Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). (c) Oxford University Press, 2015. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy).

date: 20 November 2017

(p. 1077) Subject Index

(p. 1077) Subject Index

acceptance 419–20, 1000
acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) 994–1004
accident victims 294
action planning 1057–8
action tendencies 18
activation 712
active-constructive responding 967–8
acts of kindness 968
acupuncture 416
adaptation 36, 42, 164, 178, 435, 436, 742–3, 807, 887, 888–9, 902
adaptive problem solving 879–80, 881
addiction 65
adjustment 168
adolescents
acceptance and commitment therapy 1003
depression 535–6
prefrontal cortex development 27
advertising 486, 488
affect; see also emotions
appreciations of life 167–8
brain activation 2
circumplex 712, 786
endowment–contrast model 49–50
mindfulness practice 392–3
priming 723
psychological capital 757–8
in work 696–7
work characteristic judgments 723–4
affective disorders, well-being therapy 1041–2
affective style 74
age; see also old age
friendship and happiness association 865–6
perception of 1026–8
relationships and happiness 827–8
subjective well-being 140, 176
air pollution 502
air travel 504–5
alcohol consumption 269, 273–4
alignment-related pathways 772–6
ambiguity 286, 287
amygdala 2
ānanda 374, 375
ancient Greeks 155–6, 174, 202, 216, 252–4, 332–3, 466–7
anomie 473–5
anticonsumerist movement 487
antidepressant efficacy, well-being therapy 1042–3
antidotes 353–4
antisocial activities 65
anxiety 19, 281
anxiety disorders 102–8, 1041–2
anxious attachment 835, 836
appraisal 722, 723, 756–7
appreciation 163, 167–8, 413–14
appreciative inquiry 587
approach 76, 102, 106–7, 109, 111–12
Aristippus 155, 202, 216
Aristotle 156, 202, 216, 254, 318–19, 466, 957
arousal 75
Arpey, Gerald 807–8
art of living 166, 168–9
artha 376, 379
arts policy 525
aspirations
Daoism 272
extrinsic and intrinsic 220–1
income aspirations and happiness 435–6
assimilation effects 42–3
assimilation resistance 236–7
attachment 834–43
basics of attachment theory 835
positive emotions 836–42
priming interventions 842–3
psychological well-being 836–7
social support 855
style of attachment 835
(p. 1078) attention
functional well-being approach 237
joint attention 21–2
meditation 389, 390–1
negative emotion-linked narrowing 19
positive emotion-linked broadening 18–20, 21–2
attitudes
to life 234
meditation 389
positive future-oriented 945, 948
attraction–selection–attrition framework 719–20
Australian Centre on Quality of Life (ACQOL) 189
authentic happiness theory 897
authenticity 283–4, 774–5
autonomy
coaching 1018
correlates of relative autonomy 219–20
education 542–3
eudaimonia 203–4
good functioning 236
healthcare 220
need for 217–18
in recovery 1056
at work 220
avoidance 76, 102, 104, 1000
avoidant attachment 835, 836
avoidant persistence 1002
awareness 222
awareness-identity 378
awe 413
baby boomers 564
balance theory of wisdom 632–4
basic needs 541
behavior
changing with acceptance and commitment therapy 998–1002
indicator of happiness 192–3
behavioral activation 968–9
bereavement 24
Best Possible Selves exercise 969
Bhutan 2, 518
bicultural strategy 63–4
binary opposites 327, 328
biofeedback 597
biopsychosocial paradigm 427
biotope 163
bipolar spectrum disorders 111–12
blood pressure 788–9
board of directors 804
Bounce Back! 573–4
brain activity
affective style 2
meditation 391, 417
social anxiety 106
brain development 27
brain plasticity 942
breast cancer 934, 935
broaden-and-build theory 18–25, 230, 385, 840–1
appraisal process 723
embodied cognition 28
neuroscience of 25–7
positive emotions 27–8
psychological capital 757
psychological well-being 790–1
social transmission 28
Buddhism 344–55, 357–68
antidote use 353–4
dependent origination 365
dukkha 346
ethics 354–5
familiarization work 353
karma 354, 365–6
meditation 359, 363–5, 385–6, 389–90
negative emotions 349–51, 352–5
pristine mindfulness meditation 363–5
relational Buddhism 367–8
samsara 344
suffering 346–8
sukha 81, 344
Buddhist psychology 360–3, 385
buffering 680, 683
burnout 715, 805–6
calling 405, 701–2, 773
Cantril ladder 55–6
capability 169
capitalization support 853
cardiovascular health 788–90
career orientation 701–2
case formulation 1018
catastrophic thinking 107
causality, locus of 66
Celebrating Strengths framework 584–6
celebrity 547
cell birthdates 941–2
challenge–hindrance stressor framework 715–16
challenges 62, 65–6, 67–8
chances 161, 162–3
change enhancement 1057
Changes in Outlook Questionnaire 928
character strengths
collaborative recovery model 1057
depression reduction 111
educating about 653, 662–3
executive well-being 801
organizational settings 755
charitable giving 95–7, 126
Check & Connect program 616–17
Chi-Tze 357–8
children
depression 535–6
measuring happiness of 192–3
well-being therapy 1045
Chinese 263–77, 466
choice 894–5, 897
choice–judgment discrepancy 51–4
old age 1032
Christianity 254–6
chronic illness
acceptance and commitment therapy 1003
health coaching 1012–13
cigarette smoking 439
circumplex model 712, 786
climate change 502–3
clinical psychology 362
coaching 1009–22
autonomy 1018
case formulation 1018
collaborative recovery model 1058–61
competence 1017–18
definition 1009–10
educational settings 1013–14
effectiveness 1010–14
executives 1011, 1013
goal articulation and attainment 1010
health coaching 1012–13
life coaching 1011–12
relatedness 1016–17
self-determination theory 1014, 1015–16, 1018
supporting self-determined living 1018–20
well-being and 1014–21
in the workplace 1011, 1013
cognition
appreciations of life 167
embodied cognition 28–9
positive emotion-linked broadening 20
