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date: 20 June 2018

(p. 969) Subject Index

(p. 969) Subject Index

50 Years Is Enough Network 471
abortion, and social movement dynamics 448
absolutism, and state formation 220–1
accountability 16–18
and clientelism 613
and economic transformation 946
and economic voting 829, 832
and elections 910–11
adverse selection problems 920–1
functions of 912
and limits of 918–23
clarity of responsibility 919
ideology 920, 922–3
information requirements 918–19
modeling politicians' strategies 921–2
promise breaking 922
threshold for re‐election 918
and parliamentary systems 720–1
and party systems 526–7
positional competition 527–9
and preference aggregation 672
and presidential systems 720–1
and prospective control 911
and removal of prime ministers 911, 923, 934–5
Adolfo Suárez 924
anticipation of voters 925
Bettino Craxi 925
causes of loss of power 930–1
impact of economic conditions 925–7
Margaret Thatcher 923–4
outcomes for replacement 933
Pierre Mendès‐France 925
risk of losing power 928–30, 931–3
role of political ambition 925–7
Willy Brandt 924
and representation 910
and retrospective voting 910–11, 912–16, 934
evidence of 916–18
imperfect information conditions 913
modeling of 913–16
perfect information conditions 913
provision of public goods 912–13
Aceh, and civil war 429
acquiescence, and citizen‐government relationship 236–7, 244
activism, see participation
Afghanistan, and elections 634
Africa:
and clientelism 617
and coffee production 177–8
changes in farmers' behavior 178–80
interest groups 181
large‐N methods 182–4
small‐N methods 178–80
and electoral volatility 587
and state formation 224–5, 228, 229
Afrobarometer 302
agreement, method of 75
Albania, and economic transformation 942
Algeria, and party system 598
al‐Qaeda 452
altruism 199–200
and belief systems 299
ambition:
and national identity 260
and removal of prime minister 925–7
American National Election Studies 812
American Revolution 411–12
amoral familism 346
ancient hatreds, and ethnic conflict 280, 281
Angola 137
anomie, and nationalism 260
anti‐globalization movement 491–2, 637 see also global protest movements
antislavery movement 444
anti‐war movement 462, 464–5, 492, 637 see also global protest movements
apprehension, and comprehension 173–4
Argentina:
and ballot system 620
and clientelism 594, 605, 609–10, 616–17, 618, 622–3, 902
and conjunctural analysis 82
and judicial powers 737
and party system 545
and personalism 591
and political parties 588, 589
Armenia, and economic transformation 942
Asia:
and clientelism 617
and democratization 585
(p. 970)
and economic transformation 941–2
and labor market developments 870
and party systems 544, 545
and public sector 872
and welfare state 875
Asiabarometer 302
asset specificity, and regional economies 764
associational recruitment, and global protest movements 488–9
associational repertoires, and social movements 443
Augsburg, Treaty of (1555) 219
Austria:
and clientelism 527
and constitutional court 739–40
and judicial powers 739
and welfare state 873
authoritarian personality 299
authoritarianism:
and collectivistic nationalism 270
and democratization 331–5
and ethnic conflict 278
and oil wealth 323, 328
and regime types 333
hegemonic party 334
military 334
personalistic 334–5
and state formation 221–2 see also dictatorship
authority:
and changes in structure of 212
and consent 237–8
and legitimacy 247
and opposition to 468–9
and state formation 212
impact of war 214–16
and territorial definition 212
Azerbaijan, and national identity 960
Baltic states, and state formation 228
Bangladesh 585
bargaining theory:
and coalition formation 783–4, 788
bargaining environment 792–3
bargaining power 790–1
external shocks 791
informational effects 791–2
institutional rules 792–3
minimum necessary coalitions 791
payoffs 788–91
and preference aggregation 664
Basques 277
behavioralism 211
Belarus:
and economic transformation 942, 944, 961
and national identity 960
Belgium:
and clientelism 595
and judicial powers 739
and partisan divides 531–2
and party system 502, 515, 516
belief systems, see mass beliefs
Beliefs in Government studies 301
Benin, and clientelism 134, 594
Biafran War 429
Bolivia:
and indigenous mobilization 130–1
and welfare state 881
Boolean algebra, and historical enquiry 76
Bosnia 426
and elections 634
Botswana 231, 585
and party system 587
bourgeoisie, and revolution 410, 412
Brazil:
and clientelism 587
and labor incorporation 80
and programmatic parties 595, 598
Bretton Woods system 225
brokerage, and contentious politics 446
Bulgaria:
and clientelism 617
and economic transformation 942, 961
Burma, and clientelism 587, 902
business, and welfare state development 876–8
business cycles 845, 917 see also political budget cycles
cabinets:
and appointment strategies 710–12, 786
consequences of 712–13
and bureaucratic oversight 713–14
and coalition dynamics 709–10
and lack of attention to 709
and purposes of 709
Cambodia, and elections 634
Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament 640
campaigns:
and political parties 568, 635
and social movements 442–3
Canada:
and constitutional court 742
and economic voting 834
and judicial powers 739
capital mobility, and democratization 321, 323, 326
capitalism:
and nationalism 263
print capitalism 264, 286
and Protestantism 346
and social mobility 259
and state formation 216
case studies 115–16
and breadth/depth tradeoff 105–6
(p. 971)
and causal insight 102–5
casual mechanisms 102–5
causal effect 102
and causal strength 109–11
and central role of 90
and claims for 35–6
and conceptualizing topic 99–100
and contrast with cross‐case studies 93–4, 97–8, 115–16
breadth/depth tradeoV 105–6
causal insight 102–5
causal strength 109–11
data availability 112–15
distribution of useful variation 111–12
focus of 95–6
hypothesis generation/testing 99–101
population heterogeneity/homogeneity 106–9
validity 101–2
and criticism of approach 93
and data availability 112–15
and definitions:
case 94–5
case study 95, 96–7
cross‐case study 95
diYculties with 94
observation 95
population 96
sample 96
and distribution of useful variation 111–12
and factors favoring:
availability of new analytical tools 91–2
dissatisfaction with cross‐case research 91
interest in causal mechanisms 92
interest in experimental models 91
rational choice tools 92
and hypotheses generation/testing 98–101
and population heterogeneity/homogeneity 106–9
and researchers' world‐view 109
and status of 93
and strengths and weaknesses of 97–8
and validity 101–2 see also methodology and theory; research
Catalans 277
Catholic Church:
and emergence of Protestantism 241
and party system 502, 515, 541
Catholicism, civic 351
causal analysis 63, 167–9
and assignment of causes 152–4, 167
and attributes 156–7
and bias potential 154
baseline bias 155
non‐independence bias 157
post‐treatment bias 156–7
self‐selection bias 155–6
stable unit treatment value 157
and case studies 102–5
causal effect 102
causal mechanisms 102–5
causal strength 109–11
data availability 112–15
distribution of useful variation 111–12
and causal mechanisms 92
and counterfactual hypotheses 154
and data kinds:
conditional mean independence 151
experimental studies 149–52
quasi‐experiments 152–4
unit homogeneity 150
and endogeneity 61, 63–7, 168, 169
and field research 124–5
obstacles to 142
and historical enquiry 154, 167
Boolean algebra 76
conjunctural analysis 81–2
cross‐case analysis 75–6
duration analysis 81
fuzzy‐set logic 76
instrumental variables 162–3
matching on variables 160–2
methods of agreement and difference 75
most different 75
most similar 75
necessary/suYcient causes 75–6
path dependence 78–81, 168
process tracing 76–7
regime type and economic development 158–9, 164–8
selection on unobservables 163–4
types of estimators 159–60
typological theory 75–6
within‐case analysis 76–8
and manipulability 156–7
and problem of 148–9
and types of research questions 147–8
cause‐oriented activism 639–41
and characteristics of 640–1
and postmaterial values 641
and targets of 641
checks and balances, and property rights 894
Chewa 132–3, 590
Chile:
and democratization 385
and labor incorporation 80
and partisan cleavages 589
and party competition 596
and party system 545, 598
and political parties 589
China:
and civil war 424, 428, 429
and economic transformation 941–2, 952, 961
institutional reforms 954
and federalism 766
(p. 972) Chinese Revolution 406
Christianity, and legitimacy 240–1
citizens:
and critical citizens 346–7
and government 236–7
Citizen's Global Trade Watch 483
city‐states 219
civic culture:
and civic allegiance 302
and cross‐national surveys 301–2
and definition of 345
and democracy 345–6, 347–50, 356–7
bottom‐up process 348
collective action 349–50
multi‐level governance 348–9, 350
respecifying meaning of 347–50
self‐governance 348–9
state‐centric view 347–8, 350
and endurance of levels of 345
and individualistic fallacy 303–4
and political regimes 10–11
and renewed interest in 341
and respecifying meaning of:
as dependent variable 353
history of concept 352–3
liberal political tradition 353
social capital 353–4
trust 350–4
and social capital 341, 354–6
civil service, and patronage 619–20
civil wars 12, 279
and coding practices 417–18
and definition of 416, 417
and destructiveness of 416
and determinants of 418
disagreements over 418–19
ethnic heterogeneity 419–20
natural resources 420–1
state capacity 421–2, 423–4
and El Salvador 131–2
and euphemisms for 416
and fatalities 416, 417–18
and future research on 430–1
and globalization 456
and greed/grievance model 284–5
and growth of interest in 416–17
reasons for 417
and insurgent groups 136–7
and poverty 419
and research approaches to 417
and rural dimension of 422–6
causal mechanisms 423
collaboration 425
geography 424–5
Guatemala 424
inequality 423
Nicaragua 425
politics of rural rebellion 423
state capacity 423–4
and types of 426–7
conventional warfare 427, 428–9
difficulties in classifying 426–7
irregular warfare 427–8, 429
master cleavage 426
military asymmetry 428
peripheral challenges 427
relation with civil war onset 429–30
state implosion 427
symmetric non‐conventional warfare 428, 429
third‐party intervention 429
and violence in 137–8
class:
and ideological domination:
Peru 130
Scott's Weapons of the Weak 127–9
and revolution 399, 400
impact on outcomes of 410–11
class voting:
and decline in 542, 561
and party systems 541
cleavages:
and civil wars 426–7
and constructivism 287
and industrial revolution 559, 589
and party identification 589–90
and party systems 530–1, 532
and regime transitions 596
and voter mobilization strategies 589–90
clientelism 15, 623
and accountability 613
and ballot systems 620–1
and Benin 134
and civil service 619–20
and commitment 610–15
patronage game 611–15
and core voters 615, 616, 617
and decline in 621
and definition of 604–6
and economic monopoly 607
and effectiveness of 622–3
and effects of 604
as electoral strategy 610–11
and electoral systems 619
and emerging democracies 587, 593–5
impact of liberalization 597
and fear of retaliation 609–10
and future research on 623–4
and institutional consequences of 621–2
and legal restrictions 619–20
and networks 612–13
(p. 973)
and norms 608–9
and paradox of 608–10
and party identification 590–1
and party systems 527, 544
and patronage 605–7
and political monopoly 607
and poverty 606, 617–19
and reciprocity 608–10
