Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). (c) Oxford University Press, 2015. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy).

date: 21 November 2017

(p. 726) Index

(p. 726) Index

abandonment 107, 108
Abercrombie, N. 641
Abernathy, W. J. 334
Abetti, P. A. 473
Abrahamson, E. 318
‘absence of bureaucratic hindrance to business’ variable 562
‘absence of price control’ index 562
absorptive capacity 202, 318, 327, 396, 423
abstinence 40
accountability 522, 561, 566
initiatives promoting emphasis on 643
insufficient 489
accounting:
control systems 499–500
performance 496–7
accounting standards:
disclosure 546–7
lax 544
Acemoglu, D. 553, 556, 572
achievers 143
Acorn Computers 461
acquirers 464
acquisition(s) 399n., 423
CVC role in facilitating 404
growth through 473
hostile 495
identification of opportunities 420
potential candidates 405
target for 685 see also IBOs; LBOs; MBIs; MBOs
Ács, Zoltan J. 2, 14, 201n., 215, 216n., 287, 290, 292, 301, 314, 317, 333, 436, 451, 708–9
Action Plan for Small Business (UK 2004) 256
adaptation 326, 494, 517, 715
cultural 672
reduced likelihood of 335
technology 318
‘additionality’ 265
adjustment processes 83
dynamic 48
Admati, A. 367, 368, 371, 373
Adobe Ventures 408n.
advanced degrees 219, 220, 221
advancement 584, 594
Advent International 410
adverse selection 547
advertising 119
aerospace/aircraft industry 150, 287
affective states 98
Africa 254, 620
Hindu immigrant entrepreneurs 605
Afro-Caribbeans 595
agency 519
agency costs 21, 372, 373
reducing 484, 485, 489
agency problems/conflicts 354, 367, 368–9, 373, 488, 547, 555
agency relationships 360, 367
agency theory 233, 234, 488
agglomeration 73n.
and local regional growth 655–7
Marshall model of 663
pure 25, 663, 666
social networks and 6–7
aggregation 64, 204
Aghion, P. 366
Agnelli, Giovanni 150
agriculture 35, 708
discoveries in 39
major advances in productivity 37
(p. 727) Aidis, R. 697, 705
AIM (Alternative Investment Market) 355, 356n.
airlines 676
Ajayi-obe, O. 438, 445, 446
Ajzen, I. 102
Akerlof, G. A. 666
Alaska 204, 582
Alchian, A. A. 50, 82
Alderson, W. 117, 119, 125, 128
Aldrich, H. E. 242, 336, 526, 528, 613
Alemany, L. 379
alertness 11, 48, 49, 78, 83, 101
Kirzner's theory 472, 588, 604
lack of 118
never-ending, success depends on 122
opportunity 106, 116, 242
reward for 79
Alger, Horatio 143
Ali, Z. A. 231
Allen, J. 518
Allen, K. R. 620
Allen & Hanburys 148
alliances 318, 530
informal 664
inter-firm 661
strategic 338, 423
Almeida, H. 555
Almus, M. 295
altruism 234, 240, 527
Alvarez, S. 465
Amadeus dataset 559, 563, 564
Amazon 357
ambidextrous organizations 325
ambition 584
American Economic Review 282
American Indians 582
American Marketing Association 123
American Research and Development 390n.
American Standard 390
Amess, K. 496
Amin, Idi 605
Amit, R. 389, 514, 515
amortization 336
Amsterdam 602
Analog Devices 391
analogy 101, 674
anchor tenants 311, 328
anchoring heuristic 94, 98
Anderson, A. R. 640, 641, 642, 644, 645
Anderson, P. 336, 344
Anderson, R. E. 254
Angel investors, see Business Angels
Angeletos, G.-M. 552n.
Anglund, S. M. 254
Anselin, L. 215
Ansoff, H. I. 124
anti-market policies 562
Antoncic, B. 529
AOL 395
Apax partners 359
Apple 357
appreciation 355, 359, 369, 404, 406
Aquino, K. 95
Arabian peninsula 226
arbitrage 48, 79, 542, 547, 699
multiple opportunities 78
architectural innovations 316
Argarwal, R. 176, 177
aristocrats 35, 37
Aristotelian tradition 34
arithmetic mean returns 375, 380
Arkwright, Richard 37, 145
ARM Holdings 362, 461
armaments 140, 147
Armenia 712, 715
Armenians 602, 603, 604
Christian merchants 606
Armington, Catherine 194n., 216n.
