws, see clothing
Surgery (al-Zahrawi) 346, 353, 355
Surgery (Roland of Parma) 346
Symeon the New Theologian 368
Symeon, St 370
Tacitus 428
Tallinn 257
Tanchelm 498
Tasso, Torquato 571
Tertullian 23, 32, 263, 530, 533
textile production 297, 303, 312–3, 552–4, 556; see also women’s work
early medieval 318–9, 550
vowed women 424
Thecla of Iconium 22, 436, 531–3
Theodelinda, Queen 541
Theodore and Theophanes (the Graptoi) 368
Theodoric of Cervia 355
Theodosian code 138
Theoger of St Georgen 451
Theokiste of Lesbos, St 370
theology, see Christianity, Islam, Judaism
Theophanu, Empress 68, 77–8, 80
Theophilos, Emperor 368
Theutberga 232
Tholosan, Claude 580
Thomas Aquinas, St 7, 30–1, 69, 70, 158, 172, 474, 516
Thomas of Cantimpré 348–9, 351–2
Thousand and One Nights 58, 60
Timarion 363
Tíréchan 415, 424
To Gregoria in the Palace 540
(p. 625) Toky, Richard 252
Toledo 256
torture and confession 124–5
Tosefta 37
Toulouse 303, 305, 552, 578, 579
transvestism, see cross-dressing
Treasure of the City of Ladies (Pizan) 597–8, 599–601
Treatise on the Holy Land (Suriano) 275
Treatments for Women 346
Très Riches Heures 274
Tria, Luigi 284
Tristan (Gottfried of Strasbourg) 389
Trota of Salerno 31, 353, 357–8
Trotula 346, 349, 352, 353, 357
Tucher, Katharina 470, 474
Ulrich von Lichtenstein 203
Umiliana de’Cherchi 267–8
urban women; see also merchant capitalism:
class divisions among 301–6
domestic life 9
economic activity 295–310
and economic change 552–4
historiography 297–9, 306
north/south divide within Europe 299–301
and scale of urbanization 296–7
Urraca, Queen of Castile-Leon 75, 76
Ut magorum et maleficiorum errores (Tholosan) 580
Utrecht 498
Valencia 136, 281
van der Weyden, Rogier 274
Van Engen, John 468
Van Eyck, Jan 257
Vauchez, André 464, 468
Venarde, Bruce 454
Vérard, Antoine 600
Verlinden, Charles 284–5
Verona 167
Veronica, St 200
Victricius, bishop of Rouen 423–4, 481
Vienna 466
Virgin Mary:
as bride of Christ 23
domestic devotion to 263, 269, 274
endorsement of marriage 25, 26, 28
as exemplar of female virtue 1, 14, 23–4, 32, 497, 531, 536
heretical ‘marriage’ to 498
immaculate conception 530
legends of 200, 201
virginity, see also bride of Christ; ‘male woman’; sexuality:
as Christian ideal 531–3, 540–1
Christianity and female identity 529–44
St Jerome’s Letter to Eustochium 533–8
Thecla of Iconium as exemplar 531–3
virgin martyrs 419, 426, 432, 487, 489, 592
Vita Henrici 78–9
Voragine, Jacob de 265, 274, 488
Wace 398
Waldensians 270, 496–7, 501, 503, 506, 579, 587; see also heresy and heretics
Walter of Brienne 198
Warner, Marina 531
Warren, Nancy Bradley 522
Wemple, Suzanne 4, 8, 69, 103, 107, 113, 545, 550, 557
wergeld 104–7
Westminster abbey 202, 483
Westminster Chronicle 382
wet-nursing 304
Wharram Percy 192
Whickham, Chris 283
Whittle, Jane 251
widows
control over property 335–6
in convents 555
and dowries 151–2
Jewish 218, 219
legal status 139, 143
property rights 314–5, 316
remarriage 168–9
as servants 320–1
and social mobility 301
Tuscany 191
western law 112–3
Wieben, Corinne 171
Wiesner-Hanks, Merry 449
William II, King of Sicily 333
William IX, Duke of Aquitaine 402, 405
(p. 626) William of Auxerre 487
William of Conches 94–5
William of Hirsau 451
William of Norwich 483
William of Saliceto 353, 355
Williams, John 207–8
Winston-Allen, Anne 474
witch craze:
and gender 577–89
and learned magic 577–8
persecution of 578–83
witchcraft 31, 579–81, 583–7
Witgar, bishop of Augsburg 235
Wolbrink, Shelley 455
Wollstonecraft, Mary 590
women writers, see also education; literatures; readers and reading:
authenticity questioned 3
early feminist writing 590–606; see also Christine de Pizan; feminism
women, see also femininity, feminine; gender:
contradictory views of 1, 6, 32, 53, 107, 530, 532, 591, 595
gender, see entries at gender
hatred of, see misogyny
medieval view generally 1–2, 14
weakness presumed, see inferiority of women
on Carolingian estates 234
gender division of labor 251, 316–20
gender and growth of merchant capitalism 561–76; see also merchant capitalism
and high mortality 185
historiography 9–10
housework 266–7, 287–8, 317
hucksters 296, 304–5, 319–20
Jewish women 219–20, see also Judaism
Muslim women 59, see also Islam
rural women 311–26, 550–2; see also rural women
urban women 136–7, 139, 295–310, 552–4; see also urban women
Worms 214
Wray, Shona Kelly 124
Wulfric of Haselbury 483
Wulfstan, Bishop 288
Wunder, Heide 572
Wyatt, David 281, 285, 290
Yahil, Edna Ruth 122
York 248, 253
York Corpus Christi play of the Flood 253
Ysaie le Triste 405
Yvette of Huy 269, 466, 470, 474
Zād al-musāfir 88
Zagreb 255
Zamora 513
Zarri, Gabriella 470
Zerner-Chardavoine, Monique 188
Zibaldone (Rucellai) 154, 156
Zohar 47