psychological capital 756–7
cognitive appraisal 756–7
cognitive balance 392
cognitive behavioral psychology 362
cognitive behavioral therapy 572, 962
cognitive defusion 1000
cognitive dissonance 928–9
cognitive flexibility 20
cognitive fusion 1000
cognitive impairment, happiness measurement 192–3
coherence 66
collaborative goal technology 1057
collaborative recovery model 1050–63
collectivist cultures 143, 178, 455, 485
committed action 1002
common method variance 824, 828, 864
community
resource centers based in 64
threat from consumer culture 486–7
community of enquiry 583
community service 623–4
comparisons 740–1
compassion 94, 414
competence 217, 1017–18
complete state model of mental health 331
computer games 600–1
conation 390, 758–9
confidence 753
conflict resolution 125–6
Confucianism 263–4, 265–6, 267, 269, 466
connectedness 945, 947
constitutional policy 433, 443
(p. 1080) consumer culture theory 482, 485–7
well-being in consumer societies 483–5, 487–8
consumer-defined recovery in mental health 1051–2
consumer-targeted intervention 1062
contentment 293, 419–20
context
acceptance and commitment therapy 995–6
flow 61
priming old age 1028–31
at work 699–701
contingent models 36–7
contingent valuation method 441
continuum opposites 327, 328
contradictory opposites 327, 328
contraries 328
contrast
adaptation as 42
probability and 45
range-frequency theory 35–6
social comparison 47
well-being 55–6
contrast–empathy model social comparison 47–9
control
locus of 66, 564
perceived control in old age 1031–2
coping 66, 125, 807–8
Coping with Stress Course 615
core affect 232
core self-evaluations 721, 723
core strengths 773–4
cortical-basal ganglia loops 27
counter-exampling 322
counterclockwise study 1029
creativity
happiness 126
positive emotions 20
resilience 664
success in workplace 123
teaching wisdom 639
crime 526
critical thinking 639
Croesus 252–4
cultivation theory 488
cultural change, flow 63–4
cultural differences
flow 62–4
identity and consumerism 485
income/subjective well-being link 141
relationships/happiness link 828
societal well-being 455
subjective well-being 143–4, 178
cultural pursuits 525
cultural response bias 194
data cleaning 191
day reconstruction method 139, 176
deactivating strategies 835–6
defusion 1000
deliberate practice 237–8
delusion 294
demands, resources and 66
dependent origination 365
depression 109–11
burden of 915
children and adolescents 535–6
cognitive behavioral therapy 962
emotional reactivity 110
happiness-focused interventions 963
positive psychotherapy 987
sub-threshold symptoms 962–3
well-being therapy 1037, 1042
depressive disorders 109–12
deprivation 169–70
desecration 407
desire 292, 350
development
flow 61
meaning in life 945
prefrontal cortex 27
psychological capital 759–60
spirituality 414–16
dharma 376, 378, 379, 380–1
diabetes control 124
diagnosis of illness 933–4
dialectic 1015
dialectical thinking 638
dialogical thinking 638
dialysis patients 307–8
differentiation 601
(p. 1081) direct democracy 526
disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) 915
discrepancy theories 186–7
Dispositional Flow Scale 62
divorce 141, 407, 490, 825
dopaminergic system 26, 106, 230
downsizing 680
driving lessons 600
drug addiction 65
duhkha 81, 375
dukkha 346
Dunn, Patricia 798
dynamic equilibrium theory 743, 889–90, 902
dysdaimonia 331
Easterlin paradox 141, 428–9, 435, 889–91
ecological fallacy 456
economic analysis of happiness 433–4
economic growth 176
economy 2–3, 509–10
education; see also teachers
autonomy in 542–3
basic needs provision 541
biofeedback 597
Bounce Back! 573–4
Celebrating Strengths framework 584–6
Check & Connect program 616–17
classroom practice 579–89
coaching role 1013–14
cross-curricular approach 555–7
differentiation techniques 601
disengagement problems 616
educating for happiness 645, 650–5
emotional intelligence 596–8
evidence-based teaching strategies 572
feedback 601–2
flourishing 648
flow 582, 600–1
Geelong Grammar School project 584, 657–67
as happiness 645, 647–50
happiness as an aim 646–7
happiness lessons 551–61
health-related 652–3
high school positive psychology program 620–2
history of well-being programs 593–4
humor research 598–9
indoctrination fears 559–60
KidsMatter 573
life-planning 547–8
on meaning and purpose 654
meaningful activities 583, 586
meditation skills 598
mindfulness in the classroom 582–3, 597–8
Penn Resiliency Program 572, 584, 593, 617–20, 660–1, 663
personal and social education 553–4
personal development education 552–61
Personal, Social, Health and Economic Education 593–4
policy development 522
positive education 536, 568, 580, 657–67
positive emotions 581–2, 595–6
praise 601–2
relationship management 545, 653
religious perspective 542
SEAL 560, 572–3, 596
self-esteem movement 565–6, 603, 665
self-regulation 598
social and emotional learning movement 567, 612–13
storytelling 582, 584–5
strengths-based approach 653, 662–3
Strengths Gym 585, 587
student well-being 568–74
success link 546–7
teaching for wisdom 634–40
teaching positiveness 1033
UK Resilience Programme 522, 594
value issues 560
well-being and 540–9
well-being therapy 1043–5
Wellington College happiness lessons 647, 650–4
whole-school approach 554–5, 570, 584–6
work aspect of 548–9
worthwhile pursuits 541–9
Zippy's Friends 593
ego depletion 25, 127
egocentrism 345–6
egocentrism fallacy 635
electroencephalogram 106, 391
elevation 413
embodied cognition 28–9
emotional contagion 28, 720, 724–5
emotional happiness 186
emotional intelligence 73–84, 166
education environments 596–8
emotionally intelligent happiness 79–83
facilitating function 76–8
health effect 79
