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date: 21 May 2018

Subject Index

Subject Index

abortion rights 70
access
e-learning 886–7
to technology 903
acetylcholinesterase inhibitors 231, 233
ADA Amendments Act (ADAAA)(2008) 708–10
Adderall® 249
addiction viii, 204–5
amygdala 183
anterior cingulate cortex 185, 186
caregiver role 213
cognition 181, 190
cognitive control 211
cognitive enhancement 303
consent to treatment 213
craving, see “wanting”
decision making 184–5, 187, 211
definition 206
dopamine release 210–11
ethical issues 191–3, 213
executive function 180–1
genetic factors 178, 207
insula 183, 185
mandated treatment 213
as a medical problem 776
models 182–4
neuroessentialism 168–9
neuroimaging 184–9
neuropsychological functioning 180–1
persistence 211–12
prefrontal cortex 183, 185
punishment 213–14
relapse 186–8
risks factors 178–80, 207
stigma 168–9
synaptic plasticity 212
technological 299
treatment selection, outcome, and monitoring 186–9
voluntary control of behavior 212–14
“wanting” 21
adolescence 59–82
amygdala 67
brain structure 64–7, 189–90
cognitive control 66–7
cultural expectations 72
death penalty 663, 683–4
definition 73
dual system models, 68
executive function 60–3
free will 69–70
gray matter 64, 189
legal rights 70–2
nucleus accumbens 190
orbitofrontal cortex 67
policy decisions 69–72
prefrontal cortex 67, 68
rationality 663
responsibility 663
social cognition 60–3
substance use 189–91
ventral striatum 67
white matter 64–5, 189–90
adult learning 569
advance informed consent 521
Adverse Event Reporting System 867
aerobic exercise 503
affective reactions 17
affective state 17
aggression, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation 431
aging
adult learning 569
aerobic exercise 503
bilateral brain activation 500–1
brain function 499–503
brain structures 497–9
cognition 495, 496–7, 503–4
cognitive enhancement 614–16
(p. 910)
cognitive reserve 502
compensation-related utilization of neural circuits hypothesis (CRUNCH) 501–2
frontal underactivation 500
hemispheric asymmetry reduction (HAROLD) model 500–1
incidental findings 504–5
informed consent issues 505
neurotransmitters 499
scaffolding theory of aging and cognition (STAC) 502–3
alcohol
adolescent use 189, 190–1
legal age of consumption 72
persuasion 280
alcoholism, deep brain stimulation 410, 412
alkaptonuria 530
allostatic regulation model 182
altruism
global health 844
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation 431–2
altruistic punishment 40
Alzheimer’s disease (AD)
apolipoprotein E 535
assessment tools 517
brain reserve 563–4
cholinesterase inhibitors 231, 233
cognitive reserve 566
early detection 553–61
increasing prevalence 603
pathological features of disease with normal cognition 557–8, 563
prodromal phase 554
structural brain changes 498
amantadine 128
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)(1990) 708–10
Americare Neurosurgery International (AMCANI) 836–8, 841
amygdala
adolescence 67
drug addiction 183
emotional self-regulation 84, 86, 89–90, 91
moral judgment 37
social cognition 298, 668–9
anger and moral behavior 40, 41
anhedonia 23
animal research 355
anterior cingulate cortex
cooperation 42
drug addiction 185, 186
emotional self-regulation 84, 85–6, 88–9, 91, 92
pain 50
pleasure encoding 22, 23
anterior temporal pole, emotional self-regulation 84, 86, 88
anti-aging medicaments 614–15
anti-terror scenarios, deception detection 110
apolipoprotein E 535
APOLLO 736
applied ethics 477–8
Arizept® 249
arousal 119
Asperger’s syndrome 354
assent
children 398
cognitively impaired research subjects 520–1
assistive technology 614
Atkins v. Virginia (2002) 683
atomoxetine 230
attachment 26, 48–50
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) 309–40
access to services 319
addiction 178–9
categorical diagnosis 314–20
cognitive and neural deficits 310–12
continuum of behavior 322–4
cross-national differences in stimulant use 324–5
default-mode interference hypothesis 312
diagnosis by response to treatment 328–9
dimensions of symptom severity 320–2
effects of stimulant medication 312–14
fMRI 311
long-term outcomes 330
mandated prescriptions 813
multicomponent deficits 311
PET 312
prevalence of stimulant use 328
public administration of medication 319–20, 813–14
(p. 911)
reaction time 312
recognition as a disability 319
response to stimulant medication 326–7
risk factor for adverse outcomes 309
risk for substance abuse 330–1
spectrum approach 309, 310, 314–24
stigma 318–19
stimulant abuse 330–1
stimulant prescribing 230, 231, 233–4, 249, 303, 312–14, 324–8, 330–1
symptom rating scales 320
attention enhancement 771
attribution 222–3
attributive free will 667–70
auditory event-related potentials 126–7
authenticity
cognitive enhancement 237–8, 253–4
global health 843–4
authorship of actions 222
authorship of own life 804–5
autism 353–4
automaticity, moral judgments 35–6
autonomy
clinical trials in developing countries 863
cognitive enhancement 251–3, 303–4
genetic testing 537
awareness 119, 136
brain activity 138–9
baclofen, consciousness disorders 128
Becker muscular dystrophy, genetic testing 536
behavioral economics 167–8
Belmont report 862
beneficence, genetic testing 537
benevolence 837
beta-blockers 248, 278, 280, 733
biological evolution 743–4
biomarkers viii
biopower 304
bispectral index 126
Blake v. Unionmutual Stock Life Ins. Co. (1989, 1990) 706
blindness, congenital 754–5
bonding 26, 48
“Boys from Brazil problem” 664
