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date: 24 May 2018

(p. 759) Index

(p. 759) Index

accountability 20
and central banks 406–7
and civil society organizations 491
and collaborative governance 516–17
and delegated governance 233–4
and democracy 514–15
and experimentalist governance 173
dynamic accountability 174, 175
and global multi-level governance 736–7, 740–1
and governance 22, 491
impact of 303
and government preoccupation with 491
and the Internet 589
and legitimacy 85
and ministerial responsibility 258–9
and multi-level governance 637–8
and network governance 258
and New Public Management 261
and partnerships 258
and regulation 491
and risk 425 see also legitimacy
accounting, and regulation of 560, 564, 565
Action Aid 457
adaptation:
and complexity theory 137–8
and regulatory governance 67
administrative agencies, and administrative reform 194–5
Administrative Conference of the United States (ACUS) 558
administrative reform 187
and agentification 194–5, 202
and autonomy at lower levels 193–4
and budgetary reform 194
and compound reforms 263
and continuity in 262–3
and coordination 263–4
and decentralization 195
and deinstitutionalization 255
and deregulation 192
and governance consequence of 196–7, 198
and governance reform 187, 189–90
and governance research, objectives of 190
and hybrid administrative systems 255, 257, 263
and ideological basis for 61, 192
and institutional change 188
and institutional flexibility 187, 188, 190, 197, 198
and layering/sedimentation 255, 262–3
and leadership and control 191
as mixed order 256–7, 262, 263
and multi-dimensional orders 263
and neoliberalism 192
and network governance 192–3
and New Public Management 189, 191
and objectives of 190–2, 198
and openness vis-à-vis society 191–2
and partnerships 258
ministerial responsibility 258–9
and performance management 191
and policy-administration split 196, 198
and privatization 192
and public management reform 187, 189–90
objectives of 190
and public-private partnerships 193
and reform waves 262
and risk 418–19
and role of government 189, 191
and soft law 193
adversarial democracy 503
advocacy, and non-governmental organizations 326, 327–8
Africa, and Europeanization 666
African Union 665, 666
(p. 760) Afzal, K A 513, 523n5
Aga Khan Foundation 344
Agamben, Giorgio 718, 722
Agar, M 44
agencies, see regulatory agencies
agency:
and complexity theory 135–6
and cybernetic governance 124
and governance 28
agentification:
and administrative reform 194–5, 202
and New Public Management 230
and state structures 229, 230
agonistic democracy 469n2
agora, and global public policy 678–9
Agranoff, R 305–6
Akerlof, G A 357
Alam, Thomas 162
Albert, Michel 389
Alesina, A 147, 404
Allsop, J 530
alternative dispute resolution (ADR) 503–4
and environmental regulation 558
Amable, Bruno 389
American Chemistry Council, and Responsible Care 377, 561–2
American Forest and Paper Association (AFPA) 561
Amnesty International 330, 332, 683
Andean Community 665, 666
Anderson, H 285, 286
Andrews, M 60
Angeletos, G-M 147
Ansell, Chris 498
anthropology, and governance 88
anti-discrimination laws 544
anti-terrorism legislation 491
Argentina 332
Aristotle 149
ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations), and Europeanization 665–6
ASEAN-ISIS (Association of Southeast Asian Nations Institutes of Strategic and International Studies) 347, 348
Ashforth, A 351
Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), and Privacy Framework 607
associations:
and environmental regulation 561–2
and market governance 362–3
and self-regulation 377
asylum seekers726–7
Aucoin, P 196
audit society 750
Australia:
and environmental policy-making 251
and post-New Public Management reform 260, 261
and privacy governance 603
and private school governance 249–51
avoidable harm doctrine 74
Ayres, I 556
Bache, Ian 57, 634, 638
Bachtler, J 633
Baettig, M B 450
Bagehot, Walter 401, 411
Bank of England 401
and accountability 407
and independence of 374
and Monetary Policy Committee 407
banks, and regulation of 564–5 see also central banks; financial sector
Banting, K G 487
Barber, B 527, 531
Barclays 375
bargaining:
and decision-making 21
and distributive bargaining theory 643
delegation 644
emergence of informal institutions 645
institutional design of formal rules 645
and institutional change 643
and network governance 101
Barnett, E 527
Barreira, A 171
Barry, Brian 151
Bartolini, S 312, 315, 642
Basel Committee 560, 564
Baumgartner, F 382
Bayesian rationality, and instrumental learning 157–8
Becker, Gary 147
(p. 761) Beierle, T 506
Bekkers, V 302
Belgium, and privacy governance 605–6
beliefs:
and interpretive governance 39, 40
and updating of 159–61
Bell, S 277
and criticism of first wave theory 287
and hard vs soft policy instruments 244
and policy instrument mixes 249
and state capacity 285, 287
and state-centered governance 12
Bentley, Arthur 313
Benz, A 635
Berle, Adolf 392–3
Berman, Bruce 272
Bernal, J D 431
Bernanke, Ben 379
Berners-Lee, Tim 587
Bernhard, W 405–6
Bertelsmann Transformation Index 702
Best, S 577
Bevir, M 278
and governance 85, 485, 578
and governance as practices of governing 9
and interpretive governance 40
and participants in policy process 523n6
and path dependence of evolution of governance 58
and (re)construction of governance 55
and the state 10
Bhopal disaster 561
Bielefeld Project 115
Big Society 487, 493
Bigo, Didier 723
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 344, 709
Bingham, Blomgren 512–13
Blair, Tony 37, 379
blame fallacy 480
Blinder, A S 410
blogs 573
Blunkett, David 43
Bode, I 488
Bogumil, J 54–5
Bonelli, L 725
Bonjean, C M 56
Booher, D E 502–3
Börzel, T A 520, 635
and networks 523n4
and state-centered governance 12
Boswell, C 159
Bouckaert, G 205
bounded rationality 653n2
Bourdieu, Pierre 463
Bouwen, P 320
Boyer, William 50
BP oil spill (Gulf of Mexico, 2010)377, 380
Braithwaite, John 632
and Basel Committee 564
and regulation 288, 556
and regulatory state 69
Braun, D 634
Brazil 702
and participatory governance 465, 467, 533
British East India Company 30n1
British Standards Institution 563
Brody, S D 452
Brown, Gordon 379
Brown, J A 395
Brustz, L 633–4
Bryant, A 570
Buchholtz, A K 395
Budd, L 578
budget-making, and participatory governance 465–6
budgetary reform, and administrative reform 194
Bull, H 692, 693, 694
Buller, J 287, 289
bureaucracy, and persistence of 490
Burke, Edmund 516, 585, 596
Burns, J P 15n1
Bush, George H W 558
Bush, George W 379
Buthe, T 563, 565, 566
Butler, Judith 718, 722
butterfly effect 138
Cadbury, Sir Adrian 395
Calderon, C A 145
Calhoun, John C 313
Cambodia, and patronage 276
Campbell, J L 157
(p. 762) Canada:
and New Public Management 230
and post-New Public Management reform 260, 286
cap-and-trade 451
capacity-building, and participatory governance 460
capitalism, and globalization 674
Capra, F 136
Cardoso, F H 341
Carlyle, Thomas 585
Carroll, Lewis 33
case law, and market governance 364
Castells, M 585
Center for Earth Sciences (India) 466
Center for Interdisciplinary Research (Germany) 104
central banks 401, 411
and accountability 406–7
and independence of 374, 402
actual/formal distinction 402, 404
alternative views of effects of 405–6
compromised by global crisis 379
inflation 404–6
measurement of 403–4
orthodox view of effects of 404–5
time inconsistency problem 402–3
trends towards 403–4
types of 402
and inflation targeting 408
and interest rates 407–8
and internal governance of 409–10
decision-making 409
meeting agendas 410
transcript analysis 410
types of policy-makers 409–10
and origins of 401
and response to global crisis 379
and transparency 407–9
effects on economic forecasts 408–9
measurement of 408
Cerny, Phil 673, 676
and global public policy 679–80
and transnational pluralism 676
Chadwick, A 574–5
Chambers, R 463
Chambers, S 465
change:
and governance 7–8, 33
and paradigmatic change 156 see also institutional change
Chapman, R 638
charities 490
Chessie, K 534
Chhotray, V 284
child welfare, and experimentalist governance 173–4
China:
and governance 4, 15n1
and the Internet 593
choice, and health domain 531–2
Chong, A 145
Christie, P 726
citizen juries, and participatory governance 465, 467
citizens, and governmentality 724–7
citizenship:
and biocitizenship 535
and citizenship regime 488
and citizenship tests 726
and civil society organizations 487, 488–9
roles of 488
and contemporary conception of 485–6
as engagement 487
and geographies of 487–8
and governance 492–4
autonomous citizenship 493–4
challenges 494
regulatory citizenship 493
reinforcement 492–3
and government:
autonomous citizenship 493–4
regulatory citizenship 493
reinforcement 492–3
and inclusion/exclusion 487
and multilayered nature of 487
and social citizenship 486–7
privatization of decision-making about 490
and the state 488
and traditional view of 486
civil society:
and definition of 485
and governance 485
(p. 763) and government 488, 492
and regulation 490–1
and steering of social actors 355
civil-society centered governance 53
civil society organizations (CSOs) 485
and accountability 491
and citizenship 487, 488–9
and government:
autonomy 493–4
regulatory citizenship 493
reinforcement 492–3
and regulation 490–1
and role of 486
and roles of 488
and security state 491
and social innovation 492
Clarke, J 528, 530
Clean Air Act (USA,1970)558
climate change governance 441–2
and difficulties in mitigation efforts 445–6
contested economics of mitigation 447
free-rider problem 446–7
global public good problem 446–7
and goals and targets 442–3
and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 443–4, 447
and Kyoto Protocol 444–5
and national variation in mitigation efforts 448
effects of the natural system 450–1
effects of the political system 449–50
environmental Kuznets Curve 448–9
and research questions 441
and state capacity 286
and subnational governance 451–2
and UN Framework Convention on Climate Change 444–5 see also environmental policy-making; environmental regulation
Club di Roma 346
Cnaan, R A 56
co-production 315, 642
and risk 422–3, 425–6
coalitions, and fiscal governance 234
Coase, Ronald 393, 394
Codex Alimentarius 367
coevolution 138
Coglianese, C:
and regulation 288, 557
and regulatory negotiation 507
cognitive psychology, and instrumental learning 158
Cohen, Jean 72, 536
cohesion policy, and European Union629–30, 633–4
collaboration:
and innovation in public sector 219, 220–1, 222–3
and meaning of 499
and network governance 298–9
and participatory governance 527
and post-New Public Management reform 260–1, 264
collaborative governance 508–9
and advantages of 500, 522
and applications of 498
and assumptions of 502
and characteristics of 512–13
and collaborative management 499–500
and definition of 498–9, 512
and democratic deficits 515
absence/presence of elected officials 517
accountability 516–17
inclusiveness 515–16
representation 516
technocratic dominance 517
transparency 516–17
and democratic quality of
accountability 514–15
policy networks 513–14
and democratic reconstruction 498, 502–4
alternative to adversarial approaches 503
alternative to managerialism 503
democratic experimentalism 504
dispute resolution 503–4
partnerships 504
problem-solving 504
and disadvantages of 500, 522
and distinction from consultation 499
and evaluation of 507–8
achieving agreement 507
efficiency 507–8
social capital and knowledge benefits 508
stakeholder satisfaction 508
collaborative governance (cont.)
