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date: 18 April 2019

(p. xv) List of Figures

(p. xv) List of Figures

  1. 6.1 Yellen’s (1977) ring model for Ju/’hoãnsi base camps combined with hut-based ‘drop’ and ‘toss’ zones 114

  2. 6.2 Schematic representations of an archetypal ‘forager’ settlement- subsistence system in (a) temporal and (b) synchronic perspective 117

  3. 6.3 Schematic representations of an archetypal ‘collector’ settlement- subsistence system in (a) temporal and (b) synchronic perspective 118

  4. 9.1 Top: Neanderthal craniofacial features (left) compared with a typical Modern Human. Bottom: Distinctive features of the Neanderthals’ postcranial skeleton 194

  5. 9.2 Stone tools of the Neanderthal-associated Middle Palaeolithic. Left: sidescraper. Right: Levallois point with bitumen-covered base 197

  6. 9.3 Stone tools of the Neanderthal-associated early Upper Palaeolithic of Europe. Top left: Altmühlian foliate point (Blattspitze). Top right: two Châtelperron points. Bottom: Uluzzian backed microliths 198

  7. 9.4 Pierced and grooved pendants from the Châtelperronian levels of the Grotte du Renne (France): a–d. fox canines; e–f. reindeer phalanges; g–j. bovid incisors; k. red deer canine; l. fossil belemnite 202

  8. 10.1 Regions of the human skull and osteological terms used in the text to compare modern human anatomy to ancestral forms 218

  9. 10.2 Schematic of timeline for the major factors involved in MHO from behavioural (archaeology), morphological (fossils), and genetic evidence 234

  10. 11.1 Map of the region with a few of the major sites mentioned in the text 255

  11. 11.2 Winter and summer locations of hunter-gatherers in the Zagros and the Caucasus foothills. The model is based on Terminal Pleistocene occupations in western Georgia 268

  12. 11.3 Terminal Pleistocene Epi-Palaeolithic Early Natufian settlement pattern along a transect from the Mediterranean Sea to Lisan Lake in the Jordan Valley 268

  13. 13.1 A stone bracelet, a ring, bone bead-like elements, and needles from layer 11 of Denisova cave 313

  14. (p. xvi) 13.2 Western and eastern Siberia: 1 – stone tools and wedge-shaped microcore from Ust’-Belaya site; 2 – composite tool from Chernoozerie-II site; 3 – Final Palaeolithic hunter in winter clothing with dart and atlatl, reconstruction; 4 – bone and antler grooved tools from Maininskaya site; 5 – clay figurine from Maininskaya site; 6 – pebble core from Kokorevo-I site 322

  15. 13.3 TransBaikal region and Yakutia: 1 – microblade cores and transversal burins, Ust’-Menza site; 2 – artefacts from Dyuktai cave; 3 – remains of light dwelling construction at Studenoe site; 4 – remains of ‘polynary structure’ at Ust’-Menza-3 site; 5 –Final Palaeolithic hunter in winter clothing, reconstruction; 6 – remains of dwelling at Ust-Timpton site 323

  16. 13.4 Russian Far East: 1 – stone knives from Suvorovo-III site; 2 – stone images of salmon fish from the Far-eastern Palaeolithic sites; 3–4 – microritual complexes with stones and bifacial point; 5 – Final Palaeolithic salmon-fisher, reconstruction; 6 – dwelling with the burial of a dog at Ushki-I site, level VI; 7 – double burial in dwelling at Ushki-I site, level VI 324

  17. 14.1 Indian subcontinent showing key localities mentioned in the text 329

  18. 14.2 Dispersal routes into the Indian subcontinent based on least cost analysis 331

  19. 14.3 Stone tool technology, Jwalapuram, Jurreru River Valley, India. (a) Middle Palaeolithic; (b) Microlithic 333

  20. 14.4 Map of Holocene archaeological sites in the Central Ganges plains 338

  21. 14.5 South Asian monsoon strength, human fossils, and key archaeological sites and industries 339

  22. 15.1 Map showing location of archaeological sites mentioned in the text 347

  23. 15.2 Niah cave entrance 351

  24. 15.3 Lene Hara cave, East Timor 355

  25. 15.4 Single piece Trochus shellfish hook from Lene Hara dated to the terminal Pleistocene 356

  26. 15.5 Graphs of uncalibrated radiocarbon dates and other chronometric dates between 10,000 and 40,000 years bp from South-East Asian cultural contexts 359

  27. 16.1 Temperature differences from modern over the last 140 thousand years 370

  28. 16.2 Geographic features of the Australian region referred to in the chapter 371

  29. 16.3 Distribution of vegetation zones at OIS 2 from Hope et al. (2004) 372

  30. 16.4 Chronological distribution for the arid zone of new sites and sites previously occupied by biogeographic region using the time intervals defined for this chapter 381

  31. (p. xvii) 16.5 Chronological distribution for Queensland of new sites and sites previously occupied by geographic region using the time intervals defined for this chapter 382

  32. 16.6 Thylacine painting at Yeddonba, Mount Pilot, near Beechworth, Victoria 386