and self‐interest 609–10
and studies of, two waves of 607–8
and swing voters 615–17
and threats 605
and vote‐buying 606
coalitions:
and bargaining theory 783–4, 788
bargaining environment 792–3
bargaining power 790–1
external shocks 791
informational effects 791–2
institutional rules 792–3
minimum necessary coalitions 791
payoffs 788–91
and definition of 782
and durability of 789
and economic voting 832–4, 919–20
contention for policy authority 834–8
and formation of 18, 784–6
ad hoc or durable 784–6
contentious politics 447
disadvantages of free‐floating 784–5
transaction cost politics 784–6
and future research on:
bargaining environment/power 798
empirical testing 798–9
measurement challenges 798
and global protest movements 481
and government membership 796–7
and government type 786–8
bargaining environment 794, 796
bargaining power 794, 796
cross‐Europe comparisons 787–8
explanation of 794–6
minimum winning coalitions 786–7, 794–5
minority governments 795
surplus coalitions 795
and impact on party vote share 571, 572
and internal conflict 783
and legislative effectiveness 712–13
and parliamentary systems 709–10
and political parties 783
and presidential systems 709–10
and representative democracy 782–3
coercion, and social contract 241–2
coffee production:
and East Africa 177–8
changes in farmers' behavior 178–80
interest groups 181
large‐N methods 182–4
small‐N methods 178–80
and Latin America 180–1
political structure 181
collective action 7
and attitudes 307
and centrality of 186
and credibility 905
and democracy 349–50
and diversity of 186
and El Salvador civil war 131–2
and ethnic mobilization 282–3
and game theory 186–7
and human action 7–8
and human behavior 195–6
adaptability 195
altruism 199–200
contingent strategies 197–200
fairness 197
heuristics 196
norms 196–7
rational choice theory 195
reciprocity 197–8, 200–1
reputation 200–1
trust 200–1
and indigenous mobilization in Latin America 130–1
and problem of 187
and rationalist model 7
and social dilemmas 186
and structural variables 188
entry/exit choices 194
face‐to‐face communication 190–1
heterogeneity of participants 190
information about past actions 193
interaction of 202–3
linking with core relationships 201–3
nature of benefits 189–90
network linkages 194
number of participants 188–9
production function 191–3
and theoretical challenge of 187 see also contentious politics; global protest movements; social movements
Collective Action Research Program (CARP) 462
and global protest movements 482
global rebel's dilemma 483–6
mobilization difficulties 483–6
networks 486–7
planning conferences 486
rationality 483
selective incentives 487
collectivism, and belief systems 299
Colombia 137
and clientelism 587, 591
and coffee production 180–1, 182
and welfare state 881
(p. 974) colonialism, and nationalism 286–7
command economy, and economic transformation 941 see also economic transformation
commitment, and clientelism 610–15
and patronage game 611–15
Committee in Solidarity with the People of El Salvador (CISPES) 483
common‐pool resources (CPRs), and collective action 189–90
communication, and collective action 190–1
Comparative Manifesto Project 562
Comparative Study of Electoral Systems 302, 643, 815
compliance 236, 248
and legitimacy 247, 251
composition, and fallacy of 248
comprehension:
and apprehension 173–4
and conviction 177
and explanation 174–7
game theory 175–7
conditional mean independence, and causal analysis 151
confederations 754
conflict, see civil wars; contentious politics; ethnic conflict; revolutions; war
Congo, and civil war 429
congruence theory 298
conjunctural analysis, and historical enquiry 81–2
consent 236
and incoherence of notion 244
and legitimacy 242–3, 244, 247, 248, 249, 253
and political authority 237–8
consequentialist legitimacy 245–7
and costs of regime change 246
and erroneous objections to 246–7
and mutual advantage 245–6
and self‐interest 246
consociationalism, and multiethnic societies 289, 290
Constantinople 214
constitutional courts 730, 731
and anti‐authoritarian backlash 739–41
and judicial politics 743
and nationalization 746
and non‐authoritarian cases 742–3
and rulings against government 744–5 see also judiciary
constitutionalism, and state formation 222
constitutions, and role of 752–3
constructivism:
and cleavages 287
and ethnic conflict 280–1, 285–8
and nationalism 264
and voter preferences 503
consumer groups, and dictatorship 388–9
contentious politics 12–13
and anticolonial movements 438
and characteristics of 437
and congressional disputes 438
and contentious performances 441
demonstrations 441
modular performances 441
ritual political performance 442
and contentious repertoires 441–2
strong repertoires 442
weak repertoires 442
and definition of 438, 464
and democratization 448–50
and dynamics of 444–6
cultural turn 445
features of 445–6
framing 445
political process tradition 444–5
and episodic nature of 438
and Estrada's removal from office 435–6
and fragmentation of research areas 439
and global protest movements 13, 462
and globalization 455–7
and institutionalized/non‐institutionalized politics 439–40
and institutions 439–40
and Islamist movement 451–2
and mechanisms of 446–7
brokerage 446
dispositional mechanisms 446
environmental mechanisms 446
relational mechanisms 446
and the movement society 453–4
and outcomes of 454–5
and political opportunity structure 440
and political process tradition 440, 444–5
and political violence 452–3
and processes of 447–8
coalition formation 447
mobilization 447
polarization 447–8
political identity formation 447
and public nature of 438
and regularities in 440–1
and social movements, differences between 437–8 see also global protest movements; social movements
context matters 30
and challenges of 30–1
and context‐conditionality 30
culture 45–6
institutions 45, 46, 47–9
modeling of 50–2, 55–60
non‐linear regression 53–5
options for dealing with 52–3
policy making 50
(p. 975)
political economy 49–50
principal‐agent relations 49, 52–3
statistical analysis 46–7, 55
and endogeneity 30, 61–7
causal directions 61
democracy/development 61–3
modeling of 63–7
statistical analysis 61–3
and meaning of 45
and multicausality 30, 36–45
Achen's ‘rule of three’ 37, 44
covariation 37–41
democratization 36–7
include‐variable bias 37, 43–4
omitted variable bias 37, 41–3
and requirements for empirical analysis 68–9
context‐conditionality 30, 45–60
and culture 45–6
and institutions 45, 46, 47–9
and modeling of 50–2, 55–60
and non‐linear regression 53–5
and options for dealing with 52–3
and policy making 50
and political economy 49–50
and principal‐agent relations 49, 52–3
and statistical analysis 46–7, 55
contingency, and political phenomena 14
Continuities in Political Action study 301
contractarianism:
and legitimacy 241–5
and state formation 215, 217
contractualism 242
convention, and legitimacy 243
(p. 976) convergence, and preference aggregation 663–4
conviction, and comprehension 177
coordination, and ethnic mobilization 282–3
cosmopolitanism 469
Costa Rica:
and decline of vote buying 621
and party system 545
and political development 168
Cote d'Ivoire, and clientelism 587
credibility, and political markets 900, 907
and citizen coordination on voting rules 901–2
and democratization 903–5
and economic transformation 950–1
and endogenous credibility 902–3
and inability to influence 900–1
and incomplete information 906
critical junctures, and path dependence 79–80
cross‐case analysis:
and contrast with case studies 93–4, 97–8, 115–16
breadth/depth tradeoff 105–6
causal insight 102–5
causal strength 109–11
data availability 112–15
distribution of useful variation 111–12
focus of 95–6
hypothesis generation/testing 99–101
population heterogeneity/homogeneity 106–9
validity 101–2
and definition of 95
and historical enquiry 75–6
and researchers' world‐view 109
Cuba 585
and Cuban Revolution 407
cultural change, and cause‐oriented activism 641
cultural turn, and contentious politics 445
culture:
and ambiguous meaning of 342
and concept of 342
and context‐conditionality 45–6
and difficulties in understanding role of 340
as foundational concept 340
and identity 257
and limitations of theory about 343–4
and renewed interest in 341
and research on 341 see also civic culture; political culture
Czech Republic:
and economic transformation 942, 961
and programmatic parties 595, 598
Czechoslovakia 228, 230
and constitutional court 739
decentralization 752, 755–7
decolonization:
and civil wars 422
and state formation 223, 224
delegation, and elections 913
democracy:
and civic culture 345–6, 356–7
and coalitions 782–3
and conceptions of 11, 347–50
bottom‐up process 348
collective action 349–50
multi‐level governance 348–9, 350
self‐governance 348–9
state‐centric view 347–8, 350
and credibility and policy:
citizen coordination on voting rules 901–2
endogenous credibility 902–3
inability to influence 900–1
and critical citizens 346–7
and definition of 654
and economic development/performance 20, 111, 886, 907
causal analysis 158–9, 164–8
data on relationship 895–6
elections 894
impact of democratization process 896–7
(p. 977)
incomplete information 906
inequality 898–9
interest groups 899–900
lack of association between 894–5
political checks and balances 894
political instability 897–8
relationship between 893–5
and economic transformation 945–7, 961
and ethnic conflict 278–9
and federalism 760–2
different outcomes 760–1
income distribution 761
transitioning societies 761
and global protest movements 478
and identification of 656
and mass beliefs 297–8, 302, 313
and neoliberal institutional trilemma 477
and participation:
participative democracy 630–1
Schumpeterian perspective 630
and political culture 345
and preference aggregation 653–4
and psychological theory of democratic development 299–301
existential pressures 300
legitimacy 300
modernization 300–1
and redistribution 322, 324, 325, 385, 887
and system support 346–7
and taxation 382
and values 10
democratic deficit, and global protest movements 475–8
democratic personality 299
democratization:
and British colonial heritage 317
and capital mobility 321, 323, 326
and case studies 318
and contentious politics 448–50
and credibility 903–5, 907
and diffusion 329
and diverse explanations of 317–19, 335–6
and economic development/performance 317, 318–19, 320–1, 336, 896–7
liberalization 327–8
and education 319, 324
and elite/citizen interactions 322–3, 896–7
revenue maximizing rulers/powerless citizens 325–8
rich rulers vs poor ruled 323–5
and equality 321, 324
and historical context 330–1
and income distribution 321, 323, 324
and inequality 323–5
and international factors 328–9, 331
and large‐N statistical studies 318
and mass beliefs 9–10, 302, 306–11
emancipative orientations 307–11
impact of 302–3
and middle class 321
and modernization 300–1, 318, 321
and multiple causal processes 36–7, 319
and national identity 271–2
and nationalism 271–2
and nature of regimes replaced 330, 331–5
hegemonic party 334
military 334
personalistic 334–5
and oil wealth 317, 323, 336
and pace of change 330
and preference aggregation 657, 672
and redistribution 322, 324, 325
and regime transitions 10
and research on 319
and revolution 324, 327
and social movements 448–50
and societal‐led 302, 303
and theories of 10
and third wave 303, 584–5
and winning coalitions 326–7
demography, and revolution 401–3
demonstrations:
and contentious politics 441, 442