(p. 764) and factors affecting success of 505–7
commitment to process 505–6
incentives for collaboration 505–6
institutional design 506–7
leadership 506
representativeness 507
trust 506
and high-conflict situations 498
and institutional flexibility 187
and instrumental goal of 514
and legitimacy 518, 519
and network governance 500
and organization of 499
and participants in 499, 512–13
and quality of policy-making 518, 519
legitimacy of majority decisions 520–1
nature of deliberation 519–20
other-regardingness of 520–1
as response to social complexity 513
and sponsorship of 499
as strategy of last resort 505
and types of 500–2
collaborative planning 501, 502
exercise of voice 501–2
regulatory negotiation 501, 502, 507–8
watershed partnerships 501, 502
and wicked problems 504, 505
collaborative management 499–500
collaborative network organizations (CNOs) 593
collaborative planning 501, 502
collective action:
and governance 20
and regulatory governance 556–7
collective bargaining 541, 542, 545, 547, 549
Collins, H 420
colonialism, and limited statehood 704
command-and-control regulation 554, 557
and criticism of 376–7
and environmental regulation 557–8
and limitations of 68–9, 70, 71, 172, 243
and politicians’ motivations 557
and trend away from 540
command, and decision-making 9
Common Implementation Strategy (CIS, European Union) 171–2
common pool resources, and good governance 143–4
Commons, John R 387
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO, Australia) 342, 345
communication, and e-governance 572–4
community service organizations 56
comparative advantage, and modes of economic governance 390
comparative politics, and governance 131–2
competition:
and innovation in public sector 219, 220, 222, 223
and regulation for 376
complexity theory 118, 129–30
and adaptation 137–8
coevolution 138
fitness landscapes 137–8
and agents 135–6
and application to social sciences 138
and conceptual diversity 129
and conceptual fuzziness 134
and critical mass and threshold effects 135, 138
and definition of 134–5
and dynamic and adaptive nature of systems 135
and emergence of order 133, 134, 135, 138
order from below 135
and evolution 133–4
and facets of 134
and governance, implications for 139–40
and influences on 134
and multiplexity 136
and networks 136
and nonlinearity 138
butterfly effect 138
unpredictability 138
and reflexive learning 156
and rules 136–7
and unified theory 134
compliance:
and compliance programs 75
and corporate compliance systems 543
and global multi-level governance 739
and transnational governance 749
(p. 765) concurrent majority 313
conditionality, and Europeanization 659, 662
conflict theory 131, 132
Conrad, S 705
consensus conferences, and participatory governance 465, 467
Considine, Mark:
and network governance 523n5
and networks 55, 513
consociational governance 27, 521
constitutional theory 86
consultancy firms 344–5
consultation, and distinction from collaboration 499
Consultative Group of International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) 345, 348
consumerism:
and e-governance 579
and health domain 531–2
contracting out 372–3
contracts, and network governance 36
control, and transnational governance 752
Cooke, B 463
Cooper, S 732
coordination:
and European Union 737
and federal systems 737
and global multi-level governance737–8, 740
and governance 700
and governance structures 615
and network governance 257
and partnerships 258
and post-New Public Management reform 259, 260, 262, 263–4
and regulatory governance 67
and science and technology 433–4
corporate governance 90–1, 388, 392–6
and Anglo-Saxon model 394–5
and comparative research 393
and corporate compliance systems 543
and corporate democracy 396
and corporate social responsibility 383, 395
and law and economics 393, 394
and neo-institutional economics 393–4, 396
and origins of governance concept 5
and ownership concerns 392–3
and privacy governance 607–8
and regulated self-regulation 543–4
and responsive regulation 544
and role of organizations 393
and shareholder value 394–5
and sustainability 395
and transaction costs 393 see also self-regulation; workplace regulation
corporate social responsibility (CSR) 383, 395
corporatism 488
corruption:
and democracy 149
and difficulty in defining 147
and good governance 26, 147–8
and patronage 268
breaking link between 272
and size of government 147
cost-benefit analysis, and regulation 375
Council on Foreign Relations 351
crime, and governmentality 725–6
criminal justice, and risk 419, 422
criminology, and governmentality 723
Crouch, C 278, 390
Crowe, C 405, 409
Cukierman, A 403, 404
cybernetic governance 114–15, 126
and absence of agency 124
and assumptions of 118
stable environment 124–5
and basic concepts of 119–20
equilibrium 120
feedback 119
gain 120
lead 120
and benefits of 124
and conservatism of 125
and decision-making 124
and democratic concerns over 125
and learning 117
and political barriers to 122–4
and technical barriers to 121–2 see also information and governance
Cyprus 662
Czarniawska, B 752
Czech Republic 633
Czempiel, Ernst-Otto 688
(p. 766) Daalder, H 269
Dahl, Robert 146–7, 151
Dasgupta, S 448
David, P A 87
Davies, C 527
Day, J C 507
de Búrca, G 67
de Sola Pool, I 588
Debelle, G 402, 407
decentralization:
and administrative reform 195
and regulatory governance 67
decentred governance 86
decision-making:
and bargaining 21
and central banks 409
and co-production mode of 642
and collaboration 298
and cybernetic governance 124
and deliberation 462
and feedback 119
and governance 9, 20, 472, 474
and government 21
and mechanisms of 9
and networks 474
deficit reduction 380, 383–4
degovernancing, and the state 11
delegated governance:
and accountability 233–4
and legitimacy 233
and non-majoritarian institutions 231–2
and problems with 232–3
and rationale for 232
and state structures 229, 237
delegation:
and delegation rules 644
emergence of informal institutions 645
institutional design of formal rules 645
and distributive bargaining theory 644
and principal-agent theory 643
controlling the agent 644
and reasons for 643–4
blame shifting 644
policy uncertainty 644
political uncertainty 644
deliberation:
and e-governance 575
and impact of governance 304
and nature of 519
and participatory governance 457, 458
and policy networks 514
deliberative democracy:
and participatory governance 465
and transnational governance 751
democracy:
and accountability 514–15
and bad governance 149–50
and climate change policies 449–50
and collaborative governance 502–4
democratic deficits 515–18
and democratic legitimacy 474–5
as descriptive-evaluative term 472
and good governance 149–50
and governance 208, 481
and ideal form of 473
challenge to claim of representative institutions 473–4
challenge to policy-making and implementation 474
and impact of governance 302, 304–5
accountability 303
due deliberation 304
voice 303–4
and information 572
and managerial concept of 261
and multi-level governance 637–8
and techno-scientific knowledge 434–6
democratic experimentalism 71, 72
and collaborative governance 504
democratic governance:
and contrasted with ideal of democratic government 473–5
and decision-making 474
and definition of 472, 475, 476
and forms of 473, 477, 481, 482
voice as a supplement 477
voice as corrective 478
voice as participation 480–1
voice as transformative 478–80
and functions of institutions of 478
and institutions of voice 476
(p. 767) and moral sociology 473, 476, 482
voice as a supplement 477
voice as corrective 478
voice as participation 480–1
voice as transformative 478–80
Denmark 230
depoliticization 287, 289
and economic governance 373
deregulation 289
and administrative reform 192
and economic governance 376
destabilization regimes, and experimentalist governance 176–7
Deutsch, Karl 3–4, 114
developing countries:
and good governance 143
and regulation 72
development assistance, and non-governmental organizations 328
development studies:
and governance 25
and patronage 269
Dewey, John 170
Diamond, Jack 382
Diamond, Larry 149–50
diffusion of knowledge 348–9
digital divide 573, 590
dilemmas, and interpretive governance 39, 40
direct democracy 56
directly deliberative polyarchy (DDP), and experimentalist governance 170
discourse:
and discourse analysis 45n13
and discourse coalitions 348
and network governance 109
and technology as 577
discrimination:
and anti-discrimination laws 544
and institutional design 68
and United States Supreme Court 73–4
dispute resolution, and global multi-level governance 740, 742n12
distributive bargaining theory 643
and delegation 644
emergence of informal institutions 645
institutional design of formal rules 645
and institutional change 643
distrust:
as booming business 369
and markets 356–8
civil society solutions to 360–3
hybrid solutions to 366–9
market solutions to 358–60
state solutions to 363–6
and transnational governance 750–1 see also trust
divergence, and modes of economic governance 390
Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (USA, 2010)380, 382
Döhler, Marian 69
Donaldson, William 73
Dorf, Michael 72
Doty, Roxanne Lynn 722
Dowding, K 480
Downs, Anthony 217
Drahos, Peter 69, 564
Dror, Y 114, 116, 124
Dryzek, John 476
Duit, A 118
Dunleavy, P 579
Dunlop, C 163
Dutch East India Company 369
Dutch Insurance Association 362–3
Dutton, W H 586
e-democracy 569
and blogs 573
and digital divide 573
and e-governance 569
complementary model 570, 571
complementary nature of 574
contradictory nature of 579–81, 582
as contradictory trends 576
evolutionary model 570–1
link between 572, 574–5
points of convergence between 575
and emergence of concept 576
and the Internet 572–3
and wiki 573
(p. 768) e-governance569
and aspects of 570
and aspirations of 575
and consumerism 579
and deliberation 575
and democratic revitalization 569
and democratization 571
and e-democracy 569
complementary model 570, 571
complementary nature of 574
contradictory nature of 579–81, 582
as contradictory trends 576
evolutionary model 570–1
link between 572, 574–5
points of convergence between 575
and emergence of concept 576
and features of 570
and goals of 570
and government-business partnership 579
and growing interest in 570
and implementation of 570
and information flows 572–4
and information government 574
as legitimation discourse 579
and meanings of 574
and neoliberal democracy 578, 581–2
as new technology discourse 577
and open government 573
and political context of 577–8
and privatization of public realm 579
and state-market-public sphere relations 577–8
and technology:
as discourse 577
relations with politics 576–7
and ultimate stage of 572
e-learning 594
Eberlein, B 283, 320
Eckert, S 560
Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) 377
economic governance:
and autonomous regulatory agencies 374–5
and central bank independence 374
compromised by global crisis 379
and civil regulation 376–7
and competition, regulation for 376
and constraining government through targets 377–8
abandonment of 380
and depoliticizing of 373
and deregulation 376
and European Union 235–6
and financial sector regulation 376
failure to address 380–1
regulation of 378–9
at firm level 388
and limited impact of global financial crisis 384
absence of intellectual response to 382–3
complexity of issues 381
national self-interest 381–2
political power of business 382
and markets:
faith in 372–3
loss of confidence in 378
and modes of 387
and monetarism 374
at national level 387, 388–92
commonalities across systems 390–1
comparative literature on 389
divergence 390
European integration 391–2
institutional change 390, 391
organizations 392
path-dependent historical development 389–90
subnational diversity 391
transnational and supranational influences 391–2
varieties of capitalism 389, 390
and nationalization 379
and renewed enthusiasm for strong regulation 379–80
and research on 387–8
markets, governance of
economics, and governance 25, 85, 87
Edelenbos, J 298
education, and the Internet 594
(p. 769) education policy:
and experimentalist governance 181
and private school governance:
Australia 249–51
United Kingdom 251
United States 251
Edwards, M 325
effectiveness 437
and science and technology governance 437
Eikenberry, Angela 55–6, 61
Eising, R 391
Eisner, M A 558, 561, 562
Eldredge, N 138
elected officials:
and governance 210
and New Public Management 210
employee participation 541, 545–7
and forms of 547–9
empowered participatory governance 458, 463–4
and background condition for 464
and collaborative governance 504
and institutional design characteristics 464
and political principles of 464
empowerment, and participatory governance 459
Enderlien, H 8
energy policy, and European Union 176
enforcement:
and international institutions 734
and risk 419, 423 see also social enforcement
environmental Kuznets Curve 448–9
environmental policy-making 56–7
and European Union 57–8
and policy instruments 243–4, 251
and risk 421
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, USA) 419, 506, 563
and costs of controlling pollution 558
and creation of 557
and regulatory negotiation 507
environmental regulation 557–8
and alternative dispute resolution 558
and command-and-control regulation 557–8
and environmental taxes 557
and negotiated rule-making 558
and politicians’ motivations 557
and self-regulation 555
firms’ motives for adopting 559
International Organization for Standardization 562–3, 566
program design 561–3
trade associations 561–2
epistemic communities 347, 748
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC, USA) 68
equality protection:
and institutional design 68
and United States Supreme Court 73–4
equilibrium:
and cybernetic governance 120
and punctuated equilibrium 137–8
equity, and participatory governance 460, 461, 462
estates of the realm 585
Estonia 633
ethics, and global governance 695–6
ethno-cultural diversity, and identity 487
European Central Bank (ECB) 235, 317, 615
and accountability 407
and independence of 374
European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) 318
European Commission 318
and comitology system 642–3, 645–6
controlling the Commission 644
development of European Parliament's role in 646–50, 651–2
and delegation of powers to 642–3, 645
reasons for 643–4
and European Council, relations between 643–4
and European Parliament, relations between 646–7
and interest groups 319–20
European Commission (cont.)