social outcomes 78
successful living 78–9
emotional state theories 303, 308–10
emotional well-being and perceived social support 848–9
emotions; see also affect; negative emotions; positive emotions
action tendencies 18
evolutionary perspective 876–7
executive well-being 807
facilitation role 76
feelings and 229
freeing 354
functions 75–6, 229–31
generalized anxiety disorder 108
as messengers 75
in mind 348–9
motivation role 75–6
reactivity in depression 110
roller coaster metaphor 74
transcendent 413–14
weather metaphor 81
empathic happiness 839
empathy 47
employment contracts 697–8
enacted work design 718, 721–2
endorsement 310
endowment–contrast (E–C) model 35–56
affective version 49–50
choice–judgment discrepancy 54
decomposition 39–44
extensions 46–50
generalization 44–5
historical context 35–7
methodological influences 36–7
real-life applications 50–1
well-being 55–6
energy conservation 505
engagement 309–10, 582–3, 621, 964, 967–9, 981–2
building 967–9
definition 4
at work 772–5
Enlightenment 256–9
environment
concern for 506
relationship development 877
resilience promotion 610–11
sustainable development 498–511, 526–7
at work 700, 734–9
Epictetus 332–3
Epicurus 155, 332, 467
Eriksen flanker task 19
ethical-disengagement fallacy 635
ethics
Buddhism 354–5
as duties 679
values and 633, 639
eudaimonia 201–11
abstractness 208
autonomy 203–4
causes 207–8
conceptions 201, 202–6
defining 209–10
definition 4
factor analysis 206
form of well-being 207
life of meaning 205
motives for activities 205–6
opposite of 331
outcomes 210
personal expressiveness 204–5
philosophical conceptions 202, 216, 253–4, 263
predictors 210–11
psychological well-being 4, 204
reflective equilibrium 318
religious conceptions 202–3
subjectivity 208
subtlety 208
theoretical conceptions 203
(p. 1083)
values 208–9
way of acting 206–7, 209–10
eudaimonic happiness 170–1, 676
eudaimonic well-being 81
evaluability model 53–4
evaluations 232–4
everyday democracy 526
evolutionary psychology 875–82
executive attention 19
executive coaching 1011, 1013
executive well-being 798–810
burnout 805–6
character strengths 801
cultural myths 809
definition 799–800
emotions 807
gender differences 808–9
professional supports 803–4
self-awareness 802
self-reliance 803
social isolation 806
socialized power motivation 802–3
stress 805
toxic effects of emotions 807
traumas and tragedies 807–8
exercise 525, 527, 933
existential opposites 329
existentialism 285–6
experience sampling method 62, 139
experience utility 51
experimental philosophy 323–4
expertise 237–8
expressive writing 969
external locus of control 564
external qualities of life 162
external regulation 219
extraversion 142, 828, 889–90, 896
extrinsic aspirations 220–1
extrinsic goals 489–90, 508
extrinsic motivation 218–19
Facebook 881
facial expression processing 106
factor analysis 191–2, 206
faith schools 542
fame 547
familiarization 353
family policy 521–2
fear 19
feedback 601–2, 776
feelings 228–32
fitness 163–4, 876–7
Flourish Program 1062
flourishing 3, 81, 384–6
educational environments 648
meditation 388
mental illness 331
positive emotions 23
flow 60–8, 204, 237, 309
assessment 61–2
contextual dimension 61
cultural differences 62–4
development 61
developing countries, flow in 63, 64
dimensions 60
dynamic aspect 61
engagement 968–9, 981–2
features 60–1
historical perspective 65–7
learning environment 582, 600–1
misuse of 64–5
personality factors 67–8
psychological structure 61
role of 61
technology use 68
work-related 68, 523
Flow Questionnaire 61–2
Flow State Scale 62
flying 504–5
focus of recovery 1053
folk concepts 323–4
foolishness 634–5
foreign language teaching 640
forgiveness 94, 414, 807
freedom 285, 286
French women, well-being 55
friendship 860–7, 880–1, 896
fulfillment 582–3
full life 983
fully functioning 203
function well 235–8
functional contextualism 997–8
functional well-being 171–2, 228, 229, 231, 232, 236–7
fundamental attribution errors 1032
future
attitude orientated towards 945, 948
expectations about 44–5
fear of 1000–1
gambling 65
gamma oscillations 391
GDP 1–2, 451, 455
Geelong Grammar School project 584, 657–67
gender differences
executive well-being 808–9
friendship and happiness association 865
relationships and happiness 826–7
subjective well-being 140
generalizability theory 850
generalized anxiety disorder 107–8, 1042
genetic factors
perceived social support 854
subjective well-being 177, 890, 891, 902
Gentle Teaching 580–1
geography of happiness 465–78
German Socio-Economic Panel 888, 891–2
global processing 19
goals; see also life goals
aspirations 220–1
attainment 221–2
bipolar spectrum disorders 112
coaching 1010
subjective well-being 138
intrinsic and extrinsic 489–90, 508
job goals 721
ownership 1019–20
pursuit 221, 945, 947–8
striving 879, 1057
Good Work Project 523
goodness 93–7
Graham, Katherine 808
Grant, Joseph, M. 801
gratitude journal 966, 986
gray matter 27
green initiatives 527
green spaces 501
GROW 1018
guna 379
habitability 162
habitat 163
happiness
accurate-positive-self-appraisal 298–300
aggregate indicators 442–3
aim of education 646–7
ancient Greek philosophy 252–4
attachment 834–43
behavioral indicators 192–3
Buddhist view 81, 344–55
Christianity's philosophy 254–6
classroom practices 579–89
close relationships 821–30; see also marriage
construct 185–9
creativity 126
criteria of descriptive and normative adequacy 317
cross-cultural equivalence of measurements 193–4
early Chinese thought 263–77
economic analysis 433–4
educating for 645, 650–5
education as 645, 647–50
egocentrism 345–6
emotional intelligence 79–83
emotional state theories 303, 308–10
endorsement 310
engagement 309–10