brain
default network 23–5, 312
perfect model 637–9
sensory deprivation 746–8
sex differences 684–5
brain–computer interfaces 4, 12, 139–40
brain death 120
brain electrical oscillations signature (BEOS) 682
brain function
age-related changes 499–503
environmentally-induced changes 753–6
systems view 745–6
brain-interfacing devices, implantable 447–9
brain–machine interfaces
distinction between medical and enhancement applications 479–80, 482–3
functional neurosurgery 412–13
military interest 473, 483
nano-enabled 473–4
optogenetic 475–6, 481–2
brain maturation 64–7, 88, 189–90
brain privacy 360–5, 772
brain prosthesis 733
brain reading 3–13; see also mindreading
applications 8–10
EEG-based 3–4, 10–11
ethical issues 11–12
fMRI-based 4–6, 10–11
limitations 6–8
privacy issues 12
quality issues 12
security issues 12
usability 10–11
brain reserve 563–4; see also cognitive reserve
brainstem death 120
brain structure
adolescence 64–7, 189–90
age-related changes 497–9
environmentally-induced changes 753–6
brain volume
age-related changes 497
exercise-induced increase 503
bromocriptine, consciousness disorders 128
(p. 912) Caenorhabditis elegans 638–9
caffeine 277, 279
Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery (CANTAB) 61
cannabis
adolescent use 190, 191
cognitive performance 181
capacity 862
capital punishment 663, 683–4
capsulotomy 359
caring organization 48
carrier testing 534
caudate nucleus 42, 43
causality 151, 290–1
Cephos 364, 722, 774–5
charitable donations 43
chemical castration 769
Child Family Health International 838–45
children
cognitive enhancement 255, 688–9
deep brain stimulation 446–7
genetic testing 541–2
raising versus designing 803, 804, 810–12, 814–15
rearing environment 752–3
self-regulation of sadness 87–9
transcranial magnetic stimulation 423–4
chimeras 355
China, ethical issues 827, 863
cholinesterase inhibitors 231, 233
cingulate cortices, pleasure encoding 21; see also anterior cingulate cortex
cingulotomy 359
civic scientists 692
climate change vii
clinical confidence 851
clinical trials in developing countries 857–77
challenges 861–2
conflicts of interest 865–7
contract research organizations 860–1
informed consent 862–5
monitoring 867–8
moral imperative 861
registries 867–8
training issues 868–9
transparency of results 867–8
clinical trials registries 867–8
cocaine 181, 185, 186, 210
coercion
cognitive enhancement 237, 254–5
responsibility 157
vulnerable research subjects 514–15
cognition
age-related changes 495, 496–7, 503–4
definition 245–6
drug-related changes 181, 190
embedded 293–4
cognitive control
adolescence 66–8
drug addiction 211
cognitive enhancement
addiction 303
aging 614–16
attitudes towards 235
authenticity 237–8, 253–4
autonomy 251–3, 303–4
cheating 238, 266–7
children 255, 688–9
coercion 237, 254–5
cognitive liberty 251–3
competitive situations 255–6, 269–71
conceptual issues 245–6
cultural context 261
current strategies 248–50
delusion 254
distributive justice 255–6
educational contexts 234, 249, 266–7, 300–1, 329, 764
efficacy 236
equal opportunities 255–6, 293
equity 238
extended mind hypothesis 291–3
guidance on use 239
harm–benefit ratio 232
healthy volunteer studies 257
in the eyes of others 304–5
legal trials 273–84
long-term use 236
meaning 301–3
media coverage 794
military use 234, 237, 258–9, 690
monitoring use, 236–7, 239
neuroethical questions 354
(p. 913)
non-medical 234, 249, 314, 329–30, 688–91, 764–5
off-label use 233, 234, 238, 689–91
personal identity 237–8, 253–4
personalized 303
physician training 691
policy making 259–61
regulatory approval 232–3
safety 270–1
self-deception 254
side effects 249
social interaction 305
social pressure 303–4
trends 233–4
cognitive liberty 251–3
cognitively impaired research subjects 513–28
advance informed consent 521
assent 520–1
assessment tools 517–18
coercion 514–15
confidentiality 522–3
consent issues 519–20, 521, 522
decision-making capacity 519–20
dissent 520–1
exploitation 514–15
fair selection of research subject 515, 516–17
loss of self 523–4
misleading expectations 520
obligation to participate in research 524
recruitment strategies 515
respect 522–3
risk:benefit ratio 518–19
scientific validity 517–18
cognitive reserve 502, 563–74
Alzheimer’s disease outcome 566
epidemiological evidence 564–7
ethical implications 568–70
imaging studies 566–7
neural mechanisms 567–8
collaborationware 886–7
collateral information 12
color vision 51
coma 120–1
media portrayals 790–1
Coma Recovery Scale-Revised 124
commercial interests
genetic testing 543–4, 722
lie detection 682, 722, 768, 775
prescription medication market 858–9
research environment 721
stem cell transplants 460
Common Rule 624–5
communication
age-appropriate for minors 398
alternatives to the media 795–6
between scientists and journalists 723
deficit model of science communication 788
importance of communicating about neuroscience 783–4
multidirectional 788, 789, 791–7
stakeholders 784–7, 794–5
unidirectional 788–91
compatibilism 157, 659, 660
compensation-related utilization of neural circuits hypothesis (CRUNCH) 501–2
competition, cognitive enhancement 255–6, 269–71
Complex Trial Protocol 109–10
compulsive behavior, Parkinson’s disease 586
computed tomography, postpartum depression 702–3
computed tomography colonography 625–6
computer-assisted instruction 884, 885
Concealed Information Test 102, 103, 105, 108–10, 111
confidentiality
cognitively impaired research subjects 522–3
genetic testing 537–40