(p. 770) and legitimacy deficit 320
and privacy governance 605, 606
and regulation techniques 557
and supranational centralization 615–17
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (Cenelec) 618
European Committee for Standardization (CEN) 618
European Council 318
and comitology system 642–3, 645–6
development of European Parliament's role in 646–50, 651–2
and European Commission:
delegation of powers to 642–3, 645
relationship between 643–4
European Court of Justice (ECJ) 318
and mutual recognition 619–21
and supranational centralization 617
European Economic Area (EEA) 661
European Food Safety Agency (EFSA) 367
European Free Trade Association (EFTA) 661
European Monetary Union (EMU) 234
European Neighborhood Policy (ENP) 657
European Parliament 318
and comitology system 643
development of role in 646–50, 651–2, 653
gains in power over 646
and European Commission, relations between 646–7
and gains in decision-making power 642, 643
and governancing 9
and legitimacy deficit 320
European Police Office (EUROPOL) 620–1
European studies, and governance 133
European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI) 618
European Union:
and cohesion policy 629–30, 633–4
and comitology system 642–3
controlling the Commission 644
development of European Parliament's role in 646–50, 651–2, 653
reasons for delegation 643–4
and compliance 739
and coordination 737
and distribution of competences 642
and environmental policy-making 57–8
and European Employment Strategy 618
and experimentalist governance 170, 176–7
Common Implementation Strategy 171–2
destabilization regimes 176–7
energy policy 176
Forest Law Enforcement Governance and Trade 178–9
policy domains 176
Water Framework Directive 171–2
and external governance 657, 660, 666–7
Africa 666
Asia 665–6
candidate countries 661–2
European Neighborhood Policy 663–4
Latin America 665
OECD countries 664–5
quasi-member states 661
and financial sector regulation 381
and food safety 367
and governance dilemma 625
and governance mix 613, 614, 616, 624–5
and hierarchy 615–17
mutual recognition 619–62
political competition in shadow of 619–21
private self-coordination in shadow of 618–19
reliance on 613
supranational centralization 615–17
supranational joint decision-making 617–18
and integration of 628
and inter- and trans-governmental negotiations 614, 621–2
political competition in shadow of 622–3
and international relations approaches to 628
as knowledge organization 346
and Lisbon Process 618
and multi-level governance 57–8, 614, 628–9, 638
cohesion policy 629–30, 633–4
empirical studies of 632–4
meaning of 630
non-state actors 630
steering and rowing 632
types of 631
(p. 771) and mutual recognition 619–21, 624–5
policing 620–1
and nature of 613
and network governance 102, 613–14
and Open Method of Coordination 156–7, 320, 618, 624–5, 636
and participatory governance 457
and policy style 317–21
bureaucracy 319
creation of institutionalized governance system 318–19
European Commission 319–20
governance approach 318
implementation 320–1
institutional constraint 319
interest groups 318–19, 319–20
judicialization 321
legitimacy 320
networks 319
Open Method of Coordination 320–1
policy-making 318
and political competition among member states 614
in shadow of hierarchy 619–21
in shadow of inter- and trans-governmental negotiations 622–3
tax competition 621
and power resources 665
and privacy governance 605–6
Article 29 Working Party606, 607, 609
diffusion of European rules 606–7
European Data Privacy Directive 606
Safe Harbor Agreement (USA-EU) 608
and private interest government 623–4
and problem-solving gap 624
and return to hierarchy 317
and risk regulation 422, 619
and structural policy 614
additionality principle 629, 633
multi-level governance 629–30
and technical standardization 618–19
and transgovernmental networks 619
Europeanization 666–7
and Africa 666
and Asia 665–6
and candidate countries 661–2
conditionality 662
and contents of 657–8
democratic constitutionalism 658
multilateralism 657
regionalism 657
regulatory state 658
supranational integration 657
transnational markets 657–8
and eastern enlargement of the EU 656
and European Neighborhood Policy 657, 663–4
and extra-EU countries 656–7
and Latin America 665
and meaning of 656
and mechanisms of 658–60
conditionality 659, 662
direct mechanisms 658
externalization 659
imitation 660, 665–6
indirect mechanisms 658, 664–5
socialization 659–60, 664
and OECD countries 664–5
and quasi-member states 661
European Economic Area 661
Switzerland 661
and research challenge 667
and scope of 660
and single market program 656
Eurozone, and problems in 235–6
evaluation of governance:
and collaboration 298–9
and collaborative governance 507–8
and decision-making 298
and democracy 302, 304–5
accountability 303
due deliberation 304
voice 303–4
and difficulties in 294, 296
and frame reflection 300
joint fact-finding 300
joint image-building 301
joint problem-defining 301
and generation of trust 299
and learning effects 301–2
and multi-actor criteria 296–7
and network governance 109
and network management 305–6
and Regulatory Impact Assessment 375
(p. 772) evidence-based policy-making 116
executive agencies, and administrative reform 194–5, 230
experimental governance 73, 169
and accountability 173
dynamic accountability 174, 175
and characteristics of 170
and democratizing effects 175
and divergence from principal-agent governance 174–5
and elements of:
framework goals 169
local discretion 169–70
reporting on performance 170
revision 170
and European Union 170, 176–7
Common Implementation Strategy 171–2
destabilization regimes 176–7
energy policy 176
Forest Law Enforcement Governance and Trade 178–9
policy domains 176
Water Framework Directive 171–2
and food safety 172, 367
as form of directly deliberative polyarchy 170
and globalization 174
and hazard analysis:
air-traffic safety 172
food safety 172
nuclear power industry 172
and learning 169, 175
and multi-polar distribution of power 175–6
and network governance 175
and public service provision 172–3
center-frontline relations 173
discretion 174
dynamic accountability 174
group decision-making 173
monitoring 173–4
as recursive process 169
and regulation of private economic activity 172
as response to strategic uncertainty 174
and structural barriers to reform 179–81
conventional response to 180
experimentalist response to 180–1
and transnational extension of 177–9
and United States 170–1, 181
Quality Service Review 173–4
expertise:
and ambivalence towards 751
and tensions between roles of experts and citizens 434–6
institutional arrangements 436
participatory democracy 435–6
representative democracy 435
externalization, and Europeanization 659
failed states 20, 701
Fair Information Practice Principles (FIPPs) 601, 602
Falk, Richard 694
Fawcett, P 37–8
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA, USA) 379
Federal Reserve (USA) 379
and accountability 407
federalism:
and climate change policies 451–2
and coordination 737
and fiscal governance 234
feedback:
and cybernetic governance 114, 119
and evidence-based policy-making 116
and governance 22
and path dependency 117
Feldman, M S 467
Fenno, R E 44
Fifth Estate, see Internet
Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB, USA) 565
financial crisis (2008–10), see global financial crisis (2008–10)
financial sector:
and regulation of 376, 560, 563
agreement on need for 378–9
failure to address 380–1
and self-regulation 555, 564–5 see also economic governance
Financial Services Authority (FSA, UK) 375
Finland 181
(p. 773) Fiorina, M 271
Fiorino, D J 563
fiscal governance:
and constraining government through targets 377–8
abandonment of 380
and deficit reduction 380, 383–4
and European Union 235–6
and legitimacy 237
and political control of 378
and state structures 234–6 see also economic governance
Fischer, S 402, 407
Fisher, E 420
fitness landscapes:
and coevolution 138
and complexity theory 137–8
Flinders, M 287, 289
Focht, W 297
food adulteration 356
Food and Drug Administration (FDA, USA) 367
food safety, and experimentalist governance 172
Forbes, Melissa 57
Ford Foundation 344
Forder, J 405
foreign policy, and cybernetic governance 115
Forest Law Enforcement Governance and Trade (FLEGT, European Union) 178–9
Forest Stewardship Council 331
Foucault, M 343, 348
and disciplined conduct 719
and governmentality 716, 717, 718, 726
and sovereignty 718
frame reflection, and governance 300–1
framing, and risk 423–4
France:
and New Public Management 230
and privacy governance 604, 605
(de)centralized systems 603
limited regime 600
and privatization 372
Frederickson, H G 34
free riding, and climate change governance 446–7
Freedom House 720
Freedom of Information Act (USA, 1966) 601
Freeman, G P 248
Freeman, J 503
Freeman, Richard 162
Frey, B S 145
Friedman, M 402–3
Friends of the Earth 330
Froomkin, M 572, 573
Füglister, K 163
Fujimori, Alberto 149
Fung, A 463–4, 476
Gaebler, T 191, 204, 283
Gaffney, M 504
Galaz, V 118
Galnoor, Itzhak 116
Garnham, N 588–9
Gash, A 498
Geertz, C 44
gender, and citizenship 487, 495n1
geography, and governance 88–9
Geraats, P 408
Gereffi, G 330–1
Gerlach-Kristen, P 407, 408
German Institute for Standardization 563
Germany:
and New Public Management 230
and New Steering Model 54–5
and privacy governance 603, 605
Gilad, Sharon 162, 287
Gilardi, F 159, 163
Gilley, B 145
Gilpin, Robert 695
Global Compact agreement 690–1
Global Exchange 330
global financial crisis (2008–10)
and causes of 372
and central bank independence compromised 379
and conservative/neoliberal response to 383–4
and deficit reduction 380, 383–4
and financial sector regulation 563
failure to address 380–1
need for more 378–9
and impact of 229, 235, 236, 745
global financial crisis (cont.)