Armstrong, William, Lord 140
Arnold, D. R. 126
Arora, A. 543
Arrow, K. J. 199, 290
Arthur, M. B. 643
ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) 232
Ashley, Laura 148–9
Ashton, T. S. 145
(p. 728) Asia 15
buy-outs 502
CVC investors 396
Asia Pacific 358n.
Asian business crisis (1990s) 226
Asian populations 582, 594–5, 605
entrepreneurs/company-owners 151, 581
asset-strippers 9, 149
assets 380, 421
acquisition of 462
banks lend in proportion to 179
complementary 338, 339, 346
correlation between survival and 180, 181, 184
distribution of control over 541
economic value of 66
fixed 699
intangible 364, 372
liquid 35, 183n.
non-specific 35
obsolete 555
ownership and disposal of 66
rates of return on 179
right to sell off 366
scarce and economically valuable 530
sold at sure fire sale prices 700
specific 364, 372
tangible 364, 372, 373, 423  n.
assimilation 23, 607
‘assortments’ 117
Assyrians 603
Astebro, T. 181, 182n.
Aston Business School 183
Astor, John Jacob 142
asymmetries 290, 292
informational 15, 233, 257, 367, 547, 588, 717
Atlanta 210, 590
Attitude Accessibility Theory 102
attitudes 227, 230, 639
family 232
international differences in 231
risk-averse 338
women 612
attribution theory 476
attributional style 100
Atuahene-Gima, K. 126
auctioneer hypothesis 48–9
Audretsch, D. B. 2, 16, 176, 177, 201n., 284, 287, 288, 289, 291, 292, 293, 295, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301–2, 303–4, 314, 333, 381n., 451, 708–9
Augustine, St 35
Auster, E. R. 336
Austin, Herbert 147
Australia 551, 617, 619
habitual entrepreneurs 464
women's entrepreneurship 615
Austria 141, 175
Austrian School 12, 39n., 44, 50
divide between neoclassical theorists and 54–5
market process 115, 116, 117, 118, 119 see also Hayek; Kirzner; Mises; Schumpeter; Shackle
Autio, E. 427, 684
autocratic management style 232
automobile industry 543 see also motor cars
autonomous strategic initiatives 315, 326
autonomy 410, 438
cultures known to value embeddedness over 519
decision 411n., 412
preference for 285
serial entrepreneurs are largely motivated by 466
special preference for 515
working hours 436
availability heuristic 93, 94
Avila, R. A. 518
back-up 105
bad loans crisis 701n.
Bagby, D. R. 103, 515
Baghdadi Jews 606
Baird, C. W. 83
Baker, T. 613
balance of power 6
Baldwin, J. R. 72, 73, 74
Baltic States 701, 709 see also Latvia; Lithuania
Banerji, S. 701
Bangladesh 581, 594, 605
bankruptcy 9, 42, 163, 164, 165, 175n., 375, 378
ability to stave off for as long as possible 178  n.
attemp to make laws more lenient 476
impact of provisions 53
increasing the risk of 452
laws to create procedures for 703
limited company 366
much higher in recessions than in booms 177
Banks, Sir John 147
banks/banking 18, 77, 145, 364
aspiring entrepreneurs rejected by 702
deciding which new entrants should be given credit 97
discriminating against women in lending 615
dynasties 603
ensuring continuing loan from 164  n.
government ownership 566
interference by local managers 185
lending in proportion to firm's assets 179
loans made to SMEs 249  n.
low levels of efficiency 701
private 606
wealthy families as controlling owners 556
Barberis, N. 706
Barclays Bank plc 361
Bardi, A. 516
bargaining power 373n., 424, 704
Barker, T. C. 146
Barlow, Sir Robert 147
Barney, J. B. 92, 95
Baron, R. A. 92, 101, 103, 108
Barrett, H. 126
Barrett, M. 619
barriers 605
administrative 705
behavioural 315–17, 320
capital access 612
cognitive 336
contextual 317–20
financial 700, 701–2
hard to measure 706
industry-specific 320
institutional 53, 700, 705, 706
interpretative 336
intra-firm 315, 318
national 320
regional 320
unfamiliarity 672 see also entry barriers
Barro, R. 564
Bartik, T. 268
Bartlett, C. 312, 322, 323, 325, 326
Basu, Anuradha 22, 590
Bates, P. 266n.