conflicts of interest 865–7
conscious affective feelings 17
conscious intention 220, 223
conscious veto 221–2
consciousness, global health 843–4
consent
addiction treatment 213
advance directives 521
clinical trials in developing countries 862–5
cognitively impaired research subjects 519–20, 521, 522
deep brain stimulation 445–6, 863–4
legal issues 506–7
older adults 505
Parkinson’s disease 458
pediatric neuroimaging 392–5
(p. 914)
proxy 522
surrogate 393–5, 522
consequentialism 657–8, 670–2
consumer choice 10
contents of minds 286
continuing medical education 882–3
Contra Costa Regional Medical Center 845
contract law, mindreading 645–6
contract research organizations 860–1
contrast reactions 391, 397–8
Control Question Test 102, 103
Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine 506
converging technologies 480
cooperation 39, 42–3
cortex
adolescence 66–7
age-related changes 498
pleasure encoding 21–3
corticotropin releasing factor 49
cosmetic neurosurgery 411–12
countermeasures 108–10
credit cards 168
criminal law, mindreading 644–5
critical periods 748, 806–7
CRUNCH 501–2
CT colonography 625–6
Cuba, Latin American School of Medicine 848–52
cultural evolution 743–4, 747, 750
cultural issues
adolescence 72
cognitive enhancement 261
concept of neuroethics 828–9
multicultural perspectives in global neuroethics 826–7
thought 827–9
curriculum vitae 269
cybernetic model 296–9
cycle of hype 722
cytogenetics 531–2
data security, brain reading 12
deafness, congenital 754
death penalty 663, 683–4
deception detection 101–17; see also lie detection
behavioral cues 101
countermeasures 108–10
EEG 9, 103–5
emotional arousal 101
ethical issues 111–12
event-related potentials 103–5, 108–10
false memories 110–11
fMRI 9, 105–6, 108, 110
incidental encoding 111
P300 105, 108–9, 682
paradigms 102–3
Parkinson’s disease 582
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation 431
single subject performance 107–8
transcranial direct current stimulation 107, 112, 419
decision making
changes of mind 297
cognitively impaired research subjects 519–20
drug addiction 184–5, 187, 211
jurors 274
Parkinson’s disease 585
prefrontal cortex 165–6
Declaration of Helsinki 505
deep brain stimulation (DBS) 359, 441–53
alcoholism 410, 412
children 446–7
consciousness disorders 128
consent issues 445–6, 863–4
depression 23, 409, 410, 441, 443, 687–8
enhancement potential 765
ethical issues 444–50
inclusion criteria for research studies 446
mechanisms 408–9
minimally conscious state 411, 902
neuroethical questions 351–2
obsessive–compulsive disorder 409–10, 441, 443, 450
Parkinson’s disease 352, 441, 476, 482, 589–93, 687
patient control 450
personality changes 449–50
pleasure studies 22–3
procedure 443
schizophrenia 412
(p. 915)
side effects 590–1
Tourette’s syndrome 410, 443
Dees–Roediger–McDermott paradigm 110
default-mode interference hypothesis of ADHD 312
default network 23–5, 312
deficit model of communication 788
deliberative thought 165–6
delusion 254
dementia 565–6; see also Alzheimer’s disease
depression
deep brain stimulation 23, 409, 410, 441, 443, 687–8
postpartum depression and psychosis 26, 702–3, 706–7, 708, 709
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation 418, 424–7
sex differences 702
transcranial direct current stimulation 418, 427–9
transcranial magnetic stimulation 353
designing children 803, 804, 810–12, 814–15
desires, first- and second-order 192
determinism
genetics 153–5, 719–21
hard 157, 658, 660
neurodeterminsim 157–9
developing countries, Americare Neurosurgery International (AMCANI) 836–8; see also clinical trials in developing countries
dextroamphetamine 277
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, revision of DSM-IV 354
differentiation of deception paradigm 102, 103
diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)
adolescence 65, 66, 72–3
aging 498
direct-to-consumer services
genetic testing 543–4, 722
lie detection 722
disability discrimination 708–10
Discovery Institute ix
discrimination, genetic testing 542–3
disease, concept 250–1
disorders of consciousness 119–33
diagnosis 123–7, 136, 137–8
ethical issues of neuroimaging studies 145
objective measures of brain function 124–7, 137–8
pain perception 125–6
prognostic information 143–144
treatment 128
withdrawing life-support 142, 144
dissent
cognitively impaired research subjects 520–1
minors 398
dissociative enhancement 259
distributed goods 837–8
distributive justice 255–6
divine prescience 155
DNA-fingerprinting 533
donepezil 249
dopamine 208–10
addiction 210–11
dopamine dysregulation syndrome 585, 586–7
dorsal striatum 43
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
adolescence 67
deception 106
drug addiction, see addiction
drug discovery 601–9
drug use
adolescence 189–91
models 182–4
neuroimaging 184–9
neuropsychological functioning 180–1
prevalence 178
responsibility viii
stages 206–7
see also addiction
dualism 662
dual-process models of drug addiction 183–4
dual system models of adolescence 68
Duchenne muscular dystrophy, genetic testing 536
dyslexia 813
education
cognitive enhancement in educational settings 234, 249, 266–7, 300–1, 329, 764
continuing medical education 882–3
(p. 916)
deep brain stimulation in Parkinson’s disease 592
educational attainment and cognitive reserve 565
educational products based on neuromyths 806
e-learning 881–7
global neuroethics 831
intervening in children’s lives 804–5
Latin American School of Medicine 848–52
