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date: 26 May 2018

(p. xxxv) List of Abbreviations

(p. xxxv) List of Abbreviations

ACC

anterior cingulate cortex

AD

Alzheimer’s disease

ADA

Americans with Disabilities Act

ADAAA

Americans with Disabilities Act Amendments Act

ADD

attention deficit disorder

ADHD

attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

AMCANI

Americare Neurosurgery International

AMP

amphetamine

APA

American Psychological Association

APFC

anterior prefrontal cortex

BA

Brodmann area

BCI

brain–computer interface

Beh

behavior modification

BEOS

brain electrical oscillations signature

BIS

bispectral index

BMI

brain–machine interface

BOLD

blood oxygen level-dependent

CAI

computer-assisted instruction

CANTAB

Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery

CBCL

Child Behavior Checklist

CDC

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

CdSe

cadmium selenide

CE

cognitive enhancement

CFHI

Child Family Health International

CHADD

Children and Adults with ADD

CIOMS

Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences

CIT

Concealed Information Test

CME

continuing medical education

CNS

central nervous system

CQT

Control Question Test

CR

controlled-release

CR

cognitive reserve

CRF

corticotropin releasing factor

CRO

contract research organization

CRS-R

Coma Recovery Scale-Revised

CRUNCH

compensation-related utilization of neural circuits hypothesis

CT

computed tomography

DA

dopamine

DAC

Data Access Committee

DAT

dopamine transporter

DBS

deep brain stimulation

DD

Differentiation of Deception

DLB

dementia with Lewy bodies

DLPFC

dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

DMD

Duchenne muscular dystrophy

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid

DSM

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

DTI

diffusion tensor imaging

ECT

electroconvulsive therapy

EEG

electroencephalography

EHA

Education of the Handicapped Act

ELSI

ethical, legal, and social issues

ERC

ethics review committee

ERN

error-related negativity

ERP

event-related potential

FDA

Food and Drug Administration

FDG

fludeoxyglucose

FES

functional electrical stimulation

FISH

fluorescent in situ hybridization

FMLA

Family and Medical Leave Act

fMRI

functional magnetic resonance imaging

GCS

Glasgow Coma Scale

GID

graft induced dyskinesia

GPi

globus pallidus internus

HAROLD

hemispheric asymmetry reduction in older adults

HD

Huntington’s disease

HDE

Humanitarian Device Exemption

HIC

high-income country

HIPAA

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act

HKD

hyperkinetic disorder

HSO

Health Sciences Online

IAPS

International Affective Picture System

IBC

International Bioethics Committee

IBID

implantable brain-interfacing device

ICD

International Classification of Diseases

ICD

impulse control disorder

IDEA

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (US)

IF

incidental finding

IMBES

International Mind, Brain, and Education Society

iPS

induced pluripotent stem

IQ

intelligence quotient

IR

immediate-release

IT

information technology

LMICs

low- and middle-income countries

LIS

Locked in syndrome

LPFC

lateral prefrontal cortex

LSD

lysergic acid diethylamide

LTD

long-term depression

LTP

long-term potentiation

MBT

mood, behavior, and thought

MCI

mild cognitive impairment

MCS

minimally conscious state

MedMgt

medication management

MEG

magnetoencephalography

MFN

medial frontal negativity

MMN

mismatch negativity

MOFC

medial orbitofrontal cortex

MPFC

medial prefrontal cortex

MPH

methylphenidate

MPH

methylphenidate

MRI

magnetic resonance imaging

MTA

Multimodal Treatment study of ADHD

NAc

nucleus accumbens

NIBC

nanoscience, biomedicine, information technology, and cognitive science

NICE

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence

NIH

National Institutes of Health

NIMH

National Institute of Mental Health

NMDA

N-methyl-D-aspartic acid

NMR

nuclear magnetic resonance

NNI

National Nanotechnology Initiative

OCD

obsessive–compulsive disorder

OECD

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

OFC

orbitofrontal cortex

PAG

periaqueductal gray

PCE

pharmaceutical cognitive enhancer

PCL-R

Psychopathy Checklist-Revised

PD

Parkinson’s disease

PET

positron emission tomography

PFC

prefrontal cortex

PKU

phenylketonuria

PTSD

post-traumatic stress disorder

PVS

persistent vegetative state

QD

quantum dot

R&D

research and development

rCBF

regional cerebral blood flow

RCT

randomized control trial

REC

Research Ethics Committee

RNA

ribonucleic acid

RT

reaction time

rTMS

repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

SCG

subcallosal cingulate gyrus

SCR

skin conductance response

SDQ

Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire

SfN

Society for Neuroscience

SMA

supplementary motor area

SMART

Sensory Modality Assessment and Rehabilitation Technique

SNAP

Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham (scale)

SNRI

selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor

SPECT

single photon emission computed tomography

SSRI

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

STAC

scaffolding theory of aging and cognition

STN

subthalamic nucleus

SUD

substance use disorder

TAT

Thematic Apperception Test

tDCS

transcranial direct current stimulation

TID

three times a day

TMS

transcranial magnetic stimulation

TRD

treatment-resistant depression

UBO

unidentified bright object

UK

United Kingdom

US

United States

VIM

ventral intermediate nucleus

vlPAG

ventrolateral region of the periaqueductal gray

VLPFC

ventrolateral prefrontal cortex

VMPFC

ventromedial prefrontal cortex

VMPFC

ventral mesencephalon

VS

vegetative state

VTA

ventral tegmental area

WMH

white matter hyperintensities

WHIM

Wessex Head Injury Matrix

WSSFN

World Society of Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery

ZnS

zinc sulfide (p. xi)

(p. xi)