(p. 774) and limited impact on economic governance 384
absence of intellectual response 382–3
complexity of issues 381
national self-interest 381–2
political power of business 382
and long-term consequences of 380–1
and nationalization 379
and reduced faith in markets 378
and renewed enthusiasm for strong regulation 379–80
and short-term responses to 378–9
and state capacity 286
and transnational dimension of 237
and transnational governance, consequences for 754
global governance 24, 84, 132–3
and changes in international society/system 687–8
and continuum of 686, 692–4
anarchical international society 693
new medievalism 694
world government 694
world or global society 693
world order 693–4
and definition of 688–90, 730
and denationalized problems 730
and dynamics of 690–1
and erosion of state capabilities 690
and functional differentiation in 735–6
and global governance complex 688
and governance without government 690
and governmentality 716, 717, 718, 727
actors, agents and subjects 719–21
power relations 719
ratings agencies 719–20
risk management 719–21
sovereignty 721–4
travel warnings 720–1, 725
and implications of concept 730–1
and international relations 687
definitions 688–90
and limitations of concept 695–6
ethical 695–6
political 695
practical 695
theoretical 695
and multi-level character of 691
and necessity for 686–7, 696
and non-state actors 689, 690–1
and origins of term 688
and the state 690, 699, 735
global multi-level governance 731, 741
and conditions for success 731
and deficiencies of 739–41
accountability 740–1
coordination 740
legitimacy 739–40
non-compliance 739
and features of 736, 738
coordination 737–8
legitimation processes 736–7
two-stage implementation process 736
and functional differentiation in 735–6
and political authority:
beyond the nation-state 732–5
international institutions 732–5
supranationalization 732
Westphalian notion of sovereignty 731
global public goods, and climate change governance 446–7
global public policy 673
and challenges presented by 673, 684–5
and characteristics of 680–4
blurred boundaries between policy areas 684
global scope of problem 681–2
polycentric decision-making 682–3
and conceptual frameworks for studying 676–80
agora 678–9
economic globalization 677
global policy spaces 680
policy pentangles 679–80
policy space 679
political actors 678–9
Reinicke's approach 677–8
sovereignty 677
subsidiarity 677
(p. 775) transnational pluralism 679
and definition of 675, 676
and essential nature of 684
and indigenous peoples 680–2, 683, 684
and non-state actors 675, 676, 678, 679
and public policy beyond the nation state 675
international/internationalization 674–5
transnational/transnationalization 675
Global Re-Ordering: Evolution Through European Networks (GR:EEN) 347, 348
Global Water Partnership 346, 347
Global Witness 330
globalization:
and definition of 674
and development of 674
and experimentalist governance 174
and governance 72–3, 84–5
and nature of 677
and sovereignty 677
globalization studies, and impact of 84
goal reconciliation and coordination, and governance 22
goal selection/specification:
and governance 22
and New Public Management 205
Goetz, K H 285, 286–7
and governance as shift to government 287
Goldman Sachs 382
good governance:
and achievement of stated goals 27
and common pool resources 143–4
and conceptions of 26–7
and corruption 26, 147–8
and definition of 27, 29, 151–2
based on normative theory 151
debate over 146
focus on outputs 151
impartiality 151–2
Platonian-Leninist problem 146–7
universalism 151
and democracy 149–50
and developing countries 143
and government efficiency 150
and human well-being 145–6
and impact of concept 143
and intellectual background to 144
importance of institutions 144
and legitimacy 145
and measurement of 146
and participatory governance 466–7
and policy background to 144–5
supplanting of Washington Consensus 144–5
and production of 144
and public goods 143
and quality of government 143
and rule of law 148–9
and size of government 147
and state capacity 143
and World Bank 26
Goodfriend, M 411
Goodin, Robert 476, 520–1
Goss, K A 490
Gould, S J 138
governability theory, and network governance 106
governance:
and accountability 22, 491
and advantages of 295
mobilization of actors 295
overcoming uncertainty and ambiguity 295
stakeholder involvement 295
and agency 28
and ambiguity of concept 19, 83–4, 89, 129
as analytical framework 51–3
civil-society centered governance 53
types of societal direction 52
and assumptions of approach 554
and broad/narrow perspectives on:
composition 130
level 131
mechanism 131
structure 131
and centrality of concept 3
and change 33
and characteristics of 209
and citizenship 492–4
autonomous citizenship 493–4
challenges 494–5
regulatory citizenship 493
reinforcement 492–3
as complex concept 130
governance (cont.)
(p. 776) and complexity theory, implications of 139–40
and conditions for success 208
and coordination 615, 700
and decision-making 9, 20, 474
and definition of 49, 53, 101, 130, 203, 206, 256, 294–5, 311, 339, 355, 472, 642, 700
governance with government 50–1
governance without government 51, 257
what it is not 9–10, 51
and democracy 208, 481
and dual dimensions of concept 89–90
and empirical research 53–4
citizen participation 56
direct democracy 56
environmental policy-making 56–7, 57–8
institutional change and reform 54–5
multi-level governance 57–8
networks 55–6
theory-based empirical research 55–7
trajectories of change 58–9
and feedback 22
as functionalist argument 21–2
and globalization 72–3, 84–5
and goal reconciliation and coordination 22
and goal selection 22
and government:
co-expansion of 13–14
contrasted with 84
distinction between 50, 130
relationship between 100–1
transition from 100, 325–6
and governmentality 716–17
and growth of academic interest in 5–6, 129, 131
comparative politics 131–2
European studies 133
innovation studies 133
international relations 132–3
political economy 132
public policy analysis 132
regulation studies 133
and horizontal coordination 201, 208
as hybrid of regulatory control 14
and impact of:
accountability 303
collaboration 298–9
decision-making 295, 298
democracy 302–5
difficulties in assessing 294, 296
due deliberation 304
frame reflection 300–1
generating trust 299
learning effects 301–2
legitimacy 296
mobilization of actors 295
multi-actor evaluation criteria 296–7
network management 305–6
voice 303–4
and implementation 22
and individual behavior 28
and interactive forms of 217
and interdisciplinary nature of concept 84, 92
learning from 89–91
and international relations 25, 132–3, 716
and legitimacy 85, 296
and limited statehood 700, 703–5
actors 704
modes of steering 704
multi-level governance 704–5
new modes of 703–4
and linkages between micro- and macro-level behavior 27–8
and managing complexity 211
and measurement of 29
Worldwide Governance Indicators 53–4
as mechanism 8
and micro-foundations of 28
and nature of 20–1, 33
and neo-institutionalism 3, 4
as networks 206
characteristics of 206–7
horizontal coordination 208
solving wicked problems 207–8
stakeholder involvement 208
and new forms of 201
and New Public Management 211
comparison with 202–3, 209–10, 212
managing complexity 211
public-private partnerships 211–12
role of elected officials 210
(p. 777) and normative element of 26, 29, 30
as old phenomenon 103, 312, 313–15
and origins of concept 5
and patronage 272–3
Qatar 273–4
Thailand 274–5
United Kingdom 275–6
and policy-making 474
as political concept 21
and politics, distinction between 690
as process 8, 9, 22, 131, 700
and public sector 21
and rational choice 28
and representative democracy 208
tensions between 303
and research agenda for 60–1
and risk 420–4
accountability 425
co-production 422–3, 425–6
efficacy as technique 424
framing 423–4
meta-governance 421–2
public administration 421
relationship between 417, 420–1, 424, 426
as technique of 417
and role of elected officials 210
and scholarly value of concept 4
and shifts in 7
and significance of concept 84
as signifier of change 7–8
and societal complexity 133
and stakeholder involvement 208, 295
and state theory 10–13, 21
Big Governance 13–14
degovernancing 11
hollowing out of the state 10–11, 36
state-centered governance 11–13, 28
and steering 9, 20
as strategy 8, 9
as structure 8, 28, 700
and transformation of 632
and translation of term 4
and transnationalization of 741n1
and typology of 614–15
and waves of 86
common features of first two waves 38–9
criticism of first wave 286–7
first wave, erosion of state capacity 281, 282–4
first wave, network governance 34–6, 43, 86
second wave, meta-governance 36–8, 43–4, 86
second wave, resurgence of state capacity 281–2, 284–8
third wave, interpretive governance 39–43, 44, 86
third wave, reconstruction of state capacity 282, 288–90
and wicked problems 207–8, 217
governance reform,see administrative reform
governancing 9
government:
and Big Government 13
and citizenship:
autonomous citizenship 493–4
regulatory citizenship 493
reinforcement 492–3
and civil society 488, 492
and constraining government through targets 377–8
abandonment of 380
government (cont.)