life-long 569
in morality 815–18
neuroliteracy 773–4
neuroscience-based 766–7
as raising children 810–11
science of 805–6
sex segregation 685–6
teaching evolution in school vii
as training children 811
training in neuroethics 366
educational neuroscience 803–22
effect size 231–2
e-learning 881–7
electroconvulsive therapy 349, 351
electroencephalography (EEG)
brain reading 3–4, 10–11
consciousness disorders 126
deception 9, 103–5
game control 768
lie detection 9, 682
eliminative materialism 93
Ethical Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) program 678, 693–4
embedded cognition 293–4
embryonic stem cells vii, 461–2
emotion
deception and 101
moral judgment 35, 40
physiological response 207–8
emotional intelligence 841–2, 844
emotional self-regulation 83–4
amygdala 84, 86, 89–90, 91
anterior cingulate cortex 84, 85–6, 88–9, 91, 92
anterior temporal pole 84, 86, 88
insula 86
negative emotion 89–92
orbitofrontal cortex 86–7, 88–9, 90, 91, 92
prefrontal cortex 84, 85, 86, 87–8, 89, 90–1, 92
sadness 86–9
sexual arousal 84–6
employment
dementia incidence 565
genetic testing 542
health benefits 569–70
screening 768
endogenous opiates 47, 48
enhancement
deep brain stimulation 765
definition 246–7, 250, 301–3, 411
functional neurosurgery 410–11
genetics 733
military interest 731, 770–1
national security 732–3
transcranial direct current stimulation 765, 766
transcranial magnetic stimulation 419, 432–4
treatment distinction 250–1
entertainment 768
environment
brain organization 753–6
brain plasticity 503
neuroplasticity 744
rearing behavior 752–3
social interactions 748–52
epiphenomenalism 93
epistemic responsibility 807
equal opportunities 255–6, 293
equity
cognitive enhancement 238
global health 839–40
global healthcare 849–50
error-related negativity, adolescence 69–70
ethical issues
addiction 191–3, 213
brain reading 11–12
cognitive reserve 568–70
deception detection 111–12
deep brain stimulation 444–50
educational neuroscience 807–10
free will 219–20
genetic testing 537
(p. 917)
incidental findings 628–9
nano/neuro convergence 483–7
neurosurgery 406–7
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation 421–6, 430–4
severely brain-injured patients participating in neuroimaging studies 145
synchronizing with science 378–9
Ethical Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) program 693–4
ethics of neuroscience 383
eudaimonia 15
event-related potentials
consciousness disorders 126–7
deception 103–5, 108–10
false memories 110–11
Eve v. E. (Mrs) (1986) 394
evolution 288, 743–4
teaching in school vii
evolutionary neurobiology 46–52
evolutionary stable environment 47
executive function
adolescence 60–3
drug use 180–1
exercise and brain volume 503
experimental economics 38–44
exploitation 514–15
extended mind 285–294
externalizing behavior, addiction 179
external representations 288–9
extra-sensory perception 731
face preference 752
face transplants 303–4
fairness
cognitive enhancement 238, 255–6, 267, 300–1, 772–3
selection of research subject 515, 516–17
false memories 110–11
Fast ForWord® 775
fatalism 719–21
fear response 733–4
fetal tissue transplants 456, 462–3
Fifth Amendment, lie detection 650
flanker test 66–7
flibanserin 765
fluoxetine 248
folk physics 669
folk psychology 669
forensic genetic testing 533
fractional anisotropy 65, 72–3, 498
fraitching 614–16
Franklin, Ben 896–7
freedom 773
Freeman, Walter 357, 442, 444–5
free will viii, 219–26
adolescence 69–70
cognitive account of attributive free will 667–70
determinism tout court 155–7
ethical implications 219–20
responsibility 156–9, 219–20, 670–2
retributivism 658–60
substance dependence 192
unconscious nature 297–8
frontal cortex, age-related underactivation 500
frontal lobe syndrome 87
functionalism 287
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
addiction treatment 188
ADHD 311
adolescence 66
alcohol cues 190–1
anger 41
brain reading 4–6, 10–11
consciousness disorders 126, 137–8, 145
deception 9, 105–6, 108, 110
emotional self-regulation 84, 86, 88, 89–91
false memories 111
false negative findings 145
as a form of response 139–42
juror selection 770
lie detection 9, 680–1, 775
media coverage 717, 723
mental imagery 140, 141
morality 37, 42–3
Parkinson’s disease 577–8
postpartum depression 703
psychopathy 45–6
trends in published articles 379–84
functional neurosurgery 407–14
applications 408–11
definition 407
(p. 918) gadolinium toxicity 391
gambling, Parkinson’s disease 586, 587
gambling tasks 212
gaming, brain-controlled 768
gamma knife surgery 359
gender 701–2
genetic counseling 544
genetics
addiction 178, 207
autism 353–4
determinism 153–5, 719–21
enhancement 733
imaging genetics 384
parenting behavior 749–52
genetic testing 529–51
applications 532–3
behavioral traits 544–5
carrier testing 534
children 541–2
clinical testing 532
confidentiality 537–40
confirmation of diagnosis 533
definition 532
direct-to-consumer tests 543–4, 722
discrimination issues 542–3
ethical issues 537
evolution 530–2
family conflict 537–40
forensic settings 533
genetic counseling 544
genetic risk factor assessment 535
incidental findings 625
limitations 535–6
non-medical settings 533
predictive (presymptomatic) 534–5, 540, 577
prenatal 534, 542
psychosocial impact of results 540–1
genetic variability 154
genomic studies
deterministic and fatalistic responses to 719–20
developing countries 864
Ginkgo biloba 249
Glasgow Coma Scale 124
global health ethics 835–55
authenticity 843–4
benevolence 837