and global protest movements 464
as mainstream activity 639
Denmark:
and economic voting 813, 814, 815
and revolution 402
and welfare state 875
deprivation, and globalization 466
developing countries:
and clientelism 618
and economic development/performance:
government size 890–1
impact of governance variables 893
policy choice 887–8
public goods 891–3
redistribution 890–1
regulatory environment 889–90
Washington Consensus 888–9
and inequality 898–9
and party systems 544–5
and political instability 897–8, 905
and redistribution 905
and welfare state 868–9
business attitudes 878
economic development 869–70
economic insecurity 872
economic openness 870–2
pension and health care policy 880–1
policy feedback 880–1
power resources perspective 874–5
state‐centered approaches to 879–80
developmental states 225–6
dictatorship 11
and behavior of dictators:
dictator's dilemma 365–7
lack of knowledge of support 366
paranoia 366
redistribution 367
repression 365–6
securing loyalty (political exchange) 366–7, 376–7, 389–90
and diversity of 390–1
and economic development/performance 376, 380–9
bifurcation points 386
causal analysis 158–9, 164–8
economic freedom 385
growth rates 385–6
impact of competition 384–5
(p. 979)
influence of consumer/producer groups 388–9
optimum tax rates 381–2
predatory regimes 386
redistribution 385, 386–7
stationary bandit 380–5
and education 376
and genocide 377–8
and ideology 378
and irony of absolutism 379
and limits of power 364
and limits to dictator's power 370–3
power/revenue tradeoff 379
and loyalty/repression equilibrium:
tinpot regimes 367–9
totalitarian regimes 369–70
and motivation 363
and oil wealth 318
and rational choice approach to 363
and redistribution 367, 387, 390
and regime support 375–6, 391
and repression 365–6, 390
impact on dissidence 374
optimal levels of 378
relationship with revolution 373–4
response to loyalty reduction 374–5
and research on 364–5
and timocrats 364, 367
and tinpot regimes 363–4, 367
and totalitarian regimes 364, 367
and tyranny 364, 367 see also authoritarianism
difference, method of 75
diffusion:
and democratization 329
and economic transformation 958
direct action 640
Direct Action Network (DAN) 483
direct democracy, and impracticability of 499
directional voting 538, 561
discontent, and global protest movements 489–90
divine right, and theocratic legitimacy 239–40
domination, and legitimacy 248–50, 251
Dominican Republic 904–5
and civil war 424–5
duration analysis, and historical enquiry 81
Duverger's law 663, 668, 678, 681–2
East Asia, and state development 225 see also Asia
East Asia Barometer 302
East Timor 585
and elections 634
eastern Europe:
and constitutional courts 740
and democratization 585
and economic transformation 21, 941
European Union's impact 955–6
progress of 942–4
and electoral volatility 587
and party systems 544, 545
and state formation 223, 228
economic transition 230
presidential systems 229–30
territorial disintegration 230
and welfare state 880–1 see also economic transformation
ecological fallacy 10, 304–5
economic cycles, see political budget cycles
economic development/performance:
and credibility and policy 907
citizen coordination on voting rules 901–2
endogenous credibility 902–3
inability to influence 900–1
and democracy 20, 111, 886, 907
data on relationship 895–6
elections 894
impact of democratization process 896–7
incomplete information 906
inequality 898–9
interest groups 899–900
lack of association between 894–5
political checks and balances 894
political instability 897–8
relationship between 893–5
and democratization 317, 318–19, 320–1, 336
economic liberalization 327–8
and dictatorship/democracy comparison 380–9
bifurcation points 386
economic freedom 385
growth rates 385–6
impact of competition 384–5
influence of consumer/producer groups 388–9
predatory regimes 386
redistribution 385, 386–7
stationary bandit 380–5
and federalism:
contextual effects 764
different effects on 763
organization of party systems 767–8
organization of shared rule 766–9
public choice theory's claims 762–3
representation of subnational units 767
social and economic conditions 764–5
strength of national executive 767
sub‐national financial self‐reliance 765–6
theoretical approaches to 763
welfare economists' claims 762
and policy choice 887–8
government size 890–1
impact of governance variables 893
public goods 891–3
redistribution 890–1
regulatory environment 889–90
Washington Consensus 888–9
and regime type 20, 111, 222
causal analysis 158–9, 164–8
and state formation 216–17
modern era 225–7
regime type 221
and welfare state development 869–70
economic reform, see economic transformation
economic transformation 20–1
and causal analysis 957–61
case studies 961
comparative studies 961
diffusion effects 958
executive partisanship 959
mass literacy 958–9
national identity creation 960
nationalist education 958–9
nature of pre‐existing state 957–8
political polarization 959–60
proximity to the West 958
role of Communist Party 960
structural factors 957
weakness of 957
and command economy 941
and democracy 945–7, 961
and eastern Europe 230
and emerging democracies 596–7
and European Union 940, 953, 955–6, 961–2
and future research on 962
cross‐regional comparisons 962
impact of social institutions 963
institutional legacies 962–3
and governance and role of state 951–3
governance quality 952–3
social spending levels 952
taxation capacity 951
and institutions:
blueprint approach 953
local knowledge approach 954
political context 954–5
and interest groups 948–51, 961
credibility problems 950–1
early winners as obstacles 948–9
good winners 949–50
intertemporal change 950
and progress of 942–4
and regime type 945–7
and research challenges of 940
and research interest in 939
economic voting 18, 20
and agreement on 805
and American rational economic voting:
empirical legacy of 809–12
theoretical legacy of 807–9
and clarity of responsibility 814, 825–6, 833, 836, 918
and coalitions 823–4, 834–8, 919–20
and comparative studies of 812–13
aggregate‐level studies 813–14
individual‐level studies 814–15
instability 813–15
variations in 813
and competency calculations 826, 827–8
and contextual model of 826–7, 838–9
administrative responsibility 832–4
coalitions 832–4
competency signals 827–8, 830–1
contention for policy authority 834–8
contention measure 837
political control of the economy 829–32
rational expectations 827
rationality assumptions of 827
strategic voting 834–8
trade openness 831–2
and contextual variation 806, 812, 814–15, 824–6
global economic integration 825
inflation 825
modeling of 819
welfare spending 825
and definition of 805
and economic evaluations 820–1
aggregate‐level analysis 821–2
impact of vote preference 820
measurement error 821, 822
objective influences 824
sources of error 822
subjective influences 823–4
United States 811
and evidence for 806
(p. 980)
and instability of 806, 813–15, 838
and magnitude of:
measurement of 822–3
multi‐nation studies 818
United States 811–12
variations in 813–15, 828
as measurement artifact 819–20
and multi‐nation studies 815–19
magnitude of economic vote 818
measurement of economic vote 815–17
modeling contextual effects 819
and political budget cycles 848
and rational economic voting 805–6, 807–8
retrospective voting 808–9
sanctioning 808–9, 825
vote choice theory 809
and research challenges of 806–7, 826, 839
and retrospective voting 808–9, 916–17
and United States' evidence for 812
assessment of economic conditions 811
election outcomes 810
individual‐level survey data 810–11
magnitude variations 811–12
presidential popularity 809–10
and welfare states 825
Ecuador, and indigenous mobilization 130–1
education:
and democratization 319, 324
and dictatorships 376
Egypt 228
El Salvador, and peasant support for insurgency 131–2
elections:
and accountability 910–11
adverse selection problems 920–1
clarity of responsibility 919
ideology 922–3
information requirements 918–19
limits of 918–23
modeling politicians' strategies 921–2
promise breaking 922
threshold for re‐election 918
and delegation 499, 913
and electoral volatility 558, 569–75
emerging democracies 586–7
and functions of 912
and institutional context 631–4
electoral reform 634
European Union 632
individual‐level behavior 633
policy significance of 633–4
United States 632–3
and judicial independence 746
and preference aggregation 657–8, 672–3
bias effects 668
choice of policy makers 671
cross‐national studies 659–61
different meanings of votes 670
electoral systems 663–4, 667–8
geographical distribution of votes 667–8
left‐right scale 663, 665–6
median voter 663–4
misrepresentation 669
number of parties 668–9
party anticipation of voter preferences 661
party distance from median voter 664–5
proportionality 670–1
reduction of alternatives 662
responsiveness to changes 670
single‐country studies 659
strength of issue representation 661
United States 659
vote as revelation of preferences 669–70
voter/representative differences 661
vote‐seat aggregation 667
and prospective voting 911, 917
and retrospective control of politicians 912–16
evidence of 916–18
imperfect information conditions 913
modeling of 913–16
perfect information conditions 913
provision of public goods 912–13
and temporal structure of 508–9
and voter choice 509
and voter expectations 509–10
electoral systems 17
and candidate numbers 506
and clientelism 619
and comparative studies 681–2
and diversity of 680–1
and Duverger's law 678, 681–2
and Duvergian agenda 682–3
and future research on 698
and importance of 678
for political science 698
and intra‐party politics 697
and macro‐Duvergian agenda 683–4, 693–4
duration of cabinets 687, 690–1
logical quantitative models 688
seat numbers and vote shares 692
seat share of largest party 685, 689
seat share of other parties 686, 689–90
vote shares and seat numbers 691–2
and multiethnic societies 289, 290
and number of seats and party sizes 683–4
and party systems 506, 510–11, 518–20, 678, 679, 698
impact of assembly size 684
impact of number of seats 683–4
and party‐voter linkages 592
and political outcomes 682
and preference aggregation 663–4
bias effects 668
geographical distribution of votes 667–8
misrepresentation 669
number of parties 668–9
party distance from median voter 664–5
vote‐seat aggregation 667–8
and proportional representation:
preferential‐list 696–7
two‐tier 695–6
and stability of 519, 679
and turnout 631–4
and typology of 680–1
and unequal district magnitudes 695
and vote distribution 684
and vote share 571, 572
and women's representation 697
elites:
and democratization 322–3, 896–7
revenue maximizing rulers/powerless citizens 325–8
rich rulers vs poor ruled 323–5
and party systems 502, 505
and state formation 228–9
emancipative orientations:
and belief systems 305–6
and democratization 307–11
emerging democracies:
and associational life 588
and characteristics of 585
and clientelism 587, 593–5
and economic liberalization 596–7
and electoral volatility 586–7, 588
and media 588
and mobilization of voters 583
impact of institutions 592–3
impact of structures 593–5
strategies for 589–91
and party competition 595–7
and party identification, weakness of 585–6
and party‐voter linkages:
role of institutions 592–3
role of structures 593–5
and patronage 587
and personalism 587
and political parties 583–4, 598–600
traditions of 585
and programmatic parties 591–2, 595
and regime transitions 596
and retrospective voting 588