Bates, T. 178, 590, 591
Batjargal, B. 718
Baumol, W. J. 11, 52, 53, 60, 61, 80, 87, 521, 696
Bayes' rule 169, 170
Bazerman, M. H. 98
Beamish, P. W. 684
Bean, J. A. 254
Beck, T. 544n., 556
Beecham 144
Begley, T. 519
behavioural control 99, 102
behavioural differences 469–73
Belarus 716
belief in the law of small numbers 95, 98
beliefs:
collective 100
correlation of knowledge and 84
cultural 519, 522, 643
differential 69
favourable 108
flows of information generated to confirm or challenge 82
greater weight to information that confirms 94
invariant 61
(p. 730)
prior 169
rational behaviour skewed by wrong set of 164  n.
religious 585
shared 517, 585
stationary 66
subjective 680
updating of 170
yet to be tested, confirmed or falsifed 63 see also new beliefs
Belka, 700
Bell, J. 686
Bell, S. J. 126
Bendick, M. 453
Benetton 150, 226
Bengal 602–3
Bennett, P. D. 123
Benz, M. 514–15
Berchicci, L. 17
Bergemann, D. 371
Berger, A. 162n.
Bernardo, A. E. 97
Bernhardt, E. 181, 182n.
Berry, R. 255–6
Bertrand, M. 529
Bhidé, A. V. 47, 188n., 364
BHPS (British Household Panel Survey) 446, 450
Bhuian, S. N. 126
biases 12, 92–3, 94–6, 97–8, 107–8, 380, 476
gender 238
individuals may be prone to 462
information 240
institutionalized 24
potential 172n., 375
selection 172, 173, 265, 379, 442
status quo 103
survivorship 175
women 612 see also cognitive biases
‘big bang’ 25, 675
‘Big Five’ personality attributes 519
biographies 138–57
biotechnology industry 290, 338, 345, 370
average age of a company 355  n.
characterized 527
companies started by scientists without managerial experience 526
failure to receive funding 371
investments 379
small firms 318
typical firm 371
Birch, David 283, 298–9, 451
Bird, B. 516
Birkinshaw, J. 406, 411, 414, 421, 425
Birlas 226
Birley, S. 474
Birmingham (England) 590
BITS (Business Information Tracking System) 195–212, 221, 222
Bjerke, B. 130, 132
black markets 523, 699, 710
Black populations 581, 582
self-employment rates 594, 595
Black-Scholes option pricing model 357n.
Blair, M. 363
Blair, Tony 629, 634, 636, 645
Blanchflower, D. G. 180, 183n., 438, 452, 514 n., 631, 637, 639, 640, 711
Block, Z. 388, 410
blockbusters 146
BLS (US Bureau of Labor Statistics) occupational distribution 219n.
board of directors 237, 498
Boden, R. J. 619
Boeing 390
Boettke, P. J. 521
Böhm-Bawerk, Eugen von 141
Bolton, P. 366
Bolton Committee report (UK 1971) 162, 185n.
Bonacich, E. 604
Bonini, C. P. 168, 172n.
Bonnet, M. 500
bonuses 409, 410n., 411, 499
booms 177
Borden, N. H. 123
‘born globals’ 682, 684–6
(p. 731) Bosch, Robert 149
‘Bottom Line, The’ 615, 619
Boudreaux, D. J. 51n.
Boulton, Matthew 37, 140
boundaries of the firm 50, 313, 325
bounded solidarity 527, 528, 589
bourgeoisie 40
Bowater, Sir Eric 147
Bower, J. L. 314, 315, 344
Bower, Tom 149
Bradford 140, 675
Branson, Sir Richard 461
Braunerhjelm, P. 292
Brenner, L. A. 94
bribery 521, 522, 546, 548, 550–1, 556
absence of 566
fewer incidents of 561
bridge finance 359n.
bridge jobs 447
Bridges, W. 643
Bridgewater, Francis E., 3rd Duke of 37
Briemann, N. 676
Briston, R. 495
Britain 37, 46, 122
Asian entrepreneurs 151
bankruptcy 163  n.
biases against women 612
biotech investments 379
buy-outs and buy-ins 487, 495, 496, 497
common law 549
CVC 396, 404, 414, 417, 420
enterprise culture 521, 630–45
enterprise policy 253n., 256
entrepreneurship studies 145–9
ethnic minorities 580–1, 583, 585, 592–3, 595, 605, 606
family firms/dynasties 231, 232
government expenditure 270
national recovery (post-1945) 145
policy evaluation 254–7
post-war labour shortage 595
private independent businesses 467
quoted companies 167
recession (early 1990s) 177
restructuring 38
self-employment 447–8, 453, 514, 580–1, 583, 586, 594, 595, 639
small firms 168, 676
start-ups 165n., 174, 181, 620
venture capital 357–60, 362, 364, 370, 371, 381
Victorian 139–41
British Parliamentary Inquiry (1951) 655n.