clinical confidence 851
consciousness 843–4
distributed goods 837–8
global health immersion program 838–45
justice 840–2
medical education 848–52
paternalism 838
professionalism 843
social justice 837–8
social responsibility 845–8
sustainability 842
global health immersion program 838–45
globalization 857–8
e-learning 883–4
neuroethics 825, 826–7, 829–31
pharmaceutical industry 858–60
global workspace 166
glucose 277
graft-induced dyskinesias 457
gray matter volume
adolescence 64, 189
aging 497–9
children 88
Greenwall Foundation 694
group living 51
guilty knowledge test 102
gyrification 66–7
habit formation 182–3
happiness 15–16; see also pleasure
hard determinism 157, 658, 660
hard neuroessentialists 164, 166, 167, 168, 169
Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised 45
harm–benefit ratio 232
HAROLD model 500–1
health, concept 250
healthcare workforce 880
health insurance 542–3, 705–7
Health Sciences Online 887–90
hedonia 15
hedonic hotspots 18–21
hedonic states 16
hedonism 16
(p. 919) hemispheric asymmetry reduction in older adults (HAROLD) model 500–1
hemispheric lateralization, positive affect 22
heritability 154
High Level Expert Group (HLEG 2004) 479
Hodgson v. Minnesota (1990) 70
hormones 46–52
Human Genome Project ix, 529
Huntington disease-like syndromes 536
Huntington’s disease, genetic testing 532, 536
hypersexuality, Parkinson’s disease 586
hypothalamus 84
ice-pick lobotomy 358, 442
identity
cognitive enhancement 237–8, 253–4
designing children 814–15
identity thesis 286
imaging genetics 384
imitation 752–3
implantable brain-interfacing devices 447–9
implicit attitudes 165–6
impulse control, Parkinson’s disease 585–8
incentive salience 18, 21
incentive sensitization 182
incidental encoding 111
incidental findings 623–34
brain privacy 363
classification systems 626
clinician–researcher roles 628–9
dilemmas 627–8
ethical issues 628–9
genetic testing 625
legal issues 628–9
neuroethical questions 355
older adults 504–5
Parkinson’s disease 580–1
pediatrics 391, 398–9
planning for 629–30
prevalence in imaging studies 625–6
secondary researchers’ duties 627
incompatibilism 658
individual differences
brain reading 7
response to drugs 231
induced pluripotent stem cells 461, 462
infanticide 703–5
inference, actions 222
inferior parietal lobule, deception 106
informed consent, see consent
inhibition, drug use 185
insanity defense 158, 660
institutional review boards 367, 869
insula
deception 106
drug addiction 183, 185
emotional self-regulation 86
moral behavior 41
pleasure encoding 21, 22
insurance 542–3, 705–7
intelligence collection 735
intelligence personnel, selection 770
intention
brain reading 4–6
conscious intention 223
conscious perception of actions 298
intentional stance 669
intentional torts, mindreading 646–7
internationalization 824–5
International Mind, Brain, and Education Society (IMBES) 806
internet
e-learning 881–7
Health Sciences Online 887–90
interoceptive models 183
intuitions 165–6
Iowa Gambling Task 44
I-Spy experiment 222
Japanese bioethics 826
junctophilin-3 (JPH3) 536
jurors
decision making 274
drug taking by 277–81
memory enhancement 273–4, 275–7, 280
mindreading 643
selection using fMRI 770
justice
cognitive enhancement 255–6
genetic testing 537
global health 840–2
therapeutic 769
(p. 920) kidney transplants 268
language
natural language 289–90
role in child development 752
language of thought 290
lateralization, positive affect 22
lateral prefrontal cortex, emotional self-regulation 84, 85, 86, 88, 90–1, 92
Latin American School of Medicine 848–52
learning, brain reading 7–8
legal issues
adolescents’ rights 70–2
cognitive enhancement in courts 273–84
consent 506–7
incidental finding 628–9
juror demands 273–5
juror selection 770
lie detection 650, 651, 682–3, 770
mindreading 642–51
neuroscience applied to criminal justice 769–70
patenting medicines 862
responsibility 156–8, 162
retributive justice and neuroessentialism 166–7
scientific studies into sex differences 703–10
whistle-blowing 866
leisure activities, dementia 565–6
leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) 576
leucotomy 357
levodopa
cognitive enhancement 277
consciousness disorders 128
libertarianism 157, 658–9, 660
lie detection
brain privacy 363–4
brain reading 9–10
commercial systems 682, 722, 768, 775
direct-to-consumer 722
EEG-based 9, 682
employment screening 768
fMRI-based 9, 680–1, 775
legal issues 650, 651, 682–3, 770
media portrayals 681–2
policy making 680–3
polygraphy 9, 651
portable detectors 736
life-support withdrawal 142, 144
lobotomies 357, 442, 444–5
locked-in syndrome 123, 127
long-term depression 212, 430
long-term potentiation 212, 430
love
media coverage of neuroimaging studies 718
neuroscience applications 768
LRRK2 576
MacArthur Foundation’s Law and Neuroscience Project 694
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), risks 390–1; see also functional magnetic resonance imaging
manifest image of the world 792
Mark Stinson Fellowship in Undeserved and Global Health 845–8
maternal behavior 48, 749–52
mature minors 392
media
clinical trials in developing countries 866–7
cognitive enhancement 794
deterministic messages 720
ethical and social challenges of neuroscience 793
impact on stakeholders 794–5
importance of coverage of neuroscience 783–4
manifest and scientific images of the world 792
neuroimaging, representation of 716–19, 723
portrayal of adolescence 72
portrayal of lie detection 681–2
