- Notes on the Contributors
- List of Abbreviations
- Brain Reading: Decoding Mental States From Brain Activity In Humans
- The Neurobiology of Pleasure and Happiness
- The Neurobiological Basis of Morality
- Development of the Adolescent Brain: Neuroethical Implications for the Understanding of Executive Function and Social Cognition
- Neural Foundations to Conscious and Volitional Control of Emotional Behavior: A Mentalistic Perspective
- Neural Correlates of Deception
- Understanding Disorders of Consciousness
- Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Covert Awareness, and Brain Injury
- Genetic Determinism, Neuronal Determinism, and Determinism Tout Court
- The Rise of Neuroessentialism
- A Neuroscientific Approach to Addiction: Ethical Concerns
- The Neurobiology of Addiction: Implications for Voluntary Control of Behavior
- Neuroethics of Free Will
- Pharmaceutical Cognitive Enhancement
- Cognitive Enhancement
- Chemical Cognitive Enhancement: Is it Unfair, Unjust, Discriminatory, or Cheating for Healthy Adults to Use Smart Drugs?
- Cognitive Enhancement in Courts
- Neuroethics and the Extended Mind
- Does Cognitive Enhancement Fit with the Physiology of Our Cognition?
- Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Defining A Spectrum Disorder and Considering Neuroethical Implications
- Why Neuroethicists are Needed
- Intersecting Complexities in Neuroimaging and Neuroethics
- Pediatric Neuroimaging Research
- Ethical Issues in Functional Neurosurgery: Emerging Applications and Controversies
- Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation As A Therapeutic And Investigative Tool: An Ethical Appraisal
- Deep Brain Stimulation For Treatment-Resistant Neuropsychiatric Disorders
- The Ethical Issues of Trials of Neural Grafting in Patients with Neurodegenerative Conditions
- The Ethics Of Nano/Neuro Convergence
- Neurobiological And Neuroethical Perspectives On The Contribution Of Functional Neuroimaging To The Study Of Aging In The Brain
- Clinical Research On Conditions Affecting Cognitive Capacity
- Ethical Concerns And Pitfalls In Neurogenetic Testing
- Neuroethical Issues In Early Detection Of Alzheimer’S Disease
- the neuroethics of cognitive reserve
- Ethical Issues In The Management Of Parkinson’S Disease
- The Other Ethical Challenge of Neurodegenerative Diseases
- Future Scoping: Ethical Issues In Aging And Dementia
- Incidental Findings In Neuroscience Research: A Fundamental Challenge To The Structure Of Bioethics And Health Law
- What Will Be the Limits of Neuroscience-based Mindreading in the Law?
- For The Law, Neuroscience Changes Nothing And Everything
- New Directions In Neuroscience Policy
- Women’s Neuroethics
- Public Representations Of Neurogenetics
- Brain Trust: Neuroscience and national security in the 21st century
- Neuroplasticity, Culture, and Society
- Neuroscience and neuroethics in the 21st century
- Neuroscience and the media: ethical challenges and opportunities
- Ethical issues in Educational Neuroscience: Raising children in a Brave New World
- From The Internationalization To The Globalization Of Neuroethics: Some Perspectives And Challenges
- Global Health Ethics
- Ethical Perspectives: Clinical Drug Trials In Developing Countries
- Learning About Neuroethics Through Health Sciences Online: A Model For Global Dissemination
- Neuroethics And The Lure of Technology
- Subject Index
- Author Index
Abstract and Keywords
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used to validate the functional significance of neuroimaging studies in determining the causal relationship between focal brain activity and behavior. This article is concerned with the way in which modulation of brain activity by repetitive TMS (rTMS) can transiently change brain function and be utilized as a therapeutic tool for the treatment of a variety of neurological and psychiatric illnesses. The potential risks and appropriate precautions in the use of TMS are increasingly well established. New applications of TMS are being explored in normal subjects, and clinical treatment programs for TMS in various neuropsychiatric disorders are being launched. This article revisits the ethical considerations upon which one should reflect when applying non-invasive brain stimulation to humans. The combination of TMS with other neuroimaging and neurophysiologic techniques provides an enhanced understanding of the mechanisms of action of TMS and a novel approach to study functional connectivity between different areas in the human brain.
Alvaro Pascual-Leone is Professor of Neurology at Harvard Medical School, Director of the Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, and Program Director of the Harvard-Thorndike Clinical Research Center at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston, MA.
Felipe Fregni is an Assistant Professor of Neurology at Harvard Medical School. He is Director of the Laboratory of Neuromodulation at Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and Director of the Collaborative Learning in Clinical Research Program – Principles and Practice of Clinical Research from the Department of Continuing Education, Harvard Medical School.
Megan S. Steven-Wheeler is a Visiting Assistant Professor of Neuroscience at the Center for Cognitive Neuroscience at Dartmouth College where she also serves as the Assistant Dean of Faculty for Administration.
Lachlan Forrow is Associate Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School, Director of Ethics and Palliative Care Programs at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and a member of the Dana Farber/Harvard Cancer Center Institutional Review Board.
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