Enlightenment 256–9
evolutionary psychological perspective 875–82
friendship 860–7, 880–1, 896
geography of 465–78
health link 124–5, 126–7, 880
illusion of 291–3
importance of 311–13
income level 123, 434–6
Indian tradition 372–3
job characteristics 734–9, 744–6
lessons in 551–61
life goal choices 894–5
life satisfaction 303, 305–8
(p. 1085)
long-term psychological sense of 304
longevity 124
marriage 122–3, 824–6, 880
materialism 880
meaning of 170, 171, 185–6, 466–8, 676, 1068
measurement 120, 189–96, 310–11, 860–1
mental processes 739–44
multiple definitions 3–4
opposites of 326–35
organizational virtuousness 682–4
perceived social support 847–56
pleasure and 346
as positive emotions 330
positive self-appraisal 297–300
positive state of mind 293–6
prosocial behavior 126
psychological capital 756–9
psychological well-being 786–7
purely objective standards 296
purely subjective standards 297–8
relationship success 122–3, 125–6
religiousness 97–9, 895–6
rewards of 119–28
roller coaster of emotions 74
scientific study 11–12, 156
self-reports 120, 310–11
social relationships 122–3, 125–6
spending and saving money 488–9
standards 296–300
subjective well-being 186–9, 330
sustainable happiness model 903–5
unemployment 436–8
virtuousness link 682–4
wealth link 80, 880
well-being sense of happiness 304–5
work design 711–25
work success 123
yearning for 7–8
happy endings 46
Hard Times (Dickens) 644–5
hardiness 66
hatred 350–1
health
autonomy in 220
coaching 1012–13
definition 4
educating about 652–3
emotional intelligence 79
happiness link 124–5, 126–7, 880
meditation benefits 417–18
negative health 165
policy development 524
positive health 166
psychological well-being 788–9
self-perceived 880
subjective well-being link 144
heart attacks 789
hedonia 201
hedonic adaptation prevention model 905–8
Hedonic and Eudaimonic Motives for Activities scale 206
hedonic approach 3, 4, 216
hedonic happiness 581–2, 676, 981
hedonic treadmill 36, 82, 137, 178, 902
hedonic value 42
hedonic well-being 80–1
hedonism 542
reflective equilibrium 318
heliotropism 683–4
helping behavior 126
heritability, see genetic factors
Hewlett Packard 808–9
high blood pressure 788–9
Hinduism/Sanātana Dharma 371–82, 416
ānanda 374, 375
artha 376, 379
dharma 376, 378, 379, 380–1
duhkha 375
goals of life 376–7
guna 379
kāma 376, 379
moksha 376, 379, 380
panchakosha 377–8
paramapurushārtha 378
preyas 373–5
purushārtha 376
shreyas 373–5
sthitaprajna 375
sukha 375
Upanishads 373–5, 377–8
history teaching 640
homeostasis 188–9
hope 752–3
household waste recycling 506
Howard Hughes Corporation 803, 804
hunter-gatherers 878
hyperactivating strategies 835–6
hypertension 788–9
hypnotism 293–4
“I” 351
I-deals 717
identified regulation 219
identity
awareness-identity 378
consumerism 484–5
meaning in life 945–6
positive identity construction 769–71
three aspects 351
work and 696
illness diagnosis 933–4
immediate experience sampling measures 55
immigrants 64
immune function 124–5, 127
imperial power motivation 803
impulsivity 1002
inaction 1002
inclusion/exclusion model 45
income; see also wealth
happiness 123, 434–6
subjective well-being 141–2, 144, 176–7, 469, 470, 472–3, 491–2
well-being 697–8
Indian psychology 379–80
individualist cultures 143, 178, 455, 485
individuation 203
indoctrination 559–60
inequality 11, 469–71, 472, 528
informant reports 139–40
information processing 854
integrated regulation 219
intentional action 365–6, 903–4
internal qualities of life 162
international cooperation programs 64
internet use 68, 880–1
interventions
acceptance and commitment therapy 994–1004
commercial market 958
consumer-targeted 1062
insecure attachment 842–3
intentional activities 904
mindfulness-based 361, 388, 392–3, 418, 1001
person-activity fit 971–2
positive interventions 964–70
positive psychotherapy 970, 978–89
post-traumatic growth 934–5
psychological capital training 759–60
rewards of happiness 121–2
self-help 963
social support 855
staff-targeted 1062
subjective well-being 178–9
systemic 1061–3
well-being therapy 1037–46
work-oriented 746
intrinsic aspirations 220–1
intrinsic goals 489–90, 508
intrinsic motivation 66–7, 218
intrinsically motivated orientation 67
introjected regulation 219
intuition pumps 321
invulnerability fallacy 635
item response theory 460
item weighting 190–1
job characteristics 714–15, 734–9, 744–6
job crafting 717, 773
job demands-control 715
job demands-resources 68, 715
job design 698
job enrichment 714, 772
job goals 721
job interviews 720
job orientation 701–2
job performance 787
job satisfaction 46–7, 523, 698–9, 784–5, 788, 878
joint attention 21–2
judgment
choice–judgment discrepancy 51–4
contingent models 36–7
kāma 376, 379
karma 354, 365–6
(p. 1087) KidsMatter 573
language 996
latent work design 718–21
laughter 598–9
leadership 792
leadership teams 803–4
learned optimism 572
learning difficulties 580–1
life-ability 162–3, 165–6
life coaching 1011–12
life goals
choices and happiness 894–5
Hinduism 376–7
pursuit and attainment 220–2
Life Journey Enhancement Tools (LifeJET) 1058
life of meaning 205
life philosophy 927
life-planning 547–8
life satisfaction 4, 135, 234, 303, 305–8, 441–2
German Socio-Economic Panel data 888, 891–2
perceived social support 848
positive emotions 23
religious involvement 895–6
set-points 892–4
life visioning 1057
limitations 287–8
literary examples 322–3
literature teaching 640
livability 162, 164–5
local environment and well-being 501–2
local processing 19
local well-being 473–5
locus of causality 66
locus of control 66, 564
loneliness 473–5
loneliness of command 806
longevity 124, 144
love of life 282
loving-kindness meditation 23, 122, 385, 965–6