portrayal of neuroscience 790–1
source of health and science information 715, 722–3
stakeholders 786
medial frontal gyrus 37
medial prefrontal cortex
deception 106
emotional self-regulation 88, 89, 90–1, 92
pleasure encoding 21
(p. 921) medical education 848–52, 882–3
medical equipment recycling 836, 837
medicalization 356
medical tourism 360
memory
addiction 212
blocking 248
cannabis effects 191
enhancement 249
externalizing 288–9
false memories 110–11
juror enhancement 273–4, 275–7, 280
outsourcing 288
true and false 641
mens rea 655
mental health parity law 707–8
mental illness
neuroessentialism 168–9
personal responsibility viii
stigma 168–9
mental imagery 140, 141
mental privacy 12
mental states 286
mesenchymal stem cells 461
mesotocin 47
methamphetamine 185
methylphenidate 178, 230–1, 249, 266, 277, 278, 303, 313, 688, 764, 793–4, 900
midbrain
emotional self-regulation 86, 88
morality 37
mild cognitive impairment 554
amnestic/non-amnestic 555
cautious use of diagnostic entity 616–17
clinical diagnosis 555–7
military
cognitive enhancement 234, 237, 258–9, 690
fear response management 733–4
interest in enhancement 731, 770–1
nano-enabled brain–machine interface 473, 483
paranormal activity 731
personnel selection 770
training 735–6
weapons development 771
mind
embeddedness 293–4
extended mid 285–94
mindreading 635–53; see also brain reading
legal issues 642–51
pain 642–3
plasticity problems 639–41
scientific limits 636–41
minimally conscious state 122–3, 124–5, 126, 127, 411, 902
minimal risk 396–7
mirror neurons 752–3
M’Naghten defense 660
mobile phones 830
modularity 746
mood enhancement 248
moral dumbfounding 35
moral education 815–18
moral enhancement 257–8
morality and moral judgments 33–58
anger 40, 41
automatic, non-conscious judgments 35–6
emotion 35, 40
evolutionary neurobiology 46–52
neural correlates 36–8
neuroendocrinology 46–52
oxytocin 47–50, 51, 52
person–object distinction 776
reward system 42–3
vasopressin 47–9, 51
moral outrage 213–14
moral psychology 34–8
moral revulsion 169
mother preference 752
“Mr Puppet” 664–5
multicultural perspectives, global neuroethics 826–7
multinational corporations 857–8
multiple sclerosis 233
musicians’ brains 754
mutual altruism 844
nano-inspired neuroscience 471–2
nanoscience 468–70
nano/neuro convergence 470–6, 483–7
nanowires 474
National Academies 730–1
(p. 922) National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity 734
national security 729–39, 770–1
naturalism 164
natural languages 289–90
NBIC Convergence 473–4
necessary illusions 170
negative emotion
addiction 179
self-regulation 89–92
negligent torts 647
neocortical death 120
nephrogenic systemic fibrosis 391
neural compensation 567
neural grafting 455–65
cell sources 460–3
consent issues 458
Parkinson’s disease 456–7, 458
patient–physician relationship 458–9
trial design 459–63
neural reserve 567
neurobehavioral inhibition 181
neuroculture 163
neurodegenerative disease
access to services 593–4
drug discovery 601–9
informed consent issues 505
neurodeterminism 157–9
neuroeducators 809
neuroendocrinology 46–52
neuroenhancement 354; see also cognitive enhancement
neuroergonomics 736
neuroessentialism 161–75, 678, 718, 790
hard neuroessentialists 164, 166, 167, 168, 169
neuroessentialist naïf 165, 166, 168, 169
social mores 166–9
soft neuroessentialism 164–5, 166, 167, 168, 169
varieties 164–5
neuroessentialist naïf 165, 166, 168, 169
neuroethics/neuroethicists
capacities 366–8
contributions 365–9
definitions and scope 344–8
settings 366–8
taxonomy of neuroethical questions 349–56
training 366
neurogenetic testing, see genetic testing
neuroimaging
de-identifying images 400
media coverage 716–19, 723
neuro-inspired nanoscience 471–2
neuroliteracy 773–4
neurologisms 347–8
neuromarketing 10, 361, 767–8
neuromyths 806
neuronovel 163
neuroplasticity 743–60
neuropolicy 790
neurorealism 678, 717–18, 789–90
neuroscience
increasing interest in 163–4
types of advances 762–3
neuroscience literacy 789–90
neuroscience of ethics 383
neuroscientific naturalism 164
neurosurgery
ethical issues 406–7
historical development 405–6
neurotransmitters, age-related changes 499
nicotine
adolescent use 190
dependence, neuroimaging 186
nihilism 775–6
NMDA receptor 297
No Lie MRI 683, 722, 768
non-maleficence 537
normality 247–8, 251
normalization 247–8
norm creation 695
Novak v. MetroHealth Medical Center (2007) 709
nucleus accumbens
adolescence 190
cooperation 42
pleasure encoding 18, 23
rewards 10, 208
salience 10
(p. 923) number sense 289
Nuremberg Code 505
obsessive–compulsive disorder, deep brain stimulation 409–10, 441, 443, 450
occupation, see employment
off-label treatment 233, 234, 238, 426–7, 689–91
offshoring 858, 859
olfactory deprivation 747
online learning
e-learning 881–7
Health Sciences Online 887–90
Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) 529
optogenetic interfaces 475–6, 481–2
orbitofrontal cortex
adolescence 67
charitable donation 43
cooperation 42
emotional self-regulation 86–7, 88–9, 90, 91, 92
moral judgment 37
pleasure encoding 21–2
outsourcing
clinical trials 858, 859
cognitive tasks 288
oxytocin 47–50, 51, 52, 302, 765
P300
consciousness disorders 127
deception 105, 108–9, 682
pain
mindreading 642–3
perception in consciousness disorders 125–6
prefrontal structures 50
parabrachial nucleus 18
paranormal phenomena 731
parietal cortex
conscious experience of voluntary actions 223–4
deception 106
Parity Principle 287
parkin 576
Parkinson’s disease 575–600
