This book examines British philosophy in an eighteenth-century context. It looks at the theories of John Locke that mattered most to philosophers of the period, along with Isaac Newton's complex and contested legacy. It also discusses a number of different interpretations of what a ‘scientific approach’ to human nature might look like and shows that the idea of a science of man goes beyond Lockeanism and Newtonianism. Moreover, the book explores important contributions to the theory of perception and addresses the question of how sensory experience served to stock the mind with ideas, focusing on George Berkeley and Thomas Reid and their arguments against the simple representationalism apparently expounded by Locke. There is also a discussion on the relation between the passions and other important faculties of the mind, such as the faculties of reason, will, and taste. The book shows that the philosophy of eighteenth-century politics was a very wide-ranging business, encompassing topics such as the origins of civil society, the British constitution, political economy, and religion and the rationality of belief in revelation.