makarios 255
“Making Listening Special” 580–1
marriage
happiness 122–3, 824–6, 880
sanctification 399–400, 401–2, 403
subjective well-being 140–1, 176
mastery 968–9
mate attraction 880, 881
materialism 488–90, 507–9, 880
maternal positive affect 22
maturity 203
Mayer–Salovey model 596–7
meaning 583, 621, 941–51, 964, 982
across the lifespan 949–50
building 969–70
in the classroom 583, 586
comprehension 943, 944–5
conceptualization 942–3
connectedness 945, 947
contents of 944
definition 943
development 945
educating about 654
elements 943
experiencing 943
goal pursuit 945, 947–8
identity 945–6
model of lifelong meaning 944–5
optimal functioning 236
positive future-oriented attitudes 945, 948
purpose and 943, 944–5
relationships 944, 947
religion 98
search for 300–1, 943–4
self-in-world views 945, 948–9
at work 699, 714
mechanistic view 997–8
media effects 488
medical model 332, 979
meditation
affective balance 392
attention 389, 390–1
attitude 389
brain activity 391, 417
Buddhist tradition 359, 363–5, 385–6, 389–90
calm abiding 387–8
in the classroom 598
definition 386–8
flourishing 388
(p. 1088)
health benefits 417–18
insight 387–8
intention and 389
loving-kindness 23, 122, 385, 965–6
mental balance 390–3
mindfulness-based 359, 363–5, 389–93
neuroscience 389–90
optimism 392
psychological approaches 389–93
memory, endowment–contrast model 38
mental balance 390–3
mental flourishing 331
mental health
complete state model 331
consumer-defined recovery 1051–2
dual continua model 916–19
policy development 524
positive mental health promotion and protection 915–23
stability of 919–20
well-being 712–13
mental illness
disability-adjusted life years 915
dual continua model 916–19
flourishing 331
mental processes 739–44
metaphysical comfort 265
MIDUS study 822, 917–19
Milestone School 580–1, 582
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) 498
mindfulness 222, 388, 1027–8
in the classroom 582–3, 597–8
mental balance 390–3
psychological approaches 389–93
mindfulness-based interventions 361, 388, 392–3, 418, 1001
mindfulness meditation 359, 363–5, 389–93
mindlessness 1027
minorities 64
moksha 376, 379, 380
money and happiness 488–9; see also income; wealth
mood as information 38, 43–4
mood disorders, well-being therapy 1041–2
mood happiness 186
mood propensity 309
morally unworthy 293
mortality reduction 124
mortality salience 934
motivation
age-related differences 1032–3
emotions as motivators 75–6
eudaimonia 205–6
executive well-being 802–3
extrinsic 218–19
intrinsic 66–7, 218
multiple discrepancy theory 138
music 267–9
natural selection 876–7
nature, sanctification of 406
Navajo 63–4
need fulfillment 138
negative emotions
attention narrowing 19
avoidance motivation 75–6
in Buddhism 349–51, 352–5
as facilitators 76
generalized anxiety disorder 108
messages relayed by 75
positive psychotherapy 985–6
strategic interference theory 878–9
undoing by positive emotions 24–5
value of 128, 229
weak and substantive opposite of positive emotions 330
well-being 80
negative health 165
negotiation 125–6
neighborhood networks 526
neo-positivist research 482–3
neuroplasticity 942
neuropsychology 361–2
neuroscience
broaden and build effects 25–7
meditation 389–90
neuroticism 142, 721, 723, 889, 890, 896
new economics foundation 958–9
noble values 413
noise pollution 505
normative questions 316
North Karelia project 525
(p. 1089) nuclear power stations 502
nucleus accumbens 27
nun study 124, 144
occupation, see job headings; work
occupational strain management programs 746
old age
giving choices 1032
meaning in life 948–9
motivation 1032–3
perceived control 1031–2
policy development 524–5
priming 1028–31
socially constructed world 1031
stereotyping 1026–8
Olympic medalists 53, 741
omnipotence fallacy 635
omniscience fallacy 635
optimal experience 60, 1040; see also flow
optimal functioning 235–8
optimism
depression risk 108, 111
meditation 392
positive organizational behavior framework 753
subjective well-being 177
orbitofrontal cortex 27
organismic-dialectic 1015
organismic valuing theory 931–2
organismic wellness 214–15
organizational health 784
organizations; see also work
collaborative recovery model 1062
definition of healthy organizations 784
downsizing 680
executive well-being 798–810
history of well-being research 784–5
positive organizational behavior 752–6
positive organizational scholarship 2, 671
psychological capital 751–62
social capital 682–3
virtuousness 676–86
outcomes
eudaimonia 210
positive psychotherapy 987
post-traumatic growth 932–3
quality of life 161, 163
subjective well-being 144, 179
own-race bias 21
Oxford Happiness Inventory 194–5
pain management 1003
panchakosha 377–8
paramapurushārtha 378
parents
evolutionary perspective 879
positive emotions and child development 22
resilience program for 623
sanctification of parenting 404–5
work-family enrichment 703
Pareto optimality 52–3
PATHS program 615
Penn Resiliency Program 572, 584, 593, 617–20, 660–1, 663
PepsiCo 806
Perceived Benefit Scales 928
perceived control in old age 1031–2
perceived social support 847–56
perceived work design 718, 722–4
“person” 351
person-activity fit 971–2
personal and social education 553–4
personal development education 552–61
personal expressiveness 204–5
personal growth 236–7
personal identity, see identity
personal recovery 1051–2
personal salience 743
Personal, Social, Health and Economic Education 593–4
Personal Synthesis Program 560
Personal Well-being Index (PWI) 196
personality
flow 67–8
perceived social support 849–51
subjective well-being 136–7, 142–3, 177, 889
well-being 713
worker happiness 744–5
perspective taking 775–6