emotions, and ethnic conflict 281–2
emotiveness, and legitimacy 253
endogeneity 30, 61–7
and causal analysis 61, 63–7, 168, 169
and civil wars 12
and democracy/development 61–3
and methodology 6
and modeling of 63–7
and statistical analysis 61–3
England:
and birth of nationalism/national identity 266
and clientelism 617
and Glorious Revolution 402, 405, 411, 894
and industrial revolution 78–9, 80
environmental movement 638
envy, and national identity 260
equality:
and democratization 321, 324
and national identity 258, 259
essentialism, and ethnic conflict 280–2
Estonia:
and economic transformation 942
and national identity 960
ethnic conflict 9
and ancient hatreds 280, 281
and concepts:
conflict and violence 278–9
ethnicity 277–8
types of violent conflict 279
and electoral systems 289, 290
and emotions 281–2
and ethnic mobilization 282–3
and evaluation of research on 275–6, 291
and expansion of research on 274–5
and future research on 292
and greed/grievance model 284–5
and identity choice 290–1
(p. 981)
and in‐group policing 283–4
and initial work on 274
and local variations 287, 289–90
and nationalism 270–1
and realism 276
and theorizing about 275–6
and traditions of inquiry 276
constructivism 280–1, 285–8
essentialism 280–2
innovations in 291
institutionalism 289–91
instrumentalism 282–5, 288
ethnic heterogeneity:
and civil war 419–20
and number of parties 695
ethnic identity 9
and constructivism 285–8
and traditions of inquiry 276
ethnicity:
and civil wars 419–20
and concept of 277–8
and diversity of topics covered by 275
and ethnic mobilization 282–3
and evaluation of research on 275–6, 291
and expansion of research on 274–5
and future research on 292
and in‐group policing 283–4
and nationhood 277–8
and traditions of inquiry:
constructivism 285–8
essentialism 280–2
innovations in 291
institutionalism 289–91
instrumentalism 282–5, 288
ethnolinguistic fractionalization index (ELF) 420
Eurobarometer 301, 643, 815
and party identification 567
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development 942
European Central Bank 562
European Commission 641
European Environmental Bureau 443
European integration, and impact on party systems 543
European parliament, and elections to 632, 659, 660
European Union:
and constraints on national governments 562
and economic transformation, influence on 940, 953, 955–6, 961–2
European Values Study 302
evidence, and availability of 112–15
evolutionary psychology, and nationalism 262
explanation:
and comprehension 174–7
and game theory 175–7
failed states, and state formation 224–5
fairness, and human behavior 197
famine, and regime type 386
fear, and ethnic conflict 281
Federal Reserve Board 849
federalism 17–18
and balance between levels of government 754–5, 765
and changes in approaches to 752–3
and complexity of 759
and definition of 754
and democracy 760–2
different outcomes 760–1
income distribution 761
transitioning societies 761
and economic development/performance:
contextual effects 764
different effects on 763
organization of party systems 767–8
organization of shared rule 766–9
public choice theory's claims 762–3
representation of subnational units 767
social and economic conditions 764–5
strength of national executive 767
sub‐national financial self‐reliance 765–6
theoretical approaches to 763
welfare economists' claims 762
and fragmentation of political power 753
and fundamental dilemma of 754–5
and impact of 759–60
federal illusion 759
and interest in 752
and non‐cooperative behavior 765
and origins of 769
approaches to 772–5
conditions for 769–70
distributional concerns 770–1
endogenous federal institutions 770–2, 773
external shocks 774
institutional choice 770–1
levels of analysis 773
moments of exogeneity 774
need for better data 774–5
partial equilibrium analysis 773
politicians' incentives 770
self‐selection 772, 773
stability 771–2
and redistribution 770–1
and shared rule 754, 766–9
and theoretical challenges 775–6
and variations among 755–7
decentralization 755–7
distribution of policy authority 758–9
electoral competition 757–8
electoral externalities 757–8
fiscal decentralization 758
representation at national level 755
feudalism:
and decline of 216–17
and theory of 218
field research 4
and causal inference 124–5
obstacles to 142
and challenges of 138–41
emotional problems 140–1
ethical challenges 139, 140
giving thanks 140
reactions to lies 140
review of research protocols 139–40
security of field data 139
selection bias 138
sensitive materials 139
subjectivity 138–9
and class relations:
Peru 130
Scott's Weapons of the Weak 127–9
and coffee production:
changes in farmers' behavior 178–80
East Africa 177–8
interest groups 181
large‐N methods 182–4
Latin America 180–1
political structure 181
(p. 982)
small‐N methods 178–80
and collective action studies:
El Salvador civil war 131–2
indigenous mobilization in Latin America 130–1
and combining with non‐field methods 136–8
civil war violence 137–8
communal violence in India 136
insurgent groups 136–7
and continuing importance of 142
and contribution of 124, 125
and data generation 127
and definition of 123–4
and evaluation of self‐reported data 126
and field experiments 134–5
challenges facing 135
clientelistic voter appeals 134
playing economic games 134–5
and immersion in subject 173–4
and interpretation of motives 126–7
and methodological challenges of 124
and methods of 124
and natural experiments 132–4
analytical power of 133–4
Chewa/Tumbuka relations 132–3
female representation in Indian villages 133
and political actors' beliefs and preferences 125–6
and research designs 125
and surprises from 125
and theory generation/testing 124–5, 130, 136
and training for 142–3
and understanding 172–3
apprehension 173–4
confirmation 177
explanation 174–7
game theory 175–7 see also methodology and theory
first‐past‐the‐post system:
and bias effects 668
and disproportionality 667
and geographical distribution of votes 667–8
and misrepresentation 669
and number of parties 668–9
fiscal policy 846 see also political budget cycles
focal points:
and ethnicity 282–3
and global protest movements 480–1
former Soviet Union:
and economic transformation 941
fractionalization, and party systems 530
framing:
and contentious politics 445
and global protest movements 481–2
and postmodern ideals 469–70
France:
and constitutional court 742, 743
and court appointments 734
and economic voting 813, 814, 818, 917
and judicial powers 739
and nationalism 267
and party system 516
and removal of prime minister 925
Freedom House 114, 585, 656, 895
French Revolution 404, 411, 412
and class 399
Front National (France) 564
fuzzy‐set logic, and historical enquiry 76
Gambia, and party system 587
game theory 6–7
and clientelism, the patronage game 611–15
and coalition formation 788
bargaining environment 792–3
bargaining power 790–1
external shocks 791
informational effects 791–2
institutional rules 792–3
minimum necessary coalitions 791
payoffs 788–91
and collective action 186–7
common‐pool resources (CPRs) 189–90
communication 190–1
entry/exit choices 194
information about past actions 193
network linkages 194
production function 191–3
and contingent strategies 198–200
and explanation 175–6
and playing economic games 134–5
and rationality 176
and systemic features 523
garrison state 220–1
gender, and electoral systems 697
genocide 377–8
Germany:
and constitutional court 740, 743
and court appointments 734
and economic voting 813, 917
and ideological voting 920
and judicial independence 735
and judicial powers 739
and nationalism 267
and party system 502, 515, 516
and removal of prime minister 924
and state formation 221–2
and welfare state 873 see also Weimar Germany
(p. 983) global civil society:
and global protest movements 470, 472
empowered non‐state actors 470–1
global civil society recruitment 471
and social movements 638
Global Exchange 483
global justice protests, and trade unions 467
global protest movements 13, 461–2
and American hegemony mechanisms:
opposition to US hegemony 474–5
US hegemony target attribution 475
and anti‐globalization movement 491–2
and anti‐war movement 492
and collective action mechanisms 482
global rebel's dilemma 483–6
mobilization difficulties 483–6
networks 486–7
planning conferences 486
rationality 483
selective incentives 487
and contentious politics 462
and culturalist mechanisms:
cultural backlash 467–8
postmodern ideals framing 469–70
postmodern mobilization 468–9
and demonstrations 464
and differences between 462
and economic mechanisms:
economic issues 465
economic threat attribution 466–7
world systems theory 465–6
and explanations of 462
and features of 463
and future research on 491–2
and macro‐level mechanisms 463–4, 490
and meso‐level mechanisms 478–9, 490–1
and micro‐level mechanisms 487, 491
associational recruitment 488–9
issue consensus 490
issue intensity and discontent 489–90
psychological involvement 489
resource accumulation/access 487–8
social transformation 489
and military intervention 467
and neoliberal institutional trilemma mechanisms:
attribution of threat to democracy 478
global democratic deficit 475–8
and participation 638
and Synthetic Political Opportunity Theory mechanisms 479–80
focal points 480–1
mobilizing organizations 481
political opportunities 480–1
pre‐existing organizations 481
strategic/cultural frames 481–2
and world polity mechanisms:
attribution of opportunity 474
complex internationalism 472–4
and world society mechanisms 470, 472
empowered non‐state actors 470–1
global civil society recruitment 471
globalization:
and civil war 456
and contentious politics 455–7
and economic voting 829, 831
and global protest movements:
economic issues 465
world systems theory 465–6
and nation states 456–7
and participation 641
and political/social mobilization 13
and social movements 455–7
and state formation 225 see also global protest movements
Glorious Revolution 402, 405, 411, 894
governance, and economic transformation 951–3
and governance quality 952–3
and social spending levels 952
and taxation capacity 951
government:
and capacity of, state formation 212, 213, 224
and citizens 236–7, 244
and formation of 671
and stability of 577–8
and trend towards centrist 562–3
and trust 253
Greece 585
and clientelism 617
and constitutional court 740
and Greek civil war 137–8
greed:
and civil wars 421
and ethnic conflict 284–5
Grenada 303
grievance:
and civil wars 421, 422
and ethnic conflict 284–5
and global protest movements 471
and postmodern values 468
group size:
and collective action 188–9, 201–2
and common‐pool resources 189–90
Guatemala:
and civil war 424
and indigenous mobilization 130–1
and political development 168
gunpowder 214
Haiti 585
hatred, and ethnic conflict 280, 281
health policy 880–1
heterogeneity, and collective action 190
heuristics, and human behavior 196
(p. 984) hierarchy:
and legitimacy 243–4, 247–8
and nationalism 265–6
historical enquiry 4–5
and causal analysis 154, 167
Boolean algebra 76
cross‐case analysis 75–6
fuzzy‐set logic 76
instrumental variables 162–3
matching on variables 160–2
methods of agreement and difference 75
most different 75
most similar 75
necessary/sufficient causes 75–6
path dependence 168
process tracing 76–7
regime type and economic development 158–9, 164–8
selection on unobservables 163–4
types of estimators 159–60
typological theory 75–6
within‐case analysis 76–8
and centrality of 73
and distinctive approach of 73–4