British Petroleum 148
British Social Attitudes Survey 639
Brock, W. A. 169n.
Brodie, R. J. 130
Brouwer, M. T. 518
Brown, A. 710
Brown, C. 451
Brown, D. 710
Brown, J. D. 96
Brown, R. L. 333
Brown, S. L. 326
Brown, T. 512
Brüederl, J. 174, 295, 526
Bruining, H. 499, 500
Bruno, A. V. 127, 416n.
Brush, Candida 23, 612, 613, 619
buccaneers 37, 38
Buchanan, J. M. 53n.
Buckley, P. J. 25, 671n., 684
Budd, R. J. 102
Buenstorf, G. 73n.
Bulgaria 704, 706, 711
Bull, I. 485
Bullvåg, E. 468, 474
Bunting, M. 642, 643
Bureau of the Census (US) CES 194n., 195n., 199, 219n., 613, 614n.
CFNs 198, 203  n.
Company Statistics Division 198–9
(p. 732)
SUSB Longitudinal Pointer Files 195–6, 197, 198
Bureau van Dijk 559
bureaucracy:
decision-making 291
government, high quality 22
growth of 8
incumbents hampered by 333
bureaucratic leadership 84
Burgelman, R. A. 315, 326
Burkart, M. 554–5
Burma 143
Burmah Oil Company 148
Burrows, Andrew 21
Burt, R. S. 527
Busenitz, L. W. 92, 95, 465, 498, 521n.
Business Angels 78, 188, 271n., 359–60, 390
business culture 14, 226
ossifed 7
secretive and conspiratorial 7
Business History (UK journal) 146, 148
Business History Review (US journal) 142, 146
Business International Corp 561
Business Link (UK) 634
business plans 77
poor execution of 493
business practices 618
business propositions 364
business relationships 404, 405, 407, 410, 413, 414
future, enhanced opportunity for 417
Business Source Premier database 353n.
busted tech buy-outs 493
buy-ins, see MBIs
buy-outs:
efficiency-oriented 489–91, 500
entrepreneurial 492–3, 494, 500, 502
failures 493–4
revitalization 491, 500, 502
secondary 494
stock market responses 495 see also IBOs; LBOs; MBOs; MEBOs
BVCA (British Venture Capital Association) 362
Bygrave, W. 353, 370, 416n.
Bytchkova, Maria 26, 521, 522
Cabral, L. 186, 187n.
Cadbury, George 140
cadres 714
calculation debate 43
California 314, 554
electronics industry 652
employment law 523, 524
individalism and power distance 523–4
larger hospitals 325 see also Silicon Valley
Callejon, M. 304
Calvet, L.-E. 552n.
Calvinism 517
Cambridge (English city) 652
Cambridge University 184, 362
Camerer, C. F. 103, 445, 446
Campbell, R. H. 77, 146
Canada 72, 73, 514, 551, 618, 619
Asian populations 605
interest rate premium 255  n.