philosophical method 315–24
physical body, sanctification of 406
(p. 1090) physical exercise 525, 527, 933
picture processing 20
Platt, Lew 808–9
pleasant life 581–2, 621, 981
pleasure 964
affect circumplex 712
building 965–7
feeling or evaluation 231–2
happiness and 346
Indian tradition 372–3
role 230
in Upanishads 373–5
pleasure principle 203
policy decisions
age-related 524–5
arts 525
constitutional level 433, 443
cultural pursuits 525
education-related 522
environmental sustainability 526–7
family-related 521–2
happiness research involvement 440–3
health-related 524
politico-economic process 433, 440–3
redistribution 528
safety 526
social capital 526
sports 525
subjective well-being 428
well-being 517–28
work-related 522–4
pollution 502, 505
positional concerns 53
positional goods 547
Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) 175, 330, 786, 837, 908–9
positive education 536, 568, 580, 657–67
positive emotions
action tendencies 18
approach motivation 76
attachment patterns 836–42
attention broadening 18–20, 21–2
bereavement 24
broaden-and-build theory 18–25, 230, 385, 840–1
classification of distinct emotions 27–8
cognitive flexibility 20
coping skills 125
creativity 20
ego depletion 25
embodied cognition 28–9
as facilitators 76
flourishing 23
functions 230–1
happiness as 330
joint attention 21–2
in learning environments 581–2, 595–6
life satisfaction 23
loving-kindness meditation 122
messages relayed by 75
parental 22
perceived social support 848–9, 852
pleasant life 981
positive outcomes 80
problem solving 20
psychological capital 757
psychopathology 101–13
reflected best self 771
resilience 23–5, 125
social anxiety 105–6
social cognition 21
social transmission 28
success 120
therapeutic focus 980
thought–outcome contingencies 25–6
undoing negative emotions 24–5
virtuousness 682
weak and substantive opposite of negative emotions 330
well-being 22–3, 80
positive health 166
positive identity construction 769–71
positive mental health promotion and protection 915–23
positive organizational behavior 752–6
positive organizational scholarship 2, 671
positive psychology 1–2, 568, 713
high school program 620–2
recovery and 1052
positive psychotherapy 970, 978–89
Positive Psychotherapy Inventory 987
positive self-appraisal 297–300
positive state of mind 293–6
positivity 331
post-traumatic growth 926–36 (p. 1091)
dimensions 927
facilitating 934–5
operationalizing the construct 928–30
outcome prediction 932–3
physical exercise 933
post-traumatic stress and 927
predicting 930
self-protective illusion 929–930
theoretical perspectives 931–2
Post-traumatic Growth Inventory 928
post-traumatic stress disorder 104, 927, 1043
power motivation 802–3
practical thinking 639
practice 237–8
praise 601–2
predicted utility 51
preference 896, 897
happy endings 46
reversals 36–7, 52
preference drift 46–7
prefrontal cortex 2, 27
prejudice 93–4
preventive stress management model 805
preyas 373–5
pristine mindfulness 363–5
proactive behaviors 717–18
probability, expectations about the future 45
problem solving 20, 619, 879–80, 881
Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) program 615
promoting and protecting mental health 915–23
prosocial behavior 126
proxy data 191
psychic affirmation 310
psychic flourishing 310
psychic orientation 310
psychological capital (PsyCap) 751–62
affective mechanism 757–8
cognitive mechanism 756–7
conative mechanism 758–9
definition 754
developing 759–60
happiness and well-being 756–9
positive organizational behavior 752–6
social mechanism 759
psychological empowerment 714
psychological needs 217
psychological selection 61
psychological well-being
attachment patterns 836–7
broaden-and-build approach 790–1
cardiovascular health 788–9
characteristics 786–7
eudaimonic model 4, 204
happiness as 786–7
workers 783, 787–8, 792, 793
Psychological Well-being Scale 204
psychotherapy 979
positive psychotherapy 970, 978–89
public goods 441–2
public policy, see policy decisions
public transport 504
pulse product 789, 790, 791–2
purpose 943, 944–5, 982
educating about 654
religiousness 98
at work 696, 772–3
purushārtha 376
quality of life 4, 161–4
range-frequency theory 35–6
rational consumer hypothesis 438–40
reality principle 203
reconstructive analysis 317
recovery approach
consumer-defined recovery 1051–2
positive psychology 1052
service provision 1052–8
recycling household waste 506
redistributive policies 528
reflected best self 767–77
reflective equilibrium 317–20
reflective thinking 636
Reinemund, Steve 806
relatedness 217, 1016–17
relational Buddhism 367–8
relational frame theory 996–7
relational interbeing 367–8
(p. 1092) relational regulation theory 853–4
relational self 360
relationships; see also marriage
affirmation 775–6
age differences 827–8
assessment 822
attachment and positive emotions 838
cultural differences 828
educating about 545, 653
emotional intelligence 78
engaging in 967–8
environmental barriers 877
friendship 860–7, 880–1, 896
gender differences 826–7
good functioning 236
importance of for happiness 823–4
lessons in 653
meaning in life 944, 947
partner happiness 839–40
post-traumatic growth 927
psychological capital 759
reflected best self 771
resilience 611–12
sanctification 403
subjective well-being 144, 177
success and happiness 122–3, 125–6
at work 700
releasement 284
religion and religiousness; see also Buddhism; Hinduism/Sanātana Dharma
benefits of beliefs 411–12
charitable giving 95–7
Christianity's philosophy of happiness 254–6
education sector 542
engaging in and well-being 88–99
eudaimonic thought 202–3
goodness 93–7
happiness link 97–9, 895–6
meaning and purpose 98
prejudice 93–4
self-control 98