(p. 778) and decision-making functions 22
and decision-making rules 21
and decline in effectiveness and legitimacy 312
and efficiency and good governance 150
and governance:
co-expansion of 13–14
contrasted with 84
distinction between 50, 130
relationship between 100–1
transition to 100, 325–6
and government failure 373
and international relations 716
and monopoly on legitimate use of force 21
and network governance 244–5, 257
and role of 189, 191, 201
and security 491
and size of 147
and steering 3
governmentality 45n13, 343, 716
and asylum seekers726–7
and citizenship tests 726
and crime 725–6
and criminology 723
and global governance 716, 717, 727
actors, agents and subjects 719–21
power relations 719
ratings agencies 719–20
risk management 719–21
sovereignty 721–4
travel warnings 720–1, 725
and governance 716–17
and immigrants and non-citizens 722–3
and neo-liberalism 717–18
and network governance 105, 106
and power relations 716–17
and self-governance 717, 718, 724–5
and sovereignty 718, 721–4
petty sovereigns 722–3
and state-citizen relations 724–7
and tactics 717
Goyer, M 394
Grande, E 512
Greece, and financial crisis 383
Green, T K 68
Greenpeace 330, 344
Greenspan, Alan 378, 379, 410
greenwashing 561
Grohs, S 54–5
Gulf of Mexico oil spill (2010) 377, 380
Gunter, B 571
Gunton, T I 507
Haas, P 748
Habermas, J 420, 572, 577, 579, 587
Hajer, Maarten 51
Hall, Peter 163, 165, 379
Hampton report (UK, 2005)419, 423
Hanf, K 209
Hannerz, U 747
Harling, P 270
Harris, L 578
Harter, P J 507
Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points (HACCP) 172, 367
health and safety, and regulatory governance 68
health domain:
and absence of democratic governance 527–8
and absence of participatory governance 528
and changes in public attitudes 530
and drivers for change 529–31, 534
and participatory governance 536–7
introduction of 530
obstacles to 535–6
and patients as citizens 528
barriers to influence 535–6
voice 533–4
and patients as consumers 528
choice 531–2
gathering information 531–2
right of complaint 532
and professional power 528–9, 534, 535–6
Heard-Lauréote, K 523n4
Heclo, Hugh 103–4, 314
Heinrich, C J 8, 9
Heisler, M 314
Helliwell, J F 145
(p. 779) Helmke, G 24
Héritier, A:
and definition of governance 355
and failure of centralized steering 311–12
and self-regulation 560, 563
and shadow of hierarchy 317
and state-centered governance 12
heterarchy 283
hierarchy:
and continued importance of 244, 490
and European Union 613, 615–17
mutual recognition 619–21
political competition in shadow of 619–21
private self-coordination in shadow of 618–19
supranational centralization 615–17
supranational joint decision-making 617–18
and limitations of 99
and persistence of 313
and ‘shadow’ of 244, 317
limited statehood 709–10
Hill, C J:
and governance in United States 488–9
and hierarchical governance 196
and multi-level governance 57
and structures 8
Hill, Gregory 55
Hindmoor, A 277
and criticism of first wave theory 287
and hard vs soft policy instruments 244
and policy instrument mixes 249
and state capacity 285, 287
and state-centered governance 12
historical institutionalism, and interdependence theory 105
history, and governance 88
Hix, S 8, 613
Hobbes, Thomas 358
Hogg, C 535
Holland, J H 136–7
Holliday, I 285
Holmes, Oliver Wendell 368
Hong Kong, and corruption 150
Hood, Christopher 117
Hoogenboom, Ari 271
Hooghe, L 278
and multi-level governance 630, 634, 636, 637
EU cohesion policy 633
Howlett, M 248
Huang, H 145
Huang, K 306
Hulme, D 325
human development, and participation 459
Human Development Index, and degrees of statehood 703, 704
human rights, and institutionalization of 680–1
Humrich, C 9
Hungary 633
Huntington, S P 693
Hysing, Erik 56–7, 57–8
Ice land 376
and European Union 661
ideas, and travel of 752
Idema, T 321
ideology:
and administrative reform 61, 192
as barrier to responsiveness 123
Imboden, D 450
imitation, and Europeanization 660, 665–6
impartiality, and good governance 151–2
implementation:
and European Union 320–1
and governance 22
and information 117–18
India, and participatory governance 459, 465, 466, 467
indigenous peoples, and global public policy 681–2, 683, 684
individual behavior, and governance 28
industrial policy 379
inflation:
and central bank independence 402, 404–6
and inflation targeting 408
and unemployment 402–3
informal communities, and market governance 360–2
(p. 780) information and communication technology (ICT) 433–4
and adaptation to 570
and democratization 571
and e-democracy 570
and e-governance 570
and globalization 674
and popular discourse on 576see also e-democracy; e-governance; Internet
information and governance 113, 114, 118, 125–6
and cybernetic governance 114–15, 126
absence of agency 124
assumption of stable environment 124–5
assumptions of 118
basic concepts 119–20
benefits of 124
conservatism of 125
decision-making 124
democratic concerns over 125
equilibrium 120
feedback 119
gain 120
lead 120
political barriers to 122–4
technical barriers to 121–2
and democracy 572
and e-governance 572–4
and evidence-based policy-making 116
and hoarding of information 123
and implementation 117–18
and information government 574
and institutional cybernetics 116–17
and learning 117
and legitimacy 118
and limitations of 118–19
and social indicators movement 115–16
and trust 118
information asymmetries in markets:
and civil society solutions to 360–3
and hybrid solutions to 366–9
and market solutions to 358–60
and state solutions to 363–6
innovation in the public sector:
and collaboration 219, 220–1, 222–3
and competition 219, 220, 222, 223
and definition of 216
and economic innovation theory 218–19
collaboration 219
competition 219
and enhancement of 215, 221, 223
and governance strategy 215, 220–2, 223, 224
and growth of interest in 216
and hampering of 215
and institutional design 219
and interactive approach to innovation 218–19
and interactive forms of governance 218, 221
and joint strategy 222, 223, 224, 225
and meta-governance 218, 221, 223
and New Public Management strategy 215, 219–20, 222, 223–4
and pressure for 215, 491–2
and prominence in policy agenda 216
and public administration theory 218
and strategies for promotion of 215
innovation studies, and governance 133
institutional change:
and administrative reform 188
and bargaining theory 643
and governance research:
citizen participation 56
direct democracy 56
environmental policy-making 56–7, 57–8
institutional change and reform 54–5
multi-level governance 57–8
networks 55–6
theory-based empirical research 55–7
and modes of economic governance 390, 391
and rational choice institutionalism 643
and trajectories of change 58–9
institutional culture, and unlawful action 67–8
institutional cybernetics 116–17
institutional design:
and administrative traditions 232
and collaborative governance 506–7
and delegation 645
(p. 781) and empowered participatory governance 464
and innovation in public sector 219
and regulatory bodies 232
and unlawful action 67–8, 71
institutional stabilization, and transnational governance 752–3
institutional theory:
and network governance 106
and policy instruments 252
institutions, and learning 162
instrumental learning 157–8
integration, and post-New Public Management reform 259, 260, 262
integration theory 131
intellectual property rights 434
interdependence theory, and network governance 105
interest groups 313
and European Union 318–19, 319–20
and governance 131–2
and political power of business 382
interest rates, and central banks 407–8
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 346, 443–4, 447
Internal Revenue Service (IRS, USA) 491
International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) 560, 564, 565
international agreements, and increase in 732
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) 733
International Budget project 457
International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) 451
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) 681
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Political Rights (ICESCR)680–1
International Criminal Court (ICC) 732
international institutions, and political authority 732–5
and agenda-setting 734
and evaluation 734
and monitoring 733
and negotiation 732–3
and rule enforcement 734
and rule interpretation 733–4
International Labor Organization (ILO) Convention on Indigenous and Tribal Peoples 683
International Monetary Fund 85, 317, 720, 733
and good governance 143
and New Public Management 753
international non-governmental organizations (INGOs) 328, 332, 333
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 377, 555, 561, 566
international relations (IR):
and global governance 687
definition of 688–90
and governance 25, 132–3, 716
and government 716
and learning 155
and network governance 104
and reflexive learning 157
and study of European Union 628
International Telegraph Union 675
Internet:
and attempts to control 593
and business organizations 593–4
and collaborative network organizations 593
and criticism of 592–3
and differences from traditional media 588
and diffusion of use of 589–90
and digital choices 590
and digital divide 590
and e-democracy 572–3
and education 594
as an experience technology 586
and Fifth Estate 584, 588, 596
critical mass of users 590
definition of 585
formation of 587
nature of 585
social shaping of 588–9
sustaining vitality of 594–6
threats and opportunities 595
and government and democracy 592
as information commons 587
and networked individuals and institutions 590, 591
and networks of accountability 589
Internet (cont.)