level of entreprenurial activity 639
new business procedures 252
self-employed 447–8
venture capital 361
Cannan, Edwin 40
cannibalization threat 338, 339, 345
Cantillon, Richard 3, 39n., 41, 49, 543
Cantonese 606
capabilities:
complementary 396
core 339
cultural factors conducive to development of 570
entrepreneurial 475
financial 336
long-term access to 525
managerial 469
market 337–8
organizational 701
perceived 468–9
(p. 733)
rendered irrelevant 344
technological 336–7, 347, 397, 469
value diminished 338
CAPEX 499
capital 41, 232, 281, 450, 698
availability of 452, 640
dividing amongst a range of investments 368
economic growth determined by stocks of 299
entrepreneurship 16, 299, 300, 301
equity 556, 621
financial 286, 618
fixed 77
free 68
growth 618
initial 470
internal circulation of 7
knowledge 299
low/high requirements 213
personal 470
primacy of 282
provision of 11, 52
return on 52
risk 68, 87, 701
scarcity of 716–17
share 229
shortage of 5, 673
slowly depreciating and non firm-specific 51
start-up 181, 620
women's access to 621
working 77 see also human capital; social capital; venture capital; also under following headings prefixed ‘capital’
capital access 286, 443
blocking entrepreneurs 570
future 52
preferential 555, 556
women 612, 620
capital account openness 564
capital accumulation 39, 52
diversification of activities as a means of 716
growth of population of 76
initial 716
main strategies for 5
rewarded 585
capital allocation 412
capital constraints 183, 367
endogenous 181–2
strong influence of 13
capital flow 618
restrictions on 564, 570
capital gain 355, 362n., 365, 366
maximum 356
no prospects of 188
yield 375 see also CGT
capital-intensive industries 162, 203
capital markets 75, 78, 555
binding restrictions 570
effective 397
endorsement effect toward 417
imperfections in 164, 701
inefficient 179
institutional deficiencies retard development 544
larger 397
more competitive 556
openness 564
perfectly functioning 164
short-term efficiency indicators 492
capital supply 41, 556
prospective entrepreneur 78
capitalism 41, 42
change from communism to 693
Chinese 226
developing and maturing 47
entrepreneurial 77
fundamental historical fact about 59
institutions of 65, 68, 69
long-run evolutionary view 11
proprietary 7
Sombart's model of stages of 142
stability, order and instability 76
(p. 734) capitalization 183n., 387, 605
initial 14, 177
CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model) 374, 380
Caprio, G. 556
Caputo, R. K. 617, 618
career anchors 466
Cargill 145
Caribbean populations 581
Carlsson, B. 292
Carnegie, Andrew 604
Carree, M. 301
Carroll, R. 448, 449
Carson, D. 130
Carter, Martin 12–13
Carter, N. M. 300 n., 587, 619, 620
Casebook in American Business History (Gras) 142
cash 322, 372, 373
cash flows 163, 164, 179, 365, 498
corporate 396
excess 390, 391
free 392, 489, 495
positive net 364
stable 484
substantial 488, 489, 496
cash-strapped individuals 183n.
Caspian Sea 602
Cassel, Sir Ernest 146
Casson, Mark 11, 47, 49, 51, 52n., 59n., 62, 115, 119–20, 127, 128, 139, 147, 249n., 437, 502, 554, 556, 557, 604, 671n., 675–6
caste groups 226, 594
Catholic Order of St John 603
Caucasus 602
causality 100, 519, 555
Caves, R. E. 161, 163, 294
CBI (Confederation of British Industry) 629
CBO (Characteristics of Business Owners) 619
CBPs (County Business Patterns) 195, 197
Central and Eastern Europe 26, 549
buy-out markets 502
demographic structure 707
early stages of transition 719
education 706
entrepreneurial development 711
firm size distribution 709
institutional development 705
institutional settings 704
legal entrepreneurship 708
market-oriented economies 694
networks 718
prevalence of entrepreneurs 712
regulatory burdens and entry 551
sustained progress in business environment 700 see also Baltic States; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czechoslovakia; East Germany; Hungary; Poland; Romania; Slovakia; Slovenia; Soviet Union
centralized state control 36n.
ceramic technology 140
certainty 103, 163
cessation of trading 163
CGT (capital gains tax) 391n., 363
low 409
chaebols 151, 232
Chaganti, R. 582
chain migration 605
Chambers Dictionary 34n.
chance 165
Chandler, Alfred 144, 283
Chandler, G. N. 478
Chandy, R. K. 333, 340, 341
Chang, T. 685
change 116, 118
adaptation to 326
agents of 298, 303
all internal sources eliminated 64
asset 163
central manifestations of 293
cumulative 68
discretionary behaviour to instigate 84
entrenched large corporations tend to resist 297
(p. 735)
entrepreneurial-led 64, 67
equilibrating 49
evolutionary 44, 502
imposed from outside 11
institutional 694
need for 227
negative consequences of 103
openness to 21, 516
opportunities for 116, 125
rapid 684, 696
reduced likelihood of 335
sales 163
Schumpeterian 121
structural 693
charisma 84
Charles, Prince of Wales 267
Chaudhuri, S. 603
cheating 548, 718
Checkland, S. G. 37
chemical industry 151, 226, 391, 664
CVC investment 396
Chen, M.-J. 333, 676
Chesbrough, H. W. 388, 406, 423, 425
Chicago Tradition 284
childhoods 143
Chilosi, A. 694, 701
China 36–7nn., 365, 544, 704, 706
attracting venture capital 358
buy-out markets developing 502
capitalism 226
commercially entrepreneurial 557
companies floated on NASDAQ 356  n.
family firms 232
first eight years of reform 694
guanxi networks 717
mediaeval, relative failure of 53
networks 719
traditional collectivist culture 521
chinaware 142
Chinese Culture Connection 518n.