compulsive behavior 586
consent issues 458
deception 582
decision making 585
deep brain stimulation 352, 441, 476, 482, 589–93, 687
dominant inheritance 576
dopamine dysregulation syndrome 585, 586–7
dopamine studies 209
fMRI 577–8
gambling 586, 587
genetics 575–7
genetic testing 577
hypersexuality 586
imaging 577–82
impulse control disorders 585–8
medication effects 584–9
neural grafting 456–7, 458
personality 582, 584–5
personal preferences 582
placebo effect 588–9
punding 585, 586
recessive inheritance 576
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation 418
service access 593–4
therapy 583–4
patenting medicines 862
paternalism 838
paternity testing 533
pattern recognition algorithms 4
pediatric neuroimaging 389–404
assent and dissent 398
consent issues 392–5
incidental findings 391, 398–9
incompetent minors 393–8
interpreting research images 400–1
magnetic resonance imaging 390–1
privacy 399–400
risk minimization 396–8
risks 390–1
sedation 391, 396, 397–8
peer-review panels 694
Penfield, Wilder 357, 358, 405–6
periaqueductal gray 49–50
permanent vegetative state 122, 790–1
persistent vegetative state 122
(p. 924) personal identity
cognitive enhancement 237–8, 253–4
designing children 814–15
personality
deep brain stimulation 449–50
Parkinson’s disease 582, 584–5
personalized enhancement 303
personal responsibility viii; see also responsibility
personnel selection 768, 770
person–object distinction 776
perspective taking 828–9
pharmaceutical industry, globalization 858–60
philosophy of life, brain-based 676
phrenology 296, 746
physical determinism 156
physical training, brain volume 503
placebo effect 93
Parkinson’s disease 588–9
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation 429–30
plasticity
addiction 212
aging 496
brain reading 7–8
environmentally-driven 503
mind reading 639–41
neuroplasticity, culture and society 743–60
pleasure 15–32
cortical encoding 21–3
fundamental and higher-order 17
insula 21, 22
loss of 23–5
medial prefrontal cortex 21
neuroanatomy 18–23
nucleus accumbens 18, 23
orbitofrontal cortex 21–2
parabrachial nucleus 18
social interaction 26
subcortical hotspots 18–21
ventral pallidum 18, 23
policy development
adolescence 69–72
categorical diagnosis of ADHD 318
cognitive enhancement 259–61
ignoring scientific data 679–80
lie detection 680–3
shared responsibility 691–3
political economy 902–3
polygraphy 9, 651
positional goods 267–8
positron emission tomography (PET)
ADHD 312
consciousness disorders 124, 126, 137
Parkinson’s disease 578–9, 580
postpartum depression 703
prisoner’s dilemma game 42
posterior cingulate gyrus 37
postpartum depression and psychosis 26, 702–3, 706–7, 708, 709
post-traumatic stress disorder 248, 733–4
predestination 156
predictive genetic testing 534–5, 540, 577
prefrontal cortex
adolescence 67, 68
deception 106
decision making 165–6
drug addiction 183, 185
emotional self-regulation 84, 85, 86, 87–8, 89, 90–1, 92
moral behavior 42–3, 44–5
pleasure encoding 21
prefrontal lobotomy 357, 442, 444–5
Preliminary Credibility Assessment Screening System (PCASS) 736
prenatal genetic testing 534, 542
prescription medication market 858–9
press coverage, see media
pre-supplementary motor area 223–4
presymptomatic genetic testing 534–5, 540, 577
prisoner’s dilemma game 42
privacy
brain privacy 360–5, 772
brain reading 12
deception detection 112
incidental findings 363
mental privacy 12
mindreading 650–1
pediatric neuroimaging 399–400
private research sector 785–6
professionalism 843
projective psychological testing 361–2
propranolol 248, 278, 280, 733–4
(p. 925) prosocial behavior 42–3
Provigil®, see modafinil
proxy consent 522
Prozac® 248
pseudopsychopathic syndrome 87
psychiatry, brain privacy 363
psychoanalysis 155
psychokinesis 731
psychological profiling 361–2
psychopathy 45–6
psychophysical identity theory 93
psychosurgery 356–60, 408, 409–10
psychotherapy 93
public communication
alternatives to using the media 795–6
multidirectional 788, 789, 791–7
stakeholders 784–7, 794–5
unidirectional 788–91
public engagement ix–xi
public goods game 39
public policy, see policy development
public understanding, globalization of neuroethics 829–30
punding 585, 586
punishment
behavior and 38–40
non-violent crimes by addicts 213–14
theories 657–8
quality standards, brain reading 12
quantum dots 467, 468–70, 471–2, 480–1
raising children 803, 804, 810–12
rationality 660–1, 663
reaction time, ADHD 312
readiness potential 220, 297
reading readiness 766–7
rearing behavior 752–3
recruitment of research subjects 515
recycling capital equipment 836, 837
reflective practice 486
registries of clinical trials 867–8
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)
adverse effects 423
behavior control 431–2
children 423–4
depression 418, 424–7
enhancement potential 419
ethical issues 421–6, 430–4
off-label treatment 426–7
Parkinson’s disease 418
placebo effect 429–30
schizophrenia 418
seizure risk 423
research-related risk 518
respect 522–3
responsibility viii, 661–6
adolescence 663
attributional view 222
brain damage 224
drug use viii
legal issues 156–8, 162
mental illness viii
retributive justice 166–7, 213–14
retributivism 658–60
reward circuit 10, 42–3, 208–10
reward delay 167–8
risk:benefit ratio 518–19
Ritalin®, see methylphenidate
Roper v. Simmons (2005) 70, 204, 683
sadness, self-regulation 86–9
safety 772
cognitive enhancement 270–1
oxytocin and sense of safety 49
savant-like skills 432–3