(p. 782) and public sphere 572, 587
and reconfiguring access 585–6, 589
and regulation of 596
and shifts in communicative power 588–9
and social and political role of 585, 586–7
deterministic perspectives 588
reinforcement politics 588
as unimportance political resource 587–8
as source of news 593
and traditional media 593
and transformation of 584
interpretative communities 348
interpretive governance 39–43, 44, 86
and managerialism 41–3
and meanings 39, 40
and rule 40–1
and United Kingdom 41–3
Ireland 230
iron triangle 679
Irwin, A 430
issue networks 314
Italy 702
Jackson, Andrew 383
Jacobson, N 340
Jaeger, C 418
James, O 163
Jasanoff, S 422, 425
Jenson, J 488
Jessop, B:
and heterarchy 283
and meta-governance 37, 107, 635–6
and multi-level governance 637
and the state 38, 86
Johnson, J A 580–1
Johnson, M A 56
‘joined-up’ government 37, 195, 499–500
and post-New Public Management reform 259
Jordan, A J:
and environmental policy-making 243–4, 286
and multi-level governance 638
and post-parliamentary thesis 314–15
and state-centered governance 12
Jordan, G 315
Judge, D 315
judicialization, and European Union 321
jus cogens 734
Kagan, R 321
Kahneman, D 158
Kallis, G 171
Kamat, S 329
Kampen, J 581
Kamrava, M 273
Kaplan, R D 693
Kapstein, E B 564
Karkkainen, B C 25
Kaufmann, D 54
Kaufmann, S A 137
Keane, J 277, 278
Keck, M E 332
Keleman, D 321
Kellner, D 577
Keohane, R 564, 686
Kerala (India), and participatory governance 459, 465, 466, 467
Kerwer, D 283
Kerwin, C M 507–8
Kettl, D F 194
Keynes, John Maynard 341, 350, 370
Keynesianism 374
and decline of 373
Khademian, A M 467
Khagram, S 332
Kickert, W 283
Kilpatrick, Claire 72
Kimberley Process 691
King, Mervyn 379
Kingdon, J 312
Kissinger, Henry 341
Kjaer, A M 33
Klijn, E H 10, 283
and network governance 34, 50–1
knowledge agents in governance 339
and creation of codified knowledge 340
and definition of knowledge 339
and diversity of 339
(p. 783) and influence of 349–51
and knowledge actors 340–3
diversity of 340–1
‘in-house’ researchers 341–2
influence of 343
interaction among 342
policy entrepreneurs 342
policy relevance of 341
political advisors 342
scholar-practitioners 341
and knowledge networks 340, 346–8
diffusion of ideas and expertise 348–9
discourse coalitions 348
epistemic communities 347
interpretative communities 348
neo-Gramscian concepts of 348
and knowledge organizations 340, 343–6
consultancy firms 344–5
market sector 344–5
non-governmental organizations 344
official bureaus 345–6
philanthropic foundations 344
think tanks 344
third sector 344
universities 343–4
and politics of knowledge 340
and tacit knowledge 340
Kobrin, S J 747
Kohler-Koch, B 391, 613
Konisky, D 506
Kooiman, Jan 58, 298
Koontz, T M 501
Kopecky, P, and patronage 268, 269, 271
Koppenjan, J F M 10, 34, 283
Kothari, U 463
Kraay, A 54
Kranich, N 587
Krasner, Stephen 701
Kuhlmann, S 54–5
Kvavik, R 314
Kyoto Protocol 444–5
La Porta, R 147
labor relations:
and diversity of systems 542
and trade unions 541, 542
decline of 542–3
Landzelius, K 535
Langbein, L I 503, 507–8
language, and descriptive and evaluative use of 472
Lapuente, V 145
Lasker, R D 504
Latin America, and Europeanization 665
Latour, B 87, 421
law:
courts and case law 364
governments and statute law 364–6
and governance 90–1
and market governance:
and norm-generating value of 71
and reflexive law 71–2
and reflexive learning 157see also rule of law; soft law
law and economics, and corporate governance 393, 394
Lazer, D 557, 573–4
Leach, W D 501
leadership, and collaborative governance 506
learning and governance 117, 155–6, 164–5
and cybernetic governance 117
and empirical analysis of learning 162–4
and evidence-based policy-making 116
and experimentalist governance 169, 175
and impact on 301–2
and institutions 162
and level of interaction 161–2
and multi-level governance 165
and negative effects of learning 164–5
and networks 165
and normative implications 164–5
and Open Method of Coordination 156–7
and organizational theory 161
and regulatory governance 67
and regulatory negotiation 508
and theoretical problems 159–62
and types of learning 160
instrumental learning 157–8
political learning 158–9
reflexive social learning 156–7
symbolic learning 159
and updating of beliefs 159–61
legal studies, and governance 25
(p. 784) legitimacy:
and accountability 85
and collaborative governance 518, 519
and delegated governance 233
and democracy 474–5
and European Union 320
and fiscal governance 237
and global multi-level governance 736–7, 739–40
and good governance 145
and governance 85, 296
and information and governance 118
and principal-agent governance 175
and science and technology governance 437–8
and social learning 157see also accountability
Lehman Brothers 375
Lehmann, W 320
Lehmkhul, D 317
lesson-drawing, and instrumental learning 158
Levi-Faur, D:
and growth of regulation 232
and modes of economic governance 392
and new regulatory order 69
and regulation 288
and regulatory capitalism 69, 402, 632
and state capacity 287
and state-centered multi-level governance 12, 622
Levistsky, S 24
Lewis, Jenny 55
Lichtenstein, and European Union 661
limited statehood 699–700
and colonialism 704
and definition of 702
and governance in context of 700, 703–5, 709–10
actors 704
intentionality and normativity 707–8
modes of steering 704
multi-level governance 704–5, 709
new modes of 703–4
non-state actors 704, 705, 706, 710, 711
public-private distinction 705–7
shadow of hierarchy 709–10
and political consequences of thinking about governance in areas of 711
and types of 702
as ubiquitous phenomenon 702
and Weber's conceptualization of statehood 701
and Western bias in concept of statehood 701, 703
Lister, R 488
Lord, C 523n8
Lovitch, N P 504
Löwenheim, O 719, 720, 721, 726
Lowndes, V 302
Lutsey, N 451
Luyet, S 163
Lynn, L E, Jr:
and governance in United States 488–9
and hierarchy 196, 313
and multi-level governance 57
and shifts in governance 8
and structures 8
McAnulla, S 39
McArthur Foundation 344
McCullagh, K 580
McGuire, M 305–6
McKenzie, W 312
McMaster, I 633
Mahoney, J 233
Majone, G:
and legitimacy 519
and regulatory networks 165
and regulatory state 375
Maloney, W 315
Malpass, A 531
Mamudu, Hadii 58
management-based regulation 557
management ideas, and transnational governance 752–3
managerialism 503
managerialist reforms 54–5
and British civil service 41–3
March, James B 144
Marine Stewardship Council 331
Marinetto, M 33, 281
and Anglo-governance school 35
(p. 785) and governance theory 287
and state capacity 285
marketization:
in Europe 488
and hollowing out of the state 36
and network governance 35
markets:
and autonomous citizenship 493
and characteristics of 356
and depoliticizing governance 373
and faith in 372–3
and governance of 355
civil society 360–3, 376–7
commercial information providers and certifiers 358–60
courts and case law 364
firm hierarchies 363
governments and statute law 364–6
hybrid approaches to 366–9
new Keynesianism 369–70
self-regulation by formal associations 362–3, 561–2
self-regulation by informal communities 360–2
state 363–6
and homunculus problem 359
and information asymmetries 356, 357–8
and legacy of 490
and limitations of 99
and loss of confidence in 229, 236, 378
and market failure 357
and regulatory markets 750–1
and steering of social actors 355
and transaction costs 356
and trust problem of 356–8
Markham, W T 56
Marks, G 278
and multi-level governance 628–9, 630, 634, 636, 637
Marshall, T H 486
Marx, Karl 387
Massey Energy 380
Mastruzzi, M 54
Mattli, W 563, 565, 566
Max Planck Institute 104
May, Peter:
and multi-level governance 57
and political learning 158–9
Mayer-Schönberger, V 573–4
Mayntz, Renate:
and network governance 34
and role of the state 513
Mazey, S 319
Meade, E E 405, 409, 410
meaning, and interpretive governance 39, 40
Means, Gardiner 392–3
measurement of governance 29
mechanism, and governance as 8, 131
medical care, see health domain
Meier, Kenneth:
and network management 306
and networks 55
mental health networks 55
Mercosur 665
Meseguer, C 163
meta-governance 36–7, 43–4, 86, 716
and definition of 107
and innovation in public sector 218, 221, 223
and meaning of 37
and network governance 107–8
and regulatory governance 69
and return of the state 38
and risk 421–2
and role of the state 635–6
and state capacity 284, 288–9
and structure 39
and United Kingdom 37–8
‘joined-up’ government 37
Prime Minister's role 37–8
public service agreements 37
meta-regulation, and regulatory governance 69
methodological nationalism 684
Mexico 702
Meyer, J 748
Mill, John Stuart 77
Millennium Development Goals 26
Miller, R 504
Milward, Brinton:
and hollowing out of the state 202
and mental health networks 55
Minerals Management Service (USA) 380
ministerial responsibility 258–9
(p. 786) Mitchell, M 136
modernist-empiricism 34, 44n2
modernization, and patronage 269–70
monetarism 374
monetized exchange, and decision-making 9
monitoring:
and experimentalist governance 173–4
and international institutions 733
and New Public Management 205
and transnational governance 749–50
Montreal Protocol 327
Moore, E A 501
moral sociology, and democratic governance 473, 476, 482
and voice as a supplement 477
and voice as corrective 478
and voice as participation 480–1
and voice as transformative 478–80
Moran, M:
and regulatory state 748
and state capacity 285
Morozov, Evgeny 588
Morth, U 25
Mörth, U 258
Mulgan, Geoff 342
multi-level governance 258
and accountability 637–8
and advantages of 637, 638
and application of concept 636–7
and conceptual imprecision 635, 636
and definition of 630
differences over 634–5
and democracy 637–8
and empirical research on 57–8
and European Union 57–8, 614, 628–9, 638
cohesion policy 629–30, 633–4
empirical studies of 632–4
non-state actors 630
steering and rowing 632
structural policy 629–30
types of 631
and intergovernmental politics 24
and learning 165
and limited statehood 704–5, 709
and normative dimension of 637–8
and patronage 278
and problems with 637–8
and role of the state 635–6, 735
and state-centered multi-level governance 12, 622
and steering and rowing 632
and types of 630–1, 639
relationship between 631see also global multi-level governance
multinational firms:
and globalization 73
and governing by 30n1
Murdock, B S 506
Mutebi, A 275
Nabors, R 564
narratives, and interpretive governance 39, 40, 44
National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform (USA) 377–8
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA, USA) 379–80
National Labor Relations Act (USA) 550n5
national policy styles, see policy styles
nationalization 379
negotiation, and network governance 101 see also regulatory negotiation
NeJaime, Douglas 70
neo-corporatism 374, 515
neo-institutionalism:
and corporate governance 393–4, 396
and governance 3, 4
neo-liberalism:
and administrative reform 192
and enhancing role of markets 99
and governmentality 717–18
and network governance 34
Netchaeva, I 571, 572, 582
Netherlands:
and consociational governance 27
and New Public Management 230
and post-New Public Management reform 286
network governance 43, 50–1, 86, 99–100, 523n5
and accountability 258
ministerial responsibility 258–9
and administrative reform 192–3
(p. 787) and advantages of 243
and Anglo-governance school 35–6
and autonomy 101
and characteristics of 206–7
and collaborative governance 500
and coordination 257
and definition of 99, 101–3, 523n4
and deinstitutionalization 102
and diversity of networks 102–3
and European Union 102, 613–14
and experimentalist governance 175
and explanations of:
actor-driven 104–5
governmentality 105
system-theoretical 104
as first wave of governance 34–5
and four faces of 34–5
and future research 108–10
democratic participation 108–9
evaluating performance and impact of 109
role of discourse and storylines 109
role of politics and power 110
soft rules 109
and governance failure 107
and horizontal coordination 208
and impact of:
accountability 303
collaboration 298–9
decision-making 298
democracy 302–5
difficulties in assessing 294, 296
due deliberation 304
frame reflection 300–1
generating trust 299
learning effects 301–2
multi-actor evaluation criteria 296–7
network management 305–6
voice 303–4
and institutionalization 101–2
and interdisciplinary approaches to 99–100
and issue networks 314