and goal of 74
and methods of temporal analysis 78
conjunctural analysis 81–2
critical junctures 79–80
duration analysis 81
institutional layering 80–1
path dependence 78–81
reactive sequences 80
self‐reproducing sequences 80
and using historical data 82
primary sources 85–6
secondary sources 82–4
human behavior 7–8, 195–6
and adaptability 195
and collective action 201–3
altruism 199–200
contingent strategies 197–200
fairness 197
reciprocity 197–8, 200–1
reputation 200–1
trust 200–1
and heuristics 196
and norms 196–7
and rational choice theory 195
human development 311
human nature 22
human rights, and economic justification for 389
Hundred Years War 214
Hungary:
and constitutional court 740–1
and economic transformation 942
and national identity 960
and party competition 596
and programmatic parties 595
and state formation 228
hypotheses, and case studies 98–101
Iceland, and clientelism 617
identity:
and heterogeneous identities 469, 470
and identity choice 290–1
and individual identity 256–7
culture 257
multiple layers of 257
order 256–7
types of 257
and political shaping of 503
and religious identity 257–8
and social movements 443–4
political identity formation 447 see also national identity
ideology:
and class domination, Scott's Weapons of the Weak 127–9
and dictatorship 378
and political parties:
convergence 562
traditional cleavages 561–2
and retrospective voting 920, 922–3
and state formation 217–18
and state modernization 407–8, 409
imagined communities, and nationalism 264, 285–6 see also national identity
imperialism, and post‐imperial state formation 229–31
impossibility theorem, and preference aggregation 655
income distribution:
and clientelism 618
and democratization 321, 323, 324
and federalism 761, 774
and redistribution 385
and taxation 322
Independent Media Centers (IMCs) 486
India:
and communal violence 136
and electoral volatility 587
and ethnic conflict 279, 280, 287
and ethnicity 277
and female representation on village councils 133
and Hindu/Muslim cleavage 287
and nationalism 286–7
and party system 598
individualism 218
and belief systems 299
individualistic fallacy 10
and mass beliefs 303–4
Indonesia 585 (p. 985)
and civil war 429
and clientelism 587
and ethnic conflict 278, 280, 287
and state formation 228
industrial revolution:
and party systems 502
and path dependence 78–9, 80
and political cleavages 559, 589
industrialization:
and nationalism 275–6
and welfare state development 869
inequality:
and democratization 323–5
and regime type 898–9
inflation, and economic voting 825
in‐group policing, and ethnic conflict 283–4
institutionalism:
and ethnic conflict 289–91
and party systems 505–7
accounting for change 507
electoral rules 506
mobilization targets 505–6
national institutions 506
institutions:
and contentious politics 439–40
and context‐conditionality 45, 46, 47–9
and economic transformation:
blueprint approach 953
local knowledge approach 954
political context 954–5
and importance of 703
and institutional layering 80–1
and levels of analysis of 753
and mass beliefs 311–13
and party‐voter linkages 592–3
and political opportunity structure 440
and social movements 450
and trust 352
and turnout 631–4
instrumentalism, and ethnic conflict 282–5, 288
insurgent groups 136–7
interest groups:
and democracy and development 899–900
and economic transformation 948–51, 961
credibility problems 950–1
early winners as obstacles 948–9
good winners 949–50
intertemporal change 950
and party systems:
amended theory of 502–5
radical critique 503
sociological account 501–2
International IDEA database 631, 632
International Monetary Fund 455, 466
international non‐governmental organizations (INGOs) 470
international organizations (IOs) 470
and global protest movements 472–4
international politics, and analytical levels 523
International Social Survey Program 302, 643
internationalism, and global protest movements 472–4
internationalization, and social movements 454, 456
internet, and global protest movements 471, 486–7
Iranian Revolution 399, 406–7
Iraq:
and elections 634
and new constitution 440
and protests against invasion 462
Ireland:
and coalition formation 789
and economic voting 818
Islam:
and Islamist movement 444, 451–2
and regime type 317, 318, 336
Israel:
and constitutional court 742–3
and judicial powers 739
issue congruence 561
and preference aggregation 672
multiple issues 657–62
single dimensional 662–6
issue consensus, and global protest movements 490
issue intensity, and global protest movements 489–90
Italy:
and clientelism 595, 605, 617, 618–19
and constitutional court 740
and de‐democratization 450
and economic voting 814, 818, 917
and judicial powers 739
and political parties 589
and removal of prime minister 925
Japan, and clientelism 595
Jordan, and Islamist movement 452
judicial review 727
judiciary 17
and constitutional courts 730
anti‐authoritarian backlash 739–41
judicial politics 743
non‐authoritarian cases 742–3
and cross‐national variations 728
and impact of political fragmentation/coherence:
Argentina 737
Mexico 737
parliamentary systems 738–9
Philippines 737–8
presidential systems 737–8
United Kingdom 738–9
(p. 986)
United States 735–7
and judicial independence 728–9, 747
arguments against 732
constitutional review 731
definition of 729
impact of appointment power 734
impact of elections 746, 747
impact of legislative actions 734–5, 744–5
impact of political fragmentation 733–4
measurement of 744, 747
mistakes 745, 746
nationalization 746
normative theory 731–2
overturning government actions 744–5
political independence 733–5
statutory review 730
strategic anticipation 744–5, 747
and judicial review:
constitutional review 730, 731, 747
judicialization of politics 728
justification of 731–2
legislative override 730
opposition to 728
politicization of judiciary 728
statutory review 729–30
and political manipulation of 728
justice, and Rawls' theory of 242, 245–6
Kashmir, and civil war 429
Kenya:
and coffee production 177–8
changes in farmers' behavior 178–80
small‐N methods 178–80
and Mau Mau rebellion 438, 439
and nation‐building 229
Keynesianism 879
Kurds 425
Kyrgyzstan 231
and economic transformation 961
labor legislation, and path dependence 79
large‐N studies 4, 5–6
Latin America:
and clientelism 587, 617–18
and coffee production 180–1, 182
and decentralization 766
and democratization 585
and economic reform 947
and electoral volatility 587, 588
and indigenous mobilization 130–1
and labor market developments 870
and labor‐based parties 874–5
and nationalism 267
and party systems 544, 545
and retrospective voting 588
and social spending 872
and trust networks 351
and welfare state 869, 875
pension and health care policy 880–1
Latinobarometer 302
Latvia, and economic transformation 942
League of Communists in Yugoslavia 375–6
Lebanon, and civil war 429
left‐right scale, and preference aggregation 663, 665–6, 672
legitimacy:
and authority 247
and compliance 247, 248, 251
and conceptual background 238–9
and consent 242, 247, 248, 249, 253
and consequentialist legitimacy 245–7
costs of regime change 246
erroneous objections to 246–7
mutual advantage 245–6
self‐interest 246
and contractarian legitimacy 241–5
altered meaning of contract 242
coercion 241–2
consent 242–3, 244
contractualism 242
convention 243
hierarchy 243–4
positive law theory 243
and domination 248–50, 251
and emotiveness 253
and fallacy of composition 248
and grounds of 237, 252–3
and lack of normative definition 239
and mass beliefs 300
and morality 252, 253
and popular belief 248–9, 250–1
and power 247–50
as psychological assertion 236
and social contract 238, 241–2
and state formation 8–9, 212, 213
modern era 227–9
as system‐level concept 237
and theocratic legitimacy 239–41
and time 251–2
Leninism 451
lexical voting 538
liberalism:
and belief systems 299
and civic culture 353
liberalization:
and democratization 327–8
and emerging democracies 596–7 see also economic transformation
Liberia:
and civil war 429
and insurgency 425–6
liberty aspirations, and life satisfaction 306
life satisfaction, and liberty aspirations 306
(p. 987) lifestyle issues, and postmaterial values 563–4
local assemblies, and state formation 222
logical quantitative models 688
Luxembourg, and judicial powers 739
Mafia 351–2
majoritarian systems:
and competitiveness of elections 533
and ideological convergence 562
and party systems 518
and preference aggregation 667–71
Malawi, and Chewa/Tumbuka relations 132–3
Malaya, and civil war 429
Malaysia 585
and clientelism 587
and ethnic conflict 280
and riots 279
and Scott's Weapons of the Weak 127–9
mandate representation, and presidential systems 719–20
market reform, see economic transformation
markets, and rationality 195
Marxism:
and nationalism 263
and state formation 216
mass beliefs:
and aggregate level 297–8, 302–3
democratization 306–11
emancipative orientations 305–6, 307–11
linkage with democracy 306
and congruence theory 298
and cross‐national surveys 301–2
and democracy 297–8, 302, 313
and democratization 9–10, 306–11
emancipative orientations 307–11
and ecological fallacy 304–5
and emancipative orientations 305–6, 307
and individual level 297
and individualistic fallacy 303–4
and institutions 311–13
and personality types:
authoritarian personality 299
democratic personality 299
and psychological theory of democratic development 299–301
existential pressures 300
legitimacy 300
modernization 300–1
and system relevance of 298
Mau Mau rebellion 438, 439
Mauritius 585
May Day 442
media:
and economic transformation 946
and incomplete information 906
and political partisanship 588
and political party strategies 14–15
median voter theorem 534, 535–6, 561
mercantilism, and state formation 221
and modern era 225
methodological individualism 21
methodology and theory 3–4
and changes in 4
and context matters 30
challenges of 30–1
empirical evaluation 68–70
meaning of 45
and context‐conditionality 30
culture 45–6
institutions 45, 46, 47–9
modeling of 50–2, 55–60
non‐linear regression 53–5
options for dealing with 52–3
policy making 50
political economy 49–50
principal‐agent relations 49, 52–3
statistical analysis 46–7, 55
and developments in 28–31
and empirical evaluation 29
challenges facing 30–1, 69–70
quality/quantity information trade‐off 31–6
requirements for 68–9
and endogeneity 6, 30, 61–7
causal directions 61
democracy/development 61–3
modeling of 63–7
statistical analysis 61–3
and limitations of social‐structural explanations 29
and logical quantitative models 688
and methodological individualism 21
and models 22
and multicausality 30, 36–45
Achen's ‘rule of three’ 37, 44
covariation 37–41
democratization 36–7
include‐variable bias 37, 43–4
omitted variable bias 37, 41–3
and political behavior revolution 28–9
and political culture revolution 28–9
and political sociology revolution 28
and qualitative analysis 35, 69
and rationalist assumptions 7
and regression analysis 67
and role of institutions 29
and scientific practices 22
and statistical analysis 29
and theory‐building 21–2
and towards positive social science 28–9
(p. 988) Mexico:
and clientelism 587, 591, 594, 607, 616, 618
decline in 621
and court appointments 734
and indigenous mobilization 130–1
and judicial powers 737
and Mexican Revolution 399, 405
and party system 545
middle class:
and democratization 321
and revolution 410, 412
Middle East, and state formation 225–6, 228