  33. 17.1 The Americas with selected early hunter-gatherer sites 407

  34. 17.2 Paisley cave V 409

  35. 17.3 Excavation of the Quebrada Santa Julia site in Chile 410

  36. 17.4 View of the entrance of the site Caverna da Pedra Pintada 410

  37. 17.5 Examples of early American projectile points 413

  38. 17.6 The Hell Gap site, Wyoming, under excavation in the 1960s 415

  39. 18.1 Oxygen isotope levels from ice cores (y-axis) reflect temperature changes from the late glacial into the post-glacial period 439

  40. 19.1 Selected Neolithic sites in Western Asia 460

  41. 19.2 Selected Mesolithic sites in the Mediterranean 464

  42. 19.3 Selected Neolithic sites in the Mediterranean 467

  43. 21.1 Locations of archaeological sites mentioned in the text 493

  44. 22.1 Map of sites in Japan and South Korea mentioned in the text, and regions of Japan 511

  45. 23.1 Lepenski Vir. Bases of elaborate trapezoidal houses and details of stone sculptures located inside 524

  46. 23.2 Example of a Mesolithic microregion: the Bohemian Switzerland National Park, showing the position of the Mesolithic rock shelters 526

  47. 23.3 Bezděz rock shelter, North Bohemia 527

  48. 23.4 Okrouhlík rock shelter on the confluence of the Kamenice and Bělá rivers 531

  49. 23.5 Fish cave, North Bohemia 532

  50. 24.1 Location of key regions discussed in the text 538

  51. 24.2 Changing sea levels since the late glacial had a profound influence on the north European landscape 539

  52. 25.1 The 20-year interval measure of climatic variance derived δO18 temperature proxy record of the GISP2 ice-core and its long-term trend 557

  53. 25.2 The mobility required to maintain viable bio-social networks amongst foragers (mating distance) has been investigated in ethnographic field studies, and, using different estimates of late glacial population densities, can be extrapolated for the late glacial 563

  54. 27.1 Geometric inserts for composite tools: (a) Klissoura cave, Greece, c.40,000 bp; (b) Sibudu cave, S. Africa, c.70,000 bp 610

  55. 27.2 Bifacial Acheulian hand axe (Göllü Dağ, Turkey) 612

  56. (p. xviii) 27.3 Acheulian cleaver flake from prepared core (Kaletepe Dersi 3, Turkey) 613

  57. 27.4 Modern experimental Levallois core and flake 614

  58. 28.1 Engraved ochre from Blombos cave, South Africa 627

  59. 28.2 Aurignacian figurines from southern Germany 629

  60. 28.3 Magdalenian image from Niaux, France 629

  61. 28.4 Painted ‘signs’ 630

  62. 28.5 Magdalenian cave painting at Niaux, France 631

  63. 29.1 The presence/absence distribution of native copper on the Northwest Plateau of North America 647

  64. 29.2 The presence/absence distribution of tubular stone pipes on the Northwest Plateau of North America 648

  65. 29.3 The graph at the top displays Lorenz curves and corresponding Gini coefficients indicating the degree of departure of an ideal egalitarian distribution of housepit sizes at Keatley Creek and two other sites. The bottom graph shows the degree to which the number of housepits per site in the region departs from a hypothetical line of equality 652

  66. 30.1 (a) The ‘Black Venus’ found at the site of Dolni Vestonice, in the Pavlov Hills of the Czech Republic; (b) Terracotta human figure found at the Maïninskaya site, near Maïna on the Yenisei River in Siberia; (c) Line drawing of ceramic fragment from Tamar Hat near the Mediterranean coast of Algeria, interpreted (by some) as a fragment of a zoomorphic figurine 665

  67. 30.2 Vessel from the site of Gasya in the Russian Far East 667

  68. 30.3 Middle Jomon pottery vessel from the site of Ookubu, Honshu (Japan) 668

  69. 30.4 Fragment of decorated pottery from the site of San Jacinto I in northern Columbia 669

  70. 30.5 Sketch map showing the approximate distribution and chronology for the emergence of ceramics in hunter-gatherer societies across the world 677

  71. 34.1 Biometry pig (Sus) third molars from prehistoric Denmark from the Mesolithic to Iron Age 751

  72. 34.2 Diagram showing the position of the bit in a horse’s mouth, and how it can cause wear on the second premolar and also irritate the bone of the jaw in front of the tooth row (diastema) causing further pathologies 754

  73. 34.3 Plots of the Δ13C (= δ13C18:0 – δ13C16:0) values for archaeological animal fat residues in Neolithic pottery from: (a) NW Anatolia, (b) Central Anatolia, (c) SE Europe/N Greece, (d) Eastern Anatolia and the Levant 755

  74. (p. xix) 34.4 A horse being milked in modern-day Kazakhstan. The milk is fermented into a mildly alcoholic drink called koumiss, which is sometimes also smoked to add further flavour 758

  75. 36.1 (a) The dispersal of farming across western Eurasia; (b) Genetic matrilineal distances between modern Western Eurasian populations and LBK samples; (c) The three streams of Neolithization with aDNA haplotypes superimposed 788