and knowledge networks 346–8
diffusion of ideas and expertise 348–9
discourse coalitions 348
epistemic communities 347
interpretative communities 348
neo-Gramscian concepts of 348
and levels of 102
and meta-governance 107–8
and mutual dependence 101
and negotiation 101
and network management 208, 305–6
as old phenomenon 103, 312, 313–15
and post-New Public Management reform 257
and praise for 107
and production of public regulation 102
and proliferation of 102
and public-public networks 257–8
and research on 55–6, 61
and role of government 244–5, 257
and self-regulation 102
and stakeholder involvement 208
and the state 103, 108
and steering 38–9
and strengths of 99, 103
and structure 39
and theoretical approaches to 105, 107
governability theory 106
governmentality theory 106
institutional theories of normative integration 106
interdependence theory 105
and wicked problems 207–8
net work management 208, 305–6
networks:
and administrative reform 192–3
and complexity theory 136
and contracts 36
and decision-making 474
and governance 206
and growth of academic interest in 6
and learning 165
and post-New Public Management reform 257
and research on effectiveness of 55–6
and transnational governance 748
and transnational networks 193
Neumann, Iver 718, 719, 724
Neumayer, E 450
New Institutional Economics (NIE) 87–8
and corporate governance 90–1
(p. 788) New Labour 36, 379, 493
and evidence-based policy-making 116
and meta-governance 37–8
new medievalism, and global governance 694
New Public Management (NPM) 54–5, 191
and administrative reform 189
and agentification 230
and aims of 204
and continuation of 202
and contradictions in 205
and democratic accountability 261
and emergence of 203
and features of 203–4, 209
and fragmentation 259
and governance 211, 262
comparison with 202–3, 209–10, 212
managing complexity 211
public-private partnerships 211–12
role of elected officials 210
and innovation in public sector 215, 219–20, 222, 223–4
and lean government 204
and limitations of 231
as management idea 753
and managing complexity 211
and non-governmental organizations 326
and performance indicators 115
and performance management 205
and policy-administration split 203, 210
and post-New Public Management reform:
differences between 256
as reaction to 264
supplanted by 261–2
supplemented by 264
and public-private partnerships 211–12
and requirements of:
goal specification 205
monitoring 205
and risk 417, 418–19
and role of elected officials 210
and separated responsibilities 204
and state structures 229–31
and unintended consequences of 282–3see also administrative reform; post-New Public Management reform
New Steering Model (NSM, Germany) 54–5
New Zealand:
and New Public Management 230
and post-New Public Management reform 260
and privatization 372
Neyapti, B 403, 404
Nickels, Greg 451
Nicolaidis, K 620
Nixon, Richard M 557
Noble, D 577
non-governmental organizations (NGOs) 333–4
as advocates 326, 327–8
and crisis of legitimacy 329
and development aid 328–9
and diversity of 331
and diversity of activities 325, 326
and global multi-level governance 733
and idealized qualities and traits 329
and international non-governmental organizations 328, 332, 333
as knowledge organizations 344
and legal status of 326
and multi-level character of 326–7, 331
local-transnational relationships 331–3
and New Public Management 326
and participatory governance 459, 467
as regulators 326, 330–1, 377
and rise of 325
and role in governance 329
and self-regulation 329
as service providers 326, 328–30
and sources of authority 326
and state-NGO complementarity 329–30
and transnational governance 326
non-majoritarian institutions, and delegated governance 231–2
non-monetized exchange, and decision-making 9
non-state actors:
and global governance 689, 690–1
and global public policy 675, 676, 678, 679
and limited statehood 704, 705, 706, 710, 711
and multi-level governance 630
and political authority:
agenda-setting 734
evaluation 734
(p. 789) monitoring 733
negotiation 732–3
rule enforcement 734
rule interpretation 733–4
and regulatory governance 66–7
and transnational governance 748, 749see also non-governmental organizations (NGOs)
nonlinearity, and complexity theory 138
Nordhaus, W 443, 447
North, Douglass C 144, 147
Norway:
and European Union 661
and post-New Public Management reform 260
Noveck, B 573
Nuffield Foundation 344
Nugent, J 570
Nye, J S 686
Oatley, T 564
Obama, Barack 377
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA, USA) 68
O’Donnell, G 148–9
Offe, Claus:
and governance concept 129
and policy outputs 519
and state-centered governance 12
Ohmae, K 388
Oliver, M J 163
Olsen, Johan:
and ideologically-driven reform 61
and institutional change 58
and institutions 144
Olson, Mancur 515
Olsson, J 637
Onley, J 273
open government 573
Open Method of Coordination 156–7, 320, 618, 624–5, 636
order, and governance 83
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 378, 395, 720
and Guidelines on the Protection of Privacy 601
and New Public Management 753
and regulatory governance 69
and research on governance 54
Organization of African Unity (OAU) 666
Organizational Sentencing Guidelines (OSGs, USA) 74–5
organizational theory:
and learning 161
and relationship between organizations and environment 197
and symbolic learning 159
Orwell, George 588
Osborne, D 191, 204, 283
Osmani, S R 462
Ostrom, Eleanor 87, 143–4
and institutions 144
and network governance 104
O’Sullivan, M 390
O’Toole, L J, Jr:
and network management 306
and networks 55
Ott, J C 145
Oxfam 330, 344, 457
Pacek, A C 145
Page, S 506
Painter, Martin 275
Pakistan 702
paradigmatic change, and reflexive social learning 156–7
participation 51, 56
and human development 459
and impact of governance 303–4
and network governance 108–9
and participatory governance 458see also participatory democracy; participatory governance
participatory democracy:
and participatory governance 462
and techno-scientific knowledge 435–6
participatory governance 457–8
and adoption of 457
and agonistic democracy 469n2
and capacity-building 460
and characteristics of 458, 533
and citizen competence 459
participatory governance (cont.)
(p. 790) and citizen juries 465, 467
and citizen participation 458
and co-optation 463
and collaboration 527
and conditions for 535
and consensus conferences 465, 467
and definition of 527
and deliberative democracy 465
and deliberative practices 457, 458
and democratic engagement 457
and efficiency of programs 460–1, 462
and empowered participatory governance 458, 463–4
background condition for 464
collaborative governance 504
institutional design characteristics 464
political principles of 464
and empowerment 459
and equity 460, 461, 462
and good governance 466–7
and health domain 536–7
absence from 527–8
introduction into 530
obstacles to influence within 535–6
patient choice 531–2
patient voice 533–4
and insights offered by 468
and marginalized citizens 459
and network governance 108
and non-governmental organizations 459, 467
and participatory democracy 462
and political representation 462, 467
and power relations 462–3
and principles of 533
and professional experts 467–8
and projects in 465
health council in Brazil 533
Kerala (India) 465, 466, 467
mixed outcomes 468–9
Porto Alegre (Brazil) 465–6, 467
and reluctance to participate 459–60
and service delivery 460–1
in workplace 541–2, 545
employee participation 545–7
forms of 547–9
partnerships:
and accountability 258
and administrative reform 193, 258
and classification of 258
and collaborative governance 504
and ministerial responsibility 258–9
and post-New Public Management reform 264
and stakeholder partnerships 501 see also public-private partnerships
patent regulations 434
path dependence:
and economic governance 389–90
and evolution of governance 58
and New Institutional Economics 87
and persistence of programs 123
and positive feedback 117
patronage:
and characteristics of systems of 270
and closed patronage 269, 270–1
decline of 271
non-democratic countries 271–2
and corruption 268
breaking link between 272
and depoliticized patronage 279
and development studies 269
and governance 272–3
Qatar 273–4
Thailand 274–5
United Kingdom 275–6
as incentive system 269
and interorganizational relationships 268
and logic of discipline 278–9
and modernization 269–70
and multi-level governance 278
and open patronage 269, 270–1, 278
distinction from pork barrel politics 271
as organizational and governmental resource 271
and party patronage 269
definition of 269
and political recruitment 268
and recasting of 271
and regulatory governance 277–9
and role of 268, 276–7, 279
non-democratic countries 271–2
Paulson, Henry 379
(p. 791) Pauly, L W 512
Pelkey, N W 501
Pemberton, H 163
performance management and measurement 115–16, 121–2
and administrative reform 191
and agentification 195
and experimentalist governance 169, 170, 171, 172, 173–4
and New Public Management 205
personalization agenda 531
persuasion, and decision-making 9
Peru 149
Peters, B G:
and decision-making 316
and governance without government 51, 528
and multi-level governance 637
and network governance 36
and state capacity 284
paradox of 289–90
and state-centered governance 11
Phelps, E S 402–3
philanthropic foundations 344
Phillips, A W H 402
Phillips curve 402
Phillips, S D 488
Piattoni, S 638
Pierce, N R 192
Pierre, J:
and governance without government 51, 528
and multi-level governance 637
and network governance 36
and state capacity 284
paradox of 289–90
and state-centered governance 11
Pierson, Paul 117
planning:
and collaborative planning 501, 502
and participatory governance 466
pluralism, and theories of the state 10–11
Poland 633
Polanyi, K 358, 431
policy cycles 732
and authority of international institutions 732–4
policy entrepreneurs 342
policy evaluation, and non-state actors 734
policy instruments and governance 242–3
and carrots (incentives) 245–6
disadvantages of 246
and classification of 242, 245–6
and environmental policy-making 243–4, 251
and hard vs soft instruments:
debate over 243–5
finance 245
limitations of distinction 245
and institutionalist theory 252
and instrument mixes 247–8, 249
cross-country variation 251
diversity of 252
private school governance 249–51
and policy context 246
and private school governance:
Australia 249–51
United Kingdom 251
United States 251
and proliferation of all types of 242, 252
and sermons (persuasion) 246
questionable effectiveness of 247
and sticks (prohibition or demand of actions) 246
disadvantages of 246–7
effectiveness of 247
and variations in:
national policy styles 248
policy sectors 248
policy-making:
and governance 474 see also global public policy
policy networks 104, 132, 244, 513–14
and collaborative governance 514
and deliberation 514
and network governance 35
and United Kingdom 35
policy styles 311
and consensual style 311
and European Union 317–21
bureaucracy 319
creation of institutionalized governance system 318–19
European Commission 319–20
(p. 792) governance approach 318
implementation 320–1
institutional constraint 319
interest groups 318–19, 319–20
judicialization 321
legitimacy 320
networks 319
Open Method of Coordination 320–1
policy-making 318
and factors influencing changes in 312–13, 321
and impositional style 311, 317
shift towards 312
and mixture of 315
and United Kingdom 248
changes in 315–17
and Western Europe 316–17
policy transfer, and instrumental learning 158
political advisors 342
political economy, and governance 132
political learning 158–9
political parties 237–8
and patronage 269
political theory, and governance 19, 23
contribution of:
basis for general comparison 23–4
integrating other approaches 25–6
linking normative and empirical questions 26–7
linking variety of fields 24–5
politicians:
and declining trust in 284
and governance 210
and New Public Management 210
politics:
and cybernetic governance 123–4
and governance, distinction between 690
and network governance 110
and technology, relations between 576–7
Pollitt, C 203, 205
pork barrel politics 271
Porto Alegre (Brazil), and participatory governance 465–6, 467
Posen, A S 405
post-New Public Management reform 255, 259–61
and characteristics of 256, 264
and collaboration 260–1, 264
and coordination 259, 260, 262, 263–4
as culturally oriented governance efforts 261