military developments, and state formation 214–16
and regime type 220–1
military intervention, and global protest movements 467
minimum winning coalitions 590
and coalition formation 786–7, 794–5
mobilization:
and contentious politics 447
and ethnicity 282–3
and globalization 13
modernization:
and democratization 300–1, 318, 321
and revolution 399–401, 403–4
and revolutions 12
and social movements 12
and welfare state development 869 see also state modernization
modular performances, and contentious politics 441
Moldova, and economic transformation 961
monetary policy 562
and electoral cycles 849
Mongolia 585
and economic transformation 941
Montegrano 346
morality, and legitimacy 252, 253
Mozambique:
and civil war 424, 429
and Renamo 137
multicausality 30, 36–45
and Achen's ‘rule of three’ 37, 44
and covariation 37–41
and democratization 36–7
and include‐variable bias 37, 43–4
and omitted variable bias 37, 41–3
Multilateral Economic Institutions (MEIs) 466, 471
and global protest movements 472–4
multi‐level governance, and democracy 348–9, 350
multinational corporations (MNCs) 470
multiple party systems, and economic voting 834–8
mutual advantage, and legitimacy 245–6
Namibia 585
and party system 587
national identity 9
and ambition/envy 260
and centrality of 271
and democratization 271–2
and egalitarian nature of 258, 259
and future research on 271–2
and historical explanations of 262–7
capitalism 263
constructivism 264, 285
(p. 989)
English origin of 266
imagined community 264
individual consciousness 265–6
modernist 263
perennialism 262–3
primordialism 262
print capitalism 264, 286
state formation 263–4
status inconsistency 265–7
structuralism 263–5
and identity choice 290–1
and individual identity 256
culture 257
multiple layers of 257
order 256–7
types of 257
and national image of the world 258
and nationalism 259
social mobility 259–60
and political discontent 260
and popular sovereignty 258
and religious identity 257–8
and state formation 227
in modern era 228
and state‐centered politics 260–1
and typologies of nationalism 268–71
civic 270
collectivism/individualism 269
collectivistic 270
cultural 269
eastern/western dichotomy 268–9
ethnic 270–1
individualistic‐ethnic 269–70
membership criteria 269
political 269
political implications of 270–1 see also nationalism
National Resistance Army (Uganda) 137
nationalism 9
and anomie 260
and democratization 271–2
and ethnicity 277–8
and future research on 271–2
and historical explanations of 262–7
capitalism 263
constructivism 264, 285
English origin of 266
imagined community 264
individual consciousness 265–6
modernist 263
perennialism 262–3
primordialism 262
print capitalism 264, 286
state formation 263–4
status inconsistency 265–7
structuralism 263–5
and industrialization 275–6
and national identity 259
and social mobility 259–60, 266–7
and state‐centered politics 260–1
and typologies of 268–71
civic 270
collectivism/individualism 269
collectivistic 270
cultural 269
eastern/western dichotomy 268–9
ethnic 270–1
individualistic‐ethnic 269–70
membership criteria 269
political 269
political implications of 270–1 see also national identity
nationality, and ethnicity 277
nationalization, and judicial independence 746
natural law, and legitimacy 240
natural resources:
and civil wars 420–1
and regime type 317, 318, 323, 328, 336
and state formation 226
neo‐institutionalism, and state formation 216–17, 220, 222
neoliberal institutional trilemma, and global protest movements 475–8
Nepal 585
Netherlands:
and clientelism 617
and economic voting 818, 836, 837
and judicial powers 739
and party system 502, 515
and revolution 402
networks 11
and clientelism 612–13
and collective action 194
and global protest movements 481, 486–7
and social capital 355, 636
and social movements 445
and trust networks 351–2
new democracies, see emerging democracies
New Europe Barometer 302
new institutionalism 174
New World Order 467, 468
New Zealand, and economic voting 818
Nicaragua, and civil war 425
Nigeria:
and clientelism 608
and ethnic conflict 280
and riots 279
non‐governmental organizations (NGOs) 638
and global protest movements 470
non‐state actors, and global protest movements 470–1
non‐violence 451
norms:
and clientelism 608–9
and human behavior 196–7
and social capital 636
Northern Ireland, and Protestant/Catholic cleavage 287
Norway:
and coalition formation 789
and economic voting 813, 814–15
Nuclear Weapons Freeze Clearinghouse (NWFC) 439
observational studies 6, 153
and definition of observation 95
oil, and regime type 317, 318, 323, 328, 336
ontology 109
opportunity structure, see political opportunity structure
optimal sequence matching 91
order, and identity 256–7
Papua New Guinea 525
paranoia, and dictatorship 366
parliamentary systems:
and accountability 720–1
and cabinets:
appointment strategies 710–12
coalition dynamics 709–10
purposes of 709
and coalition bargaining 783
and court appointments 734
and cross‐branch conflict 714–15
and cross‐branch coordination 706
and deadlock 706–7
and executive/legislative conflict 706–8
and government decisiveness/resoluteness 706–8
and government formation 671
and judicial powers 738–9
and party cohesion 783
and policy proposal content 708
and representation 719–20
and separation of powers 704, 705
and state formation 229–30 see also prime ministers, and removal of
partial equilibrium analysis, and federalism 773
participant observation 124, 130
(p. 990) participation 15–16, 628–9
and cause‐oriented activism 639–41
characteristics of 640–1
postmaterial values 641
targets of 641
and citizen‐oriented actions 638–9
and definition of 639
and democracy:
participative democracy 630–1
Schumpeterian perspective 630
and future research agenda 642–4
alternative forms of participation 643–4
consequences of participation 644
context of action 642
cross‐national comparisons 643
cultural attitudes 642
institutional factors 643
mobilization 643
structural resources 642
and globalization 641
and importance of 630–1
and political parties 634–5
membership decline 635
and rational choice theory 630
and social capital 16, 636–7
and social movements 637–8
and social psychological model of 629–30
and trust 16
and turnout, institutional context of 631–4
electoral reform 634
European Union 632
individual‐level behavior 633
policy significance of 633–4
United States 632–3
and voluntary associations 636, 637
participative democracy 630–1
partisan cycles 849 see also political budget cycles
party identification 526
and associational life 588
and clientelism 590–1
and decline in 14–15, 542, 567, 575, 634–5
and emerging democracies 585–8
voter mobilization strategies 589–91
and personalism 590–1 see also party systems; political parties
party systems 14, 501
and changes in 576–8
and cleavages 530–1, 532, 542
and competitive dimensions 531
restriction of 532–3
and competitiveness of 533–5, 546
agent‐based modeling of 538–9
complex spatial theory 536–8
conditions affecting 533–4
directional voting 538
entry of new parties 539–40
lexical voting 538
measurements of 534–5
median voter theorem 535–6
non‐policy partisan preferences 536–7
policy‐motivated candidates 537
preference heterogeneity 537
simple spatial theory 535–6
strategic voting 537–8
theories of 535
valence model of 537
and concept of 523–5
analytical approaches 523–4
assumptions about constituent entities 525
assumptions about individual actors 524
electoral market 524
systemic features 523
and democratic accountability 526–7
clientelistic exchange 527
policy exchange 526–7
and development of 13–14
and electoral systems 506, 510–11, 518–20, 678, 679, 698
majoritarian 518
proportional representation 518–19
response to socialist parties 519–20
stability of 519
and emerging democracies 583
and federalism 767–8, 772
and fractionalization 530
and historical account of 511, 540
economic policy 513
entry of socialist parties 517–18
expansion of electorate 512
growth of the state 512
initial conditions 511
party formation in western Europe 540–1
religion 513–14, 515–17
sequence of mobilization 514–18
space of electoral competition 512–14
third parties 515–16
two initial parties 514–15
and impact of European integration 543
and institutional explanations of 505–6
accounting for change 507
electoral rules 506
limitations of 506–7
mobilization targets 505–6
national institutions 506
and lack of attention to 522
and new democracies of developing world 544–5
and new parties 510, 539–40, 542–3, 564–6
and partisan divides 531–2, 542
and positional competition 527–9
and social divides 531
and sociological accounts of 501–2
elite alliances 502, 505
(p. 991)
limitations of 502–5
radical critique of 503
social interests 502
voter preferences 503–4
and theory of party emergence 507–11
electoral rules 510–11
historical description 508
incentive structure 507–8, 509
new party emergence 510
persistence of party labels 510
politicians' behavior 509
temporal structure of elections 508–9
voter choice 509
voter expectations 509–10
voter preferences 509
and transformation in post‐industrial democracies 542–3
and typologies of 530
and valence competition 527–9
and varieties of 525–6
and volatility of 530, 542
developing countries 544 see also party identification; political parties
passive resistance 640
path dependence:
and causal analysis 168
and political phenomena 14
and temporal analysis 78–81
critical junctures 79–80
industrial revolution 78–9, 80
institutional layering 80–1
labor legislation 79
reactive sequences 80
self‐reproducing sequences 80
patrimonialism 904
patronage, see clientelism
pension policy 880–1
perennialism, and nationalism 262–3
performances, and contentious performances 441
personality types 299
personalization of politics 14–15
and clientelism 619
and emerging democracies 587
and party identification 590–1
and personalistic regimes 334–5
Peru:
and class relations 130
and clientelism 616, 622
opposition to 621
and indigenous mobilization 130–1
and Sendero Luminoso 137
and welfare state 881
petitions, and participation 639, 640
Philippines:
and clientelism 587, 608, 902
and democratization 585
and Estrada's removal from office 435–6
and judicial powers 737–8
pluralism 211
pogroms 279
Poland:
and constitutional court 740
and economic transformation 942, 944, 949
and national identity 960
and programmatic parties 595
polarization, and contentious politics 447–8
policy advocacy networks 638
policy feedback, and welfare state development 880–1
policy making, and context‐conditionality 50
policy representation 657–62
and party anticipation of voter preferences 661
and reduction of alternatives 662
and strength of 661
and voter/representative differences 661 see also preference aggregation
Political Action study 301
political budget cycles 19, 918
and accountability 846
and agency 846
and context conditionality 846
and definition of 845–6
and desirability/feasibility of 847–8, 862
and evidence of 851
and incumbent's ability to manipulate 852–4, 862–3
control over policy 852–3
divided government 853, 860
fiscal rules 854, 862, 863–4
impact of media 854, 861–2
information asymmetry 853–4, 861, 863
and incumbent's incentives 851–2, 862
approval levels 859–60
election competitiveness 852
impact of political parties 852
impact of term limits 851–2, 860
and issues and arguments:
agency models 850–1
competence 850, 851
information asymmetry 849–50
outcomes 848
persistence of cycle 850–1
policy instruments 848–9
rational expectations 850