  76. 36.2 Lateralization of triangular points with extension of the pottery traditions of La Hoguette and Limburg and the Rhine-Maas-Schelde (RMS) complex 789

  77. 36.3 Schwanfeld, Ldkr. Würzburg, Bavaria. Plan of the site with findspots of radiolarites and microliths of Mesolithic tradition 793

  78. 36.4 Imports of northern Late Mesolithic artefacts on southern European Early Neolithic sites 795

  79. 37.1 Map of the study area 806

  80. 37.2 Spatial-temporal scheme for north-western Europe between Antwerp and Hamburg 807

  81. 37.3 Triangular diagram depicting the proportion of bone assemblages reduced to the categories wild, domestic, and pig 808

  82. 37.4 Stable isotope for human bones from Hardinxveld (De Bruin and Polderweg), Schipluiden, and Swifterbant compared to those from the Iron Gate sites Lepenski Vir, Vlasac, and Schela Cladovei, from Portugal and Denmark 813

  83. 37.5 Map of Swifterbant area. Indicated are the Neolithic IJssel river system and the river dunes series delimiting the Late Glacial river valley 815

  84. 37.6 Fish trap from Emmeloord 816

  85. 39.1 Fennoscandia with geographical features, regions, and place names mentioned in the text 839

  86. 39.2 Distribution of battle axes of the TRB and Corded Ware cultures in northern areas 844

  87. 39.3 Map of the dating of cereal pollen 845

  88. 40.1 Hunter-gatherers in South-East Asia 862

  89. 40.2 Oro using a woven circle of vine to indicate a brass gong 866

  90. 40.3 A bundle of rattan recently collected in the forest and ready for transport 867

  91. 40.4 Splitting and shaving forest rattan in preparation for making woven baskets 867

  92. 41.1 Locations of North American hunter-gatherer populations 883

  93. (p. xx) 41.2 Locations of the three case studies discussed in the text, Iroquois- Algonquian, Middle Missouri, and Plains–Pueblo 884

  94. 43.1 Map of southern Africa, showing the major San language groups 920

  95. 44.1 The general location of the largest groups of Congo Basin hunter-gatherers 937

  96. 47.1 Pacific Northwest Coast culture area 993

  97. 48.1 Location of referenced South-East Asian hunter-gatherer societies 1011

  98. 49.1 Map of southern South America showing the approximate location of the hunter-gatherers mentioned in the chapter 1032

  99. 49.2 Map of northern South America showing the approximate location of the hunter-gatherers mentioned in the chapter 1034

  100. 49.3 A Tehuelche camp 1036

  101. 49.4 A Hotï man entering his recently built hut. He is transporting most of the family belongings in his basket 1039

  102. 49.5 Nukak wet-season camp 1043

  103. 50.1 Area of historic Ainu settlement 1055

  104. 51.1 The annual routes of the seven families areas of Suenjil in the 1930s 1072

  105. 51.2 The spread of the Finnish settlement in Finnish Lapland 1078

  106. 51.3 The migrations of reindeer nomads in the Finnish territory 1083

  107. 51.4 Changing roles: tutkija muuttuu tutkittavaksi 1087

  108. 53.1 A selection of Ju/’hoansi technology 1113

  109. 53.2 A selection of Nuvugmiut technology 1114

  110. 53.3 Relationship between number of complex tools and Read’s measure of risk: length of growing season times the number of residential moves per year 1117

  111. 54.1 Variation in means, as measured by CV, with latitude in three projectile point types in the North American Great Basin 1136

  112. 54.2 Variation over time in the thickness and amount of mica in pottery assemblages from radiocarbon-dated houses in southern Owens Valley 1137

  113. 55.1 Schematic formation of a haplogroup; the constituent haplotypes emerge in certain time and space 1144

  114. 55.2 African mtDNA phylogeny showing the root ~200 ka, the divergence of the Khoisan pool ~100 ka, and first non-African diversification some ~70 ka 1146

  115. 58.1 Price’s schematic illustration to indicate characteristics of tree types as they cross-cut and are associated with different objects in the Scandinavian Mesolithic 1214

  116. (p. xxi) 61.1 Middle Jomon site of Kowashimizu, Chiba Prefecture, Japan, with 260 pit-houses surrounding a central space containing more than 1,000 storage pits 1274

  117. 61.2 View over the prehistoric pit-house village of Keatley Creek, interior British Columbia, Canada 1274

  118. 61.3 Salmon drying racks being prepared for the main autumn runs along a tributary of the Fraser River north of Lillooet, British Columbia, Canada, June 1994 1275

  119. 61.4 The interior of the Whale House of the Gaanaxtedi Clan of Klukwan, Alaska, c.1895 1277

  120. 61.5 Bivariate plot of stable carbon and nitrogen isotope results on human bone collagen from the Late-Final Jomon site of Inariyama, Aichi Prefecture, Japan, with inset showing tooth ablation types 1278

  121. 61.6 Jomon ‘biscuits’ with impressed designs, from Ondashi, Yamagata Prefecture, Japan 1278

(p. xxii)