and goal of 259
and governance 256, 257
and horizontal dimension of 259–60
and implications of 264–5
and integration 259, 260, 262
and ‘joined-up government’ 259
and networks 257
and New Public Management:
differences between 256
as reaction against 264
supplanting of 261–2
supplementing of 264
and non-governance elements 262
and partnerships 264
and politicians’ role 256
and public service ethos 261
and rebalancing existing systems 264
and strengthening of central control 259
and wicked problems 260
and working across boundaries 260see also administrative reform; New Public Management (NPM)
post-parliamentary thesis 314–15
post-structuralism 45n13
Potoski, M 559, 562–3, 566
Powell, Woody 6
power, and network governance 110
power relations:
and governance 716–17
and participatory governance 462–3
and technology 577
Prakash, A 559, 560, 562–3, 566
Pratt, J 723
Preuss, U 519
principal-agent governance:
and legitimacy 175
and undermining of 174–5
principal-agent theory, and delegation 643
and controlling the agent 644
and reasons for 643–4
privacy governance 599–600
and APEC Privacy Framework 607
(p. 793) and challenge of 599
and corporate codes of conduct 607–8
and data privacy regulation:
cross-national variations 603
Fair Information Practice Principles 601, 602
and developments in 608–9
and European Union 605–6
Article 29 Working Party606, 607, 609
diffusion of European rules 606–7
European Data Privacy Directive 606
Safe Harbor Agreement (USA-EU) 608
and Fair Information Practice Principles 601, 602
and independent regulatory agencies 602
and organizational privacy preferences 604–5
and politics of:
alternative to European directive 607–8
diffusion of European rules 606–7
early national debates 604–5
European Union 605–6
influence of industry and politics 604–5
Safe Harbor Agreement (USA-EU) 608
and privacy regimes:
comprehensive 599, 602
cross-national variations 603
impact of 599–600, 603
institutional structure 603
limited 599, 602–3
trends towards comprehensive 600
and private sector self-regulation 600, 604, 608
corporate codes of conduct 607–8
and spread of privacy regulation 600
and technology, role of 603–4
as transnational issue 600
privatization 192, 372–3
and increased regulation 374
as political strategy 287
and reconfiguration of state structures 228
problem-solving, and collaborative governance 504
process:
and governance 700
and governance as 8, 9, 22, 131
Prodi, Romano 663
Provan, Keith:
and hollowing out of the state 202
and mental health networks 55
and network management 306
public administration theory 217
and innovation in public sector 218
and interactive forms of governance 217
public choice theory, and New Public Management 219
public expenditure, and fiscal governance 234
public goods, and good governance 143
public health, see health domain
public management reform, see administrative reform
public policy analysis, and governance 132
public-private collaboration, and regulatory governance 67
public-private distinction, and limited statehood 705–7
public-private partnerships 211–12
and administrative reform 193
and risk 422
public sector:
and barriers to cybernetic governance 123
and function of 21–2
and governance 21
and increasing expectations of 284
public service agreements (PSAs, UK) 37
public service ethos, and post-New Public Management reform 261
public sphere, and the Internet 572, 587
punctuated equilibrium 137–8
Qatar 273–4
Quack, Sigrid 392
Quality Service Review (QSR, USA) 173–4
quantitative easing 379
Råby, N 145
race to the bottom/top, and globalization 72
Radaelli, C 320
Radcliff, B 145
ratings agencies 719–20
rational choice, and governance 28
rational choice institutionalism 643
(p. 794) Rawls, John 151, 473
Ray, D M 396
Rayner, J 248
Reagan, Ronald 192
reasonable inaction principle 74
reciprocity, and networks 36
Rees, J 560
reflexive law, and regulatory governance 71–2
reflexive social learning 156–7
regime theory 24, 25
Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals (REACH, European Union) 422
regulated self-regulation 540
and anti-discrimination laws 544
and stakeholder participation 541
and workplace regulation 543–4
regulation:
and accountability 491
and appeal to governments 375
and Big Governance 13
and Big Government 13
and changes in 540
and civil regulation 376–7
and civil society 490–1
and competition 376
and cost-benefit analysis of 375
and ‘golden age’ of 745
and growth of 232
and hybrid systems of 14
and insatiable demand for 369
and international institutions:
agenda-setting 734
evaluation 734
monitoring 733
negotiation 732–3
rule enforcement 734
rule interpretation 733–4
and non-governmental organizations 326, 330–1, 377
and politicians’ motivations 557
and Regulatory Impact Assessment 375
and regulatory inflation 751
and renewed enthusiasm for strong regulation 379–80
and reregulation 745
and risk 419
and skepticism over 376
as social control 330
regulatory agencies, and economic governance 374–5
regulatory capitalism 69, 402, 632
regulatory capture 376
and delegated governance 233
regulatory change, and nature of 746
regulatory governance 65–6
and broad nature of regulations 71
and central challenge of 69
and collective action problems 556–7
and cooperative nature of 70–1
and discrimination 68
and future research 78
and globalization 72–3
and harnessing knowledge of private actors 69
and health and safety 68
and inadequacy of conceptual frameworks 746
and institutional culture 67–8
and institutional design 67–8
and meta-governance 69
and meta-regulation 69
and multinational firms 73
and patronage 277–9
and principles of:
adaptability 67
coordination 67
decentralization 67
diversity and competition 67
increased participation of non-state actors 66–7
integration of policy domains 67
learning 67
non-coerciveness (‘soft law’) 67
public-private collaboration 67
and reflexive law 71–2
and regulation of private market actors69
and regulatory pyramid 75
and regulatory state 69
and relational contracting 71
(p. 795) and relationship between firms and regulators 556
dynamic nature of 554
and reporting pyramid 76, 77
and reregulation 746
and social enforcement 73–7
avoidable harm doctrine 74
compliance programs 75
internal reporting procedures 73–5, 546
reasonable inaction 74
whistleblowing 73, 75–7, 546
and soft law 67, 72
Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) 375
regulatory markets 750–1
regulatory negotiation:
and collaborative governance 501, 502
and criteria for success:
achieving agreement 507
efficiency 507–8
social capital and knowledge benefits 508
stakeholder satisfaction 508
regulatory networks, and transnational governance 748
regulatory state 13, 69, 490, 747–8
and rise of 54, 375
and state capacity 285
reinforcement politics, and the Internet 588
Reinicke, Wolfgang 673
and global public policy 676, 677–8
relational contracting, and regulatory governance 71
representative democracy:
and challenge to 518–19
and collaborative governance 517–18
and governance 208, 210
tensions between 303
and New Public Management 210
and techno-scientific knowledge 435
representative institutions, and challenge to 473–4
reregulation 745
and transnational governance 750
resource distribution, and steering 37
responsibility, and regulation 751–2
responsive regulation 544
and market governance 366–8
Rhodes, Martin 311–12, 355
Rhodes, Rod 6
and definition of governance 206, 311, 319, 339
and finance in governance 246
and governance and change 7
and governance without government 51, 257
and hollowing out of the state 10, 11, 230
and interpretive governance 40
and meta-governance 69
and network governance 355, 485
and path dependence of evolution of governance 58
and (re)construction of governance 55
and self-governance 283
and waves of governance 282
Richardson, J 244, 248
and policy styles 311
and post-parliamentary thesis 314–15
Riksbank (Sweden) 401
risk:
and definition of 418
and disciplinary understandings of 420
and environmental policy-making 421
and European Union 422, 619
and governance 420–4
accountability 425
co-production 422–3, 425–6
efficacy as technique of 424
framing 423–4
meta-governance 421–2
public administration 421
relationship between 417, 420–1, 424, 426
as technique of 417
and governing 418–20
analysis of information 420
decision-making 420
enforcement and criminal justice 419
explaining and justifying role of the state 419
institutional context 420
public sector management reform 418–19
(p. 796) regulatory activity 419
and governmentality 719–21
and narratives about 423
and promotion of objective knowledge 419, 420
Risk and Regulation Advisory Council (RRAC, UK) 423
Risse, T 8, 12
Roberts, A 268, 277
Robichau, R W 57
Rodrik, D 145
Rogers, J 536
Rogoff, K 403
Rokkan, Stein 314
Romer, Christina 342
Ron, Amit 460
Rose, Richard 158
Rosenau, J N 692
and global governance 686–7, 688, 689
and governance without government 283–4
and structures 8
Rothstein, B 145, 151–2
Rouban, L 56
Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil 331
rowing, and multi-level governance 632
Rudd, Kevin 250
Rudiger, J 56, 57
Ruggie, John 690
rule enforcement, and international institutions 734
rule interpretation, and international institutions 733–4
rule of law 86
and democratic governance 86–7
and difficulty in defining 148–9
and good governance 148–9
rules:
and complexity theory 136–7
and steering 37
and transnational governance 749–50
Ryan, Paul 383
Sabatier, P A 297, 501
Sabel, C 156
Safe Harbor Agreement (USA-EU) 608
Sager, F 244
Sahlin-Andersson, K 258
Salamon, L M 283, 327
Salter, M B 720
Sanderson, I 156
Sarbanes-Oxley Act (USA, 2002)76, 369, 395, 565
Sartori, G 19, 29, 636
Sasakawa Foundation 344
Sassen, S 86, 680
Sbragia, A 635
Schaffer, L 452
Scharpf, F W 21, 132
and decision-making 119
and European Union governance 615, 618, 624
and network governance 34, 102, 209
Schengen Agreement 605
Schengen Information System 605–6
Scherlis, G, and patronage 268, 269, 271
Scheve, K 406
Schmidt, M 133
Schmidt, Vivien 163, 389, 391
Schmitter, P C 516, 630
Schneider, Volker 116
Scholte, J A 674, 678
Scholz, J T 556
Schout, A 12
Schrefler, L 163
Schumer, Charles 382
Schumpeter, Joseph 392–3
Schwartz, N 531
science and technology governance 429–30, 434
and centrality of 429
and future research:
effectiveness 437
legitimacy 437–8
multi-disciplinary approach 438
and shift from government to governance 430
and tension between self-organization and politics of purpose 431–2
and tensions between roles of experts and citizens 434–6
institutional arrangements 436
(p. 797) participatory democracy 435–6
representative democracy 435
transnational governance 751
and tensions between self-organization and politics of purpose:
changing social expectations of science 431–2
exacerbation of 432
government science policy 432
institutional heterogeneity 432
knowledge ownership 432
and tensions related to coordination 433–4
information and telecommunication technologies 433–4
intellectual property rights 434
technical standard-setting 433
and tensions within 430
intensification of 436
Science for the People (India) 466
Scott, C 748
Scott, J 67
securities trading, and institutional reform 232
security state 491
self-regulation 377, 555–6
by associations 377
and environmental regulation 555, 561–3
International Organization for Standardization 562–3, 566
program design 561–3
trade associations 561–2
and financial services 555, 560, 563, 564–5
and government-firm cooperation 557
and growing interest in 554
and the Internet 596
and loss of confidence in 379–80
and motives for adopting 555
firms 559–60
government 558–9
and network governance 102
and non-governmental organizations 329
as prevalent mode of regulatory governance 555
and privacy governance 600, 604, 608
and program design 560–1
commitment to process 561
environmental regulation 561–3
financial services 564–5
and regulatory governance 68–9, 71
and research questions 565–6
Selin, H 451–2
Sending, Ole Jacob 718, 719, 724
service provision:
and markets 490
and non-governmental organizations 326, 328–30
and participatory governance 460–1
Sevón, G 752
Sexton, K 506
Shabana, K M 395
shadow states 706
Shaffer, G 620
shareholder value 394–5
‘shiftology’, and governance 7–8
Shinawatra, Thaksin 275
Shleifer, A 394
Sidhu, R 726
Sikkink, K 332