and methodology of study:
approval variable 856
balanced budget laws variable 857
control variables 857
data 854–5
divided government variable 856
estimation issues 857–9
fiscal transparency variable 856–7
media penetration variable 857
term limits variable 856
(p. 992)
and monitoring of politicians 864
and public spending 847, 849
and representation 846
political business cycles 845, 917 see also political budget cycles
political culture:
and concept of 11:
challenges facing 344
difficulties with 343
expansion of 343
uses of 342–3
and critical citizens 346–7
and definition of 342
and democracy 345
support for 346–7
and human motivation 313
and individualistic fallacy 303–4
and mass beliefs 297
aggregate effects 297–8, 302–3
allegiance model 302
cross‐national surveys 301–2
individual level 297
and research on 344–7
problems faced in 345–7
political economy, and context‐conditionality 49–50
political exchange, and dictatorships 366–7, 376–7, 389–90
political markets:
and imperfections in 887, 899–900, 905
incomplete information 906
and low credibility 900
citizen coordination on voting rules 901–2
endogenous credibility 902–3
inability to influence 900–1
political opportunity structure:
and regime characteristics 440
and Synthetic Political Opportunity Theory (SPOT) 462
political parties 14
and campaigns 568, 635
and centralization of 568
and clientelism 621–2
and coalitions 783
and competition between 501
and dealignment of 559, 560, 574–5
and decline of mass party 559–60, 566–9, 635
impact on vote share 573
and determinants of number of 694–5
and development of 13–14, 500
and electoral support 501
and electoral systems 698
duration of cabinets 687, 690–1
Duverger's law 678, 681–2
Duvergian agenda 682–3
impact of assembly size 684
impact of district magnitude 695
impact of number of seats 683–4
intra‐party politics 697
logical quantitative models 688
preferential‐list proportional representation 696–7
seat numbers and vote shares 692
seat share of largest party 685, 689
seat share of other parties 686, 689–90
two‐tier proportional representation 695–6
vote shares and seat numbers 691–2
and emerging democracies 583–4, 598–600
clientelism 593–5
economic liberalization 596–7
party competition 595–7
role of institutions 592–3
role of structures 593–5
voter mobilization strategies 589–91
weakness of party identification 585–8
and functions of 499–500, 634–5
and goals of 501
and ideology:
convergence 562
traditional cleavages 561–2
and left‐right scale 663
and life‐cycle model of 576
and membership decline 558, 567, 635
and mobilization of voters 582
and new parties 510, 539–40, 542–3, 564–6, 575
entry trends 565–6
government stability 577–8
impact of 575–6
impact on vote share 570–1, 572–3
left‐libertarian 564
New Radical Right 564–5
regionalist parties 565
and organizational changes in 559–60, 566–9
and party identification, decline in 14–15, 542, 567, 575, 634–5
and party systems change 576–8
and political strategies 14
and preference aggregation 659–60
and prominence of 555
and realignment of 559, 573–4, 575
and representation 582
and role of 575
legislative 556
organizational 556
structuring voter preferences 555–6
and strategies of 582–3
emerging democracies 589–91
and turnout 568–9
and variations in:
external attributes 501
internal attributes 500–1
(p. 993)
and vote share:
decline for established parties 556–7, 569–75
volatility of 558
and voters 15
change in capabilities 559–60, 567–8, 575
changes in policy preferences 559, 561–6, 575
changing relationship between 559
frozen cleavage hypothesis 556
future of relationship 559
instability of relationship 558
median voter theorem 561
relationship with 556 see also party systems
political process tradition, and contentious politics 440, 444–5
Polity IV data project 114
polyarchies 656
popular belief, and legitimacy 248–9, 250–1
popular movements, and revolution 399
popular sovereignty, and national identity 258
population, and revolution 401–3
pork barrel politics 605
Portugal 584
and constitutional court 740
and ideological voting 920
and judicial powers 739
positional competition, and party systems 527–9
positive law theory, and legitimacy 243
post‐industrial democracies, and party system 542–3
postmaterial values 559, 563–4, 575
and cause‐oriented activism 641
postmodern values:
and global protest movements 468–9
and postmodern ideals framing 469–70
poverty:
and civil wars 419
and clientelism 606, 617–19
power:
and legitimacy 247–50
and transfer of 388
power resource theory, and welfare state 872–5
preference aggregation 16, 672–3
and accountability 672
and democracy 653–4
and difficulties with 654–5
and electoral competition 657–8, 672–3
cross‐national studies 659–61
party anticipation of voter preferences 661
reduction of alternatives 662
single‐country studies 659
strength of issue representation 661
United States 659
voter/representative differences 661
and impossibility theorem 655
and issue congruence 672
multiple issues 657–62
single dimensional 662–6
and meaning of 653
and policy representation 657–62
and referendums 657
and representative democracy:
conditions for 655–7
criteria 656
democratization research 656–7
identifying democracies 656
institutional requirements 656
polyarchies 656
process definitions 656–7
and responsible party government 659–60
and single dimensional issue congruence 662–6
electoral systems 663–4
left‐right scale 663, 665–6
median voter 663–4
party distance from median voter 664–5
and social choice analysis 654–5
and vote correspondence 666–71
bias effects 668
choice of policy makers 671
different meanings of votes 670
electoral systems 667–8
geographical distribution of votes 667–8
misrepresentation 669
number of parties 668–9
proportionality 670–1
responsiveness to changes 670
vote as revelation of preferences 669–70
vote‐seat aggregation 667 see also preferences
preferences:
and party competition 527–9
and party systems 13
and public policy 16
and voter preferences 503, 509
changes in 559, 561–6, 575
median voter theorem 535–6, 561
non‐policy partisan preferences 536–7 see also preference aggregation
presidential systems 17
and accountability 720–1
and cabinets:
appointment strategies 710–12, 786
bureaucratic oversight 713–14
coalition dynamics 709–10
consequences of appointment strategies 712–13
lack of attention to 709
policy effectiveness 714
and cross‐branch conflict 714–15
and cross‐branch coordination 706
and deadlock 706–7
and democratic breakdown 714
and electoral candidates 506
and executive/legislative conflict 706–8
(p. 994)
and government decisiveness/resoluteness 706–8
and judicial powers 737–8
United States 735–7
and policy proposal content 708
and regime crises:
allegiance of largest party 715
consequences of 718–19
effective number of legislative parties 715–16
factors affecting 716–17
frequency of 717–18
infrequency of collapse 717
lack of majority legislative support 717
legislative fragmentation 715
and representation 719–20
and separation of powers 704, 705
and state formation 229–30
primary sources, and historical enquiry 85–6
prime ministers, and removal of 20, 911, 934–5
and Adolfo Suárez 924
and anticipation of voters 925
and Bettino Craxi 925
and causes of losing power 930–1
and impact of economic conditions 925–7
and Margaret Thatcher 923–4
and outcomes for replacements 933
and Pierre Mendès‐France 925
and risk of losing power 928–30, 931–3
and role of political ambition 925–7
and Will Brandt 924
primordialism:
and ethnic conflict 280–1
and nationalism 262
principal‐agent relations, and context‐conditionality 49, 52–3
print capitalism, and nationalism 264, 286
prisoner's dilemma 175, 194, 198–9
process tracing:
and endogeneity 66
and historical enquiry 76–7
producer groups, and dictatorship 388–9
production function, and collective action 191–3
programmatic redistributive politics 605
Pro‐Life coalition 448
property rights:
and checks and balances 894
and human rights 389
proportional representation 667
and choice of policy makers 671
and electoral candidates 506
and gender representation 697
and number of parties:
preferential‐list system 696–7
two‐tier system 695–6
and party systems 518–19
and personal votes 697
and preference aggregation 670–1
prospective voting 911, 917
and ideology 920, 922–3
Protestantism:
and capitalism 346
and legitimacy 240–1
and party systems 502, 515
Prussia, and state formation 220–1
psychology, and theory of democratic development 299–301
and existential pressures 300
and legitimacy 300
and modernization 300–1
public choice theory, and federalism 762–3
public goods:
and economic policy choice 891–3
and elections 912–13
public policy, and voter preferences 16
public sector, and economic openness 870–2
public spending, and political budget cycles 847, 849
Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) 91
Quebec, and civic Catholicism 351
radical right 543, 564–5
rage, and ethnic conflict 281
rational choice institutionalism 753
rational choice theory:
and case studies 92
and dictatorship 363
and explanatory power of 195
and participation 630
and social capital 354
rational expectations:
and economic voting 827
and political budget cycles 850
rationality:
and game theory 176
and global protest movements 483
reactive sequences, and path dependence 80
realism, and ethnic conflict 276
recession, and revolutions 324
reciprocity:
and clientelism 608–10
and human behavior 197–8, 200–1
Red Brigades 453
redistribution:
and democracy 322, 324, 325, 385, 887
and dictatorship 367, 390
and economic policy choice 890–1
and federalism 770–1
and poor democracies 905
and programmatic redistributive politics 605
and regime type 387
referendums, and preference aggregation 657
Reformation 240
(p. 995) regime type:
and economic development/performance 20, 111, 222, 887
causal analysis 158–9, 164–8
stationary bandit 380–5
and economic policy choice:
government size 890–1
impact of governance variables 893
public goods 891–3
redistribution 890–1
regulatory environment 889–90
Washington Consensus 888–9
and economic transformation 945–7
and income inequality 325
and oil wealth 317, 318, 323, 328, 336
and state formation 213, 220–2
absolutism 220–1
administrative structures 222
authoritarianism 221–2
constitutionalism 222
economic factors 221
geopolitical competition 222
impact of timing of 221–2
regional integration 771
regulation, and economic policy choice 889–90
relativism, and global protest movements 469
religion, and party systems 502, 513–14, 515–17
religious identity 257–8
Renamo (Mozambique) 137, 424
rentier economies:
and dictatorships 318
and state formation 226
repertoires:
and contentious repertoires 441–2
and social movements 443
representation 16
and accountability 910
and political parties 582
and presidential systems 719–20
representative democracy 499
and coalitions 782–3
and preference aggregation 655–7
repression:
and dictatorships 365–6, 390
genocide 377–8
impact on dissidence 374
loyalty reduction 374–5
loyalty/repression equilibrium 367–70
optimal levels 378
revolution 373–4
and state modernization 409
reputation:
and human behavior 200–1
research:
and comprehension/understanding 172–3
apprehension 173–4
conviction 177
explanation 174–7
game theory 175–7
and immersion in subject 173–4
resentment, and ethnic conflict 281
retrospective voting 934
and accountability 910–11
adverse selection problems 920–1
clarity of responsibility 919
ideology 920, 922–3