social support 98
subjective well-being 142, 176
terror management 99
virtues 94
volunteerism 94–5
reminiscences 969–70
resilience 610–12
creativity 664
environments promoting 610–11
parent program 623
Penn Resiliency Program 572, 584, 593, 617–20, 660–1, 663
positive emotions 23–5, 125
positive organizational behavior framework 753
relationships 611–12
teacher program 622–3
trauma response 103
UK Resilience Programme 522, 594
resolution 284
resources, demands and 66
reward 26–7; see also success
Romanian orphanage children 22
rumination 931, 1001
safety policy 526
salutogenesis 66
samsara 344
Sanātana Dharma, see Hinduism/Sanātana Dharma
sanctification 397–408
benefits 408
defining 398–401
marriage 399–400, 401–2, 403
nature 406
non-theistic 400–1
parenting 404–5
physical body 406
sexuality 403–4
strivings 402–3
theistic 399–400
threats to 407
work 405–6
Sarbanes-Oxley Act (2002) 804
Sarkozy, Nicolas 3, 12, 519
satisfaction treadmill 907
satisfaction with life, see life satisfaction
Satisfaction with Life Scale 175, 195–6
saving money 489
savoring 965, 986
Scales of Psychological Well-being 195
(p. 1093) scheme theory 236
schizophrenic-spectrum disorders 113
schools; see also education
classroom practice 579–89
policy development 522
well-being therapy 1043–5
whole-school approach 554–5, 570, 584–6
science teaching 640
scientific knowledge 11
scientific paradigm 888
Seattle Social Development program 615
SEED skills 649
selection interviews 720
self 351–2
Buddhist understanding 351–2, 360–1
post-traumatic growth 927
reflected best self 767–77
well-being and sense of self 377–8
self-actualization 66, 166, 203
self-appraisal 297–300
self-awareness 802
self-content vs self-context 1001
self-control 98, 439
self-deception 285–6
self-determination theory 66–7, 236
coaching efficacy 1014, 1015–16, 1018
good life 218–22
materialism 489
meta-theoretical and theoretical underpinnings 217–18
self-efficacy 66, 68, 664–5, 742
self-esteem 177, 565–6, 603, 665
self-expansion 21
self-fulfillment 312
self-help 962–3
self-in-world views 945, 948–9
self-perceived health 880
self-realization 374
self-reflection 931
self-regulation
anxiety disorders 102–3, 104, 105–6, 108
in the classroom 598
self-reliance 803
sense of coherence 66
September 11 attacks 24, 93, 680, 807–8
set-point theory 136, 137, 188–9, 887, 888, 890, 891, 892–4, 897, 902
sexual relationships
sanctification 403–4
social anxiety 106
shared method variance 824, 828, 864
shattered assumptions theory 931
shift work 699
shopping 483
shreyas 373–5
signature strengths 967, 981, 988
skills
challenge and 62, 65–6, 67–8
development 237–8
smoking behavior 439
Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning (SEAL) 560, 572–3, 596
social and emotional learning 567, 612–13
social anxiety disorder 104–7
social bonds, work-related 696
social capital 526, 682–3
social cognition 21
social comparison
contrast–empathy model 47–9
subjective well-being 138
Social Decision Making and Social Problem Solving Program 615
social dilemmas 503
social isolation 806
social networks 880–1, 896, 971
Social Relations Model 850
social relationships, see relationships
social support
attachment theory 855
capitalization support 853
interventions 855
perceived support and happiness 847–56
psychological capital 759
relational regulation theory 853–4
religion 98
stress and coping social support theory 853
at work 700, 721–2, 759
social transmission 28
socialized power motivation 802–3
socially constructed world 1031
society
cross-national comparisons of societal well-being 455
livability and 165
materialism-linked problems 490
(p. 1094) solastalgia 502
soldiers, flow 65
Solon 252–4
spending money 488–9
spirit level hypothesis 470
spirituality 339; see also religion and religiousness
route to well-being 420–1
spiritual development 414–16
spiritual experience 412
spiritual practice 416–17
sports policy 525
spousal death 141, 825
Square of Opposition 327–8
stages on life's way 280–1
standard social science model 216
standards 296–300
stereotypes of old age 1026–8
sthitaprajna 375
Stoicism 155, 202, 332
storytelling 582, 584–5
strategic interference theory 878–9
Strath Haven Positive Psychology Curriculum 660
strengths; see also character strengths
educating about 653, 662–3
signature strengths 967, 981, 988
at work 773–4
Strengths Gym 585, 587
stress
demands and resources 66
executives 805
stress and coping social support theory 853
Stress-Related Growth Scale 928
strivings 402–3
student well-being 568–74
subcontraries 328
Subjective Happiness Scale 175
subjective well-being 134–45, 171, 174–80
affective component 3, 134–5, 449, 694
age and 140, 176
benefits of 144
bottom-up versus top-down influences 136–7
cognitive component 3–4, 135, 449, 694
correlates 140–2
cross-national comparisons 448–61
cultural differences 143–4, 178
definition 134–6, 694, 821–2
demographic correlates 176
discrepancy theories 186–7
domain satisfaction 135
dynamic equilibrium theory 743, 889–90, 902
economic analysis 433–4
economic growth 176
four component model 135, 187
gender differences 140
genetic factors 177, 890, 891
global measures 449–50
goal attainment 138
happiness as 330
happiness as part of 186–9
health link 144
hedonic adaptation 178
historical background 174–5
homeostasis 188–9
income level 141–2, 144, 176–7, 469, 470, 472–3, 491–2
indirect assessment 139–40
individual differences 177–8
informant reports 139–40
interventions 178–9
life satisfaction 135
local area characteristics 473
longevity 144
marital status 140–1, 176
materialism 488–90
multidimensional construct 3
multiple measures 139
narrow measures 450
need fulfillment 138