scaffolding theory of aging and cognition (STAC) 502–3
Schiavo, Terri 346, 347
schizophrenia
cognitive enhancement 233
deep brain stimulation 412
neuroessentialism 169
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation 418
science
extended mind 290–1
of education 805–6
pure/applied division 476–7
synchronizing with ethics 378–9
scientific image of the world 792
scientific naturalism 164
scientific validity 517–18
(p. 926) scientists
communicating with journalists 723
as policy makers 692
security, brain reading 12
self, research to prevent loss of 523–4
self-creation 252–3
self-deception 254
sensation seeking, addiction 179–80
sensitive period 807
sensory deprivation 746–8
Sensory Modality Assessment and Rehabilitation Technique (SMART) 124
Sentinel Initiative 867
service access
ADHD 319
Parkinson’s disease 593–4
sex differences
brain 684–5
depression and psychopathy 702–3
legal implications 703–10
public interest in 710–11
sex-segregated education 685–6
sexual arousal 84–6
sexual behavior, Parkinson’s disease 586
sexual enhancement 765
Shalbert v. Marcinin (2005) 709
skin conductance response
anger 41
psychopaths 45
SMART 124
social bonds 26
social cognition
adolescence 60–3
amygdala 298, 668–9
social determinism 155
social environment, mental development 753
social interaction
cognitive enhancement 305
environmental stimulation 748–52
health benefits 570
pleasure 26
social justice 837–8
social networking 831
social pressure, cognitive enhancement 303–4
social problem-solving 50
social relationships, see social interaction
social responsibility, global health 845–8
soft neuroessentialism 164–5, 166, 167, 168, 169
somatic marker hypothesis 165
specificity problem 474
spectrum disorders 310
STAC model 502–3
stem cell research vii, 460, 461–2
stem cell tourism 866
stigma
neuroessentialism 168–9
stop-signal task 69
Strattera® 230
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire 322, 323
Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-symptoms and Normal-behavior (SWAN) rating scale 322, 323, 327
stress 355–6
striatum
adolescence 67
charitable donations 43
drug addiction 186
moral behavior 42–3
strict liability torts 647
stroke, cognitive enhancement 233
subsidiarity principle 516
substance use
adolescence 189–91
free will 192
neuroimaging 184–9
risk factors for addiction 178–80, 207
see also drug use
superior temporal sulcus 37
surrogate consent 393–5, 522
sustainability 842
synthetic biology vii
synthetic sunshine 268
α-synuclein 576
systems view of brain function 745–6
technology 895–907
addiction 299
assistive technology for elderly 614
combined technologies 384
education 881–2
(p. 927)
extended mind 287–8
globalized neuroethics 830–1
ownership and control 774–5
political economy 902–3
prudence 899–902
technologically-driven questions in neuroethics 349–53
technoprudence 899–902
temporal discounting 167–8
temporal pole
emotional self-regulation 84, 86, 88
morality 37
thalamus 37
theory of mind 669
therapeutic justice 769
therapeutic misconception 395, 520
thought
cultural differences 827–9
deliberative 165–6
thought experiments 34–5, 157–8, 664
3-stimulus protocol 105
time travel problem 641
top-down, bottom-up multi-stage failure models 183
tort law 646–7
Tourette’s syndrome, deep brain stimulation 410, 443
training
clinical trials in developing countries 868–9
cognitive enhancement 691
education as 811
neuroethics 366
transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) 417–18
deception 107, 112, 419
depression 418, 427–9
enhancement potential 765, 766
ethical issues 112
transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) 417; see also repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
basic mechanisms 419–21
children 423–4
clinical applications 422
depression 353
enhancement potential 419, 432–4
ethical issues 421–6, 430–4
neuroethical questions 353
seizure risk 423
traumatic brain injury, cognitive enhancement 233
trichromatic color vision 51
trust, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation 431–2
trust game 41–2
truth telling 304–5
type-framed ethic 478–83
ultimatum game 41
underrecruitment 500
unidentified bright object 625
United States v. Semrau (2010) 650
vagus nerve 49–50
values 613–14, 831
vasopressin 47–9, 51
vegetative state 121–2, 124–5, 126, 127, 136
vehicles of minds 286
ventral pallidum, pleasure encoding 18, 23
ventral striatum
adolescence 67
cooperation 42–3
ventral tegmental area
charitable donations 43
rewards 208
ventrolateral prefrontal cortex
deception 106
emotional self-regulation 86, 88, 91
ventromedial frontal cortex, cooperation 42
ventromedial prefrontal cortex, moral behavior 42–3, 44–5
veto process 221–2
video games 768
views of the world, manifest and scientific 792
virtual colonography 625–6
virus re-engineering 470
visual attention enhancement 771
visual deprivation 746, 747–8
vole 48–9
vulnerable research subjects 514; see also cognitively impaired research subjects
clinical trials in developing countries 862–3
(p. 928) wakefulness without awareness 136
“wanting” 18, 21, 26
wantons 192
weapons development 771
web-based learning; see also online learning
e-learning 881–7
Health Sciences Online 887–90
Wessex Head Injury Matrix 124
whistle-blowing 866
white matter
adolescence 64–5, 189–90
aging 498–9
children 88
hyperintensities 498
whole brain death 120
withdrawing life-support 142, 144
women’s neuroethics 701–14
work, see employment
Yerkes–Dodson principle 231, 313–14
zolpidem 128