information requirements 918–19
limits of 918–23
modeling politicians' strategies 921–2
promise breaking 922
threshold for re‐election 918
and control of politicians 912–16
imperfect information conditions 913
modeling of 913–16
perfect information conditions 913
provision of public goods 912–13
and economic voting 808–9, 916–17
and emerging democracies 588
and evidence of 916–18
and political budget cycles 848
revolutions 12
and class struggle 399, 400
and complexity of theories of 398
and definition of 398–9
and democratization 324, 327
and demographic explanation of 401–3
and fascination of 397–8
and modernization 399–401, 403–4
and outcomes of 410–12
aims of revolutionaries 411–12
class basis of revolution 410–11
effect of economic structures 412
and popular movements 399
and recession 324
and repression 373–4
and state breakdown 401–3
and state modernization 400–1, 403–8, 412–13
Chinese Revolution 406
Cuban Revolution 407
definition of 404
French Revolution 404
Glorious Revolution 405
ideological impact 407–8
Iranian Revolution 406–7
Mexican Revolution 405
motives for 408
non‐revolutionary outcomes of 408–9
Russian Revolution 405
sociostructural impact 407
Turkish Revolution 405–6
and state weakness 377
(p. 996) right‐wing parties 543, 564–5
riots 279
Romania:
and economic transformation 942
and state formation 228
Ruckus Society 483
rule of law 727
rules, and social capital 355
rural areas, and civil wars 422–6
Russell Sage Foundation Series on Trust 352
Russia:
and constitutional court 741
and court appointments 734
and economic transformation 230, 942, 944
institutional reforms 954–5
obstacles to 949
and federalism 766
and insurgency 425
and retrospective voting 588
and state formation 221–2
Russian Revolution 405
Rwanda 377–8
and clientelism 608
sample, and definition of 96
sanctions 329, 388
Scandinavia:
and judicial powers 739
and party system 502
and revolution 402–3
and welfare state 873
Seattle, Battle of (1999) 461–2, 464, 471, 477, 483, 486
secondary sources, and historical enquiry 82–4
self‐actualization, and belief systems 299
self‐governance, and democracy 348–9
self‐interest:
and clientelism 609–10
and mutual advantage 246
self‐representation, and social movements 443–4
semi‐presidential systems:
and accountability 721
and cabinets 711
and separation of powers 704, 705
Sendero Luminoso (Peru) 137
Senegal 585
and clientelism 587, 608
and party system 587
separation of powers 17, 722
and accountability 720–1
and cabinets 709–14
appointment strategies 710–12
bureaucratic oversight 713–14
coalition dynamics 709–10
consequences of appointment strategies 712–13
lack of attention to 709
policy effectiveness 714
purposes of 709
and constitutionally guaranteed executive authority 705
and control of cabinet 705
and cross‐branch coordination 706
and deadlock 706–7
and executive/legislative conflict 706–8
and government decisiveness/resoluteness 706–8
and impact of 704
and parliamentary systems 704, 705
and policy proposal content 708
and presidential systems 704, 705, 846–7
and regime crises 714–19
allegiance of largest party 715
consequences of 718–19
cross‐branch conflict 714–15
democratic breakdown 714
effective number of legislative parties 715–16
factors affecting 716–17
frequency of 717–18
infrequency of collapse 717
lack of majority legislative support 717
legislative fragmentation 715
and representation 719–20
and scholarly interest in 703–4
and semi‐presidential systems 704, 705
and separation of origin 705
and separation of survival 705
and tyranny 706
and versions of 704–5
differences between 705
Sicily 248
and trust networks 351–2
Sierra Leone, and civil war 428, 429
Singapore 585
and clientelism 605
Slovak Republic:
and economic transformation 942, 961
and programmatic parties 595
social capital 11, 341
and civic culture 341, 353–6
and concept of:
contradictory approaches to 355–6
debates over 354–5
widespread application of 354, 355
and definition of 354, 636
multiple forms of 355
and distribution of 764
and durability of 356
and generation of 356
and impact on government performance 356
and networks 355, 636
and norms 636
and participation 16, 636–7
and rules 355
(p. 997)
and trust 355
social choice theory 16
and preference aggregation 654–5, 672–3
social contract:
and legitimacy 238, 241–2
altered meaning of contract 242
coercion 241–2
social democratic parties, and welfare state development 873–4
social dilemmas, and collective action 186
social intelligence 173
social mobility:
and ambition/envy 260
and nationalism 259–60, 266–7
and political discontent 260
social movements 12–13
and action strategies of 640
and associational repertoires 443
and campaigns 442–3
and contentious politics, differences between 437–8
and co‐optation 443
and de‐democratization 450
and definition of 442
and democratization 448–50
and global civil society 638
and global diffusion of 450–1
and globalization 455–7
and institutions 450
and Latin America 130–1
and mechanisms of 446–7
brokerage 446
dispositional mechanisms 446
environmental mechanisms 446
relational mechanisms 446
and the movement society 453–4
and movement/institution merging 453–4
and networks 445
as northern phenomenon 450
and organization of 443
and outcomes of 454–5
and participation 637–8
and political process tradition 444–5
and political violence 452–3
and processes of 447–8
coalition formation 447
mobilization 447
polarization 447–8
political identity formation 447
and public self‐representation 443–4
and social movement bases 443
social psychology, and participation 629–31
social revolution, and case study approach 111–12
social transformation, and global protest movements 489
socialist parties:
and evolution of party system 517–18
and impact on electoral system 519–20
sociological institutionalism, and state formation 220
Somalia, and civil war 429
South Africa:
and constitutional court 741
and court appointments 734
and judicial powers 739
and party system 587
South Korea:
and constitutional court 741
and democratization 385, 585
and electoral volatility 587
and judicial powers 739
and political parties 588
and social policy 870
and state formation 225–6
and welfare state 869, 875
distributional conflicts 876
Soviet Union:
and central planning 364
and collapse of 223–4, 230 see also Russia
Spain 585
and constitutional court 740
and de‐democratization 450
and economic voting 818, 917
and ideological voting 920
and judicial powers 739
and nationalism 267
and party identification 589
and party system 598
and removal of prime minister 924
and revolution 403
and voting system 620
Spanish Civil War 428
Spanish Succession, War of the 403
Sri Lanka 585
and riots 279
state, the 8–9
and authority 212
and definition of 211, 260–1
and economic transformation 951–3
governance quality 952–3
social spending levels 952
taxation capacity 951
and expanded role of 212
and features of 211–12
and globalization 456–7
and government capacity 212
and impersonality of 261
and nationalism 260, 263–4
and territorial definition 212
(p. 998)
and war 211 see also national identity; state formation state breakdown, and demographic explanation of 401–3
state capacity:
and civil wars 421–2, 423–4
and economic transformation 951
and state formation 212, 224
state formation 8
and causal dynamics of:
economic changes 216–17
ideology 217–18
and centrality of Europe 213
and diversity of forms 218–19
agent choice 220
selection mechanisms 219–20
and government capacity 212, 213
modern era 224
and legitimacy 212, 213
in modern era:
decolonization 223, 224
economic environment 225–7
expansion of 223
government capacity 224
legacies of empire 229–31
legitimacy 227–9
local affinities 228
national elites 228–9
parliamentary vs presidential systems 229–30
security environment 223–5
strategies for 229
territorial disintegration 230
trans‐territorial affinities 228
weak/failed states 224–5
and national identity 227
and party systems 502
and post‐war growth of 223
and regime type 213, 220–2
absolutism 220–1
administrative structures 222
authoritarianism 221–2
constitutionalism 222
economic factors 221
geopolitical competition 222
impact of timing 221–2
impact of war 220–1
and revival of interest in 211
and territorial definition 212, 213, 218, 227
state modernization:
and definition of 404
and ideological impact 407–8
and motives for 408
and non‐revolutionary outcomes of 408–9
and repression 409
and revolution 400–1, 403–8, 412–13
Chinese Revolution 406
Cuban Revolution 407
French Revolution 404
Glorious Revolution 405
Iranian Revolution 406–7
Mexican Revolution 405
Russian Revolution 405
Turkish Revolution 405–6
and sociostructural impact 407
stationary bandit 380–5
strategic voting 537–8
and economic voting 834–8
structuralism, and nationalism 263–5
Sudan, and civil war 426–7
Sweden:
and coalition formation 789
and economic voting 813
and party system 515
and revolution 402–3
and welfare state 875
Switzerland:
and judicial powers 739
and party system 502, 515
and referendums 657
Synthetic Political Opportunity Theory (SPOT) 462
and global protest movements 479–80
focal points 480–1
mobilizing organizations 481
political opportunities 480–1
pre‐existing organizations 481
strategic/cultural frames 481–2
Syria, and state formation 225–6
systemic theory 523
Taiwan:
and clientelism 613
and democratization 385, 585
and electoral volatility 587
and social policy 870
and state formation 225–6
and welfare state 869, 875
distributional conflicts 876
Tanzania, and nation‐building 229
taxation:
and democracies 382
and enriching rulers 322
and optimal levels of 381–2
and redistribution 322
television:
and civic disengagement 637
and global protest movements 471
temporal analysis 78
and conjunctural analysis 81–2
and duration analysis 81
and path dependence 78–81 (p. 999)
critical junctures 79–80
industrial revolution 78–9, 80
institutional layering 80–1
labor legislation 79
reactive sequences 80
self‐reproducing sequences 80
territoriality, and state formation 212, 213, 218, 227
and eastern Europe 230
and modern era 228
terrorism 423
Thailand 585
theocratic legitimacy 239–41
theory, and changes in approaches to 21
threat, and economic threat attribution 466–7
time, and legitimacy 251–2
trade:
and state formation 216
and welfare states 104
trade openness:
and economic voting 831–2
and welfare state 870–2
trade unions:
and economic reform 947
and emergence of socialist parties 518
and global justice protests 467
and welfare state 873, 874
transaction cost politics, and coalition formation 784–6
transparency, and political budget cycles 853–4, 861, 863
Transparency International 952
trust 11
and civic culture 350–2
and government 253
and human behavior 200–1
and institutions 352
and participation 16
and political culture 344–5
and social capital 355
and trust networks 351–2
Tumbuka 132–3, 590
Tunisia 228
Turkey 585
and Kurdish insurgency 425
and state formation 225–6
Turkish Revolution 405–6
Turkmenistan, and economic transformation 942
turnout:
and basis for cross‐national comparisons 632–3
and decline in 542, 558, 568–9
and impact on party vote share 572, 573
and institutional context 631–4
electoral reform 634
European Union 632
individual‐level behavior 633
policy significance of 633–4
United States 632–3
turnover, and cross‐case approach 112
typological theory, and historical enquiry 75–6
tyranny:
and dictatorship 364
and separation of powers 706
Uganda:
and coffee production 177–8