optimism 177
outcomes 144, 179
personality 136–7, 142–3, 177, 889
policy development 428
relationships 144, 177
religiousness 142, 176
self-esteem 177
self-reports 139, 175
set-point theory 136, 137, 188–9, 887, 888, 890, 891, 897, 902
single item measures 138
social comparison 138
(p. 1095)
stability over time 137
telic theories 138
theoretical approaches 136–8
tripartite theory 135, 187–8, 916
unemployment 437, 473
wealth link 176–7
working environment 144
substantive opposites 329
success 119–28
creativity 123, 126
education 546–7
emotional intelligence 78–9
physical health 124–5, 126–7
positive emotions 120
prosocial behavior 126
relationships 122–3, 125–6
at work 123
suffering 282, 346–8
sukha 81, 344, 375
support groups 935
survival 164
sustainable development 498–511, 526–7
sustainable happiness model 903–5
sustained attention 237
Swādhyāyee 379–80
tacit knowledge 633
Taoism, see Daoism
taxation 528
teachers
coaching 1013–14
danger of over-burdening 602
happiness of 586–7
resilience 622–3
role in teaching happiness 655
as role models of wisdom 639
technology 68, 880–1, 971
terror management 99, 934
therapeutic relationship 980
therapies, see interventions
thought experiments 321
thought–outcome contingencies 25–6
threat 19
Three Good Things 966, 967, 986
Thriving Scale 928
time 283
tobacco consumption 439
tragedies 807–8
tragedy of the commons 503
training
acceptance and commitment in the workplace 1002–3
psychological capital 759–60
transactional theory 722, 723
transcendent emotions 413–14
transformational model 931
translation equivalence 458–9
transport choice 504
trauma; see also post-traumatic growth; post-traumatic stress disorder
executive well-being 807–8
response to 103–4
shattered assumptions theory 931
tripartite model of subjective well-being 135, 187–8
trivial pursuits 295
true self 235
twin studies 143
tyranny of positive thinking 934
UK Resilience Programme 522, 594
unemployment 428, 436–8, 473, 522–3
United States of America, pursuit of happiness 259–60
unrealistic optimism fallacy 635
up-building 280–1
Upanishads 373–5, 377–8
upside-down people 272
utilitarianism 156
utility 51, 431–2, 439–40
utility of life 163, 166–7
valence 75
value(s)
acceptance and commitment therapy 1001–2
collaborative recovery model 1057
education environments 560
ethical 633, 639
eudaimonia 208–9
hedonic value 42
materialism 490
reflected best self 771
search for 300–1
virtual reality 294
virtue
amplifying effects 682–3
buffering effects 683
defining virtuousness 676–7
happiness link 682–4
heliotropic effects 683–4
interpersonal 413–14
measurement 684
moderators and mediators 685
organizational 676–86
positive emotions 682
prediction 684–5
religiousness 94
well-being and 312–13
vision for life 1057
vitality 309, 768
emotional intelligence 79
reflected best self 768, 770–1, 776–7
relational affirmation 776
strength-based engagement 773–4, 777
vitamin model 735–9
volunteerism 94–5
wages and job satisfaction 46–7
water conservation 505
wealth; see also income
fame and 547
happiness link 80, 880
inequality 11
societal well-being 455
subjective well-being 176–7
weather conditions 502–3
web activities 68, 880–1
well-being 3; see also functional well-being; psychological well-being; subjective well-being
cardiovascular health 788–90
coaching and 1014–21
consumer culture theory 482, 485–7
consumer society 483–5, 487–8
contentment 419
contrast 55–6
contrast–empathy model 49
defining 694
education and 540–9
endowment 55–6
eudaimonia as a form of 207
eudaimonic perspective 81
executives 798–810
experiential versus cognitive influences 37
hedonic perspective 80–1
Hindu/Sanātana Dharma perspective 371–82
income level 697–8
index of 56
Indian tradition 372–3
local environmental conditions 501–2
local well-being 473–5
materialism 507–8
measurement 55, 379, 518–19
mental health 712–13
negative emotions 80
personality traits 713
positive emotions 22–3, 80
psychological capital 756–9
psychological route to 420–1
public policy 517–28
religious engagement 88–99
self-control 439
self-sense 377–8
spiritual route to 420–1
of students 568–74
sustainable development 498–511
variety 908–11
virtue and 312–13
work and 693–704
well-being therapy 1037–46
affective disorders 1041–2
for children 1045
in schools 1043–5
structure 1038–41
Wellington College 647, 650–4
whole-school approach 554–5, 570, 584–6
widowhood 141, 825
will to power 282, 300
windows 700
wine 269, 273–4
wisdom 631–41
affirming relationships 775–6
balance theory 632–4
definition 631–2
teaching for 634–40
(p. 1097) work; see also job headings
acceptance and commitment training 1002–3
affect in 696–7
attributes of work 698–9
authenticity 774–5
autonomy 220
coaching in the workplace 1011, 1013
context 699–701
core strengths 773–4
in education 548–9
employee retention 787–8
employment contracts 697–8
engagement 772–5
environmental factors 700, 734–9
family–work interface 703
flow 68
happiness and work design 711–25
identity 696
interventions 746
meaningful nature 699, 714
orientation 701–2
person-centered approach to worker happiness 739–44
personal dispositions 744–5
policy development 522–4
proactive behaviors 717–18
psychological well-being 783, 787–8, 792, 793
purpose 696, 772–3
reflected best self 767–77
relational affirmation 775–6
relationships 700
sanctification of 405–6
shift work 699
social bonds 696
social support 700, 721–2, 759
subjective well-being 144
success and happiness 123
value creation 768–71, 773–4, 776–7
well-being and 693–704
Work-related Flow Inventory (WOLF) 62
working alliance 1056
World Database of Happiness 450–4, 502
worry 107–8, 1001
writing 969
yoga 381
Zippy's Friends 593 (p. 1098)