Chinese populations 581
entrepreneurs 519, 520, 591, 606
high rates of educational attainment 595
immigrant engineers 587
offshore 605, 606
self-employment rates 595
Chinitz, B. 659
chocolate novelties 148
choice 6, 19, 107
entrepreneurial 52, 206
occupational 437–40
pre-programmed 82
strategic 345
timid 104–5
unawareness of information relevant to 78
Christensen, C. M. 67n., 316, 327, 333, 334, 339, 341, 344
Christensen, J. F. 121
Christian communities 606
Church, R. 239
Churchill, Winston 354
CIA World Factbook 563
Ciavarella, M. A. 519
CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States), see Armenia; Belarus; Georgia; Kyrgyzstan; Moldova; Russia; Russia; Ukraine
Cisco Systems 408
Citröen, André 150
civic virtue 300
civil and mechanical engineers 7
Clark, K. 583, 584
classical political economy 38–42
Cleveland (NE England) 633, 640, 642
Cliffe, J. E. 242
Clive, Robert 603
Clore, Sir Charles 148
close-downs 72
closed end funds 361
closure rates 422
clothing 150
Coase, R. 50–1, 542
Cobb-Douglas production function 168n., 174, 450
Cochran, Thomas 147–8
Cochrane, J. H. 374, 375–7, 378n., 379–81
(p. 736) Coelho, M. 97
Coffield, R. 631–3, 640–1, 644
cognition 12, 28, 91–113, 284–5, 286, 519, 688
entrepreneurial 485, 488–9
heuristic mode of 467
interdependence of incentive problems and 316
managerial 491
cognitive biases 96, 98, 108, 231
cognitive frames 84
shared 85
Cohen, W. M. 314, 322, 336
Cole, A. H. 143
Coleman, D. C. 146, 147
Coleman, J. S. 528
collaboration 528
collateral 18, 77, 179, 181, 372, 620
absence of 187
banks typically require 364
SMEs that lack access to 249  n.
collective representation 638
collectivist culture 521, 526
collectivist orientations 519
collectivity 582
college degrees 214, 216, 218, 219, 220, 221 see also advanced degrees
college graduates 595
Colli, A. 149, 150, 231, 232
Collins, O. F. 612
Collison Black, R. D. 43n.
colonialization 522
commercialization of knowledge 16, 199, 200, 284, 285, 287, 288, 290
deliberately deferred 17
increased university efforts 327
mechanism facilitating 299
commitment 240, 682
escalations of 99, 104, 107
time and resource 472
common law 549
communication 337, 540
communication ventures 414, 419
communism 254, 696, 699, 701
change to capitalism 693
collectivized farms 714
incentives notoriously weak under 694
legal vacuum after fall of 703
small-scale private activities throughout the era 714
community 230
enterprise associated with 231
shared 528
Commuting Zones 204
company law 53
Compaq 428
comparative economics 697
comparative growth approaches 379
compensation 408, 409, 422, 489
equity-based 410
stock-like 410  n.
competition 66, 77, 79, 122, 253
abroad 564
actively pursued 68
disruptive aspect of 67  n.
divisional 492
economic selection through 55
foreign producers 75
global 27, 633
imperfect 304
intense, in developing communities 231
local 222, 663
lower intensity of 318
Marshallian 115, 121–2, 124
national-level measure of 397
new source of 67
perfect 282
product and managerial labour 488
reduction of 368
rules of 526
Schumpeterian 121, 392
scientific and cultural 37  n.
stimulated 558
structured 121
understood by competitor analysis 123
volatility associated with global sources of 630
weak 555 see also dynamic competition
(p. 737) competitive advantage 55, 117, 140, 473, 554, 586, 651
increased chances of gaining 590
innovation important sources of 226
key 673
lost 666
sustained/sustainable 126, 356, 477, 531
competitive markets 8, 35, 43, 124, 397
growth of 36
learning in 121
competitive threats 46
competitiveness 494
international 637
major sources of 249
technology that may be damaging to 339
complementarities 19, 418, 677
computer industry 19, 287, 326, 337, 341
largest concerns 395
US-based ventures 414 see also disk drive industry; software
concentration 282, 318
conceptual approaches 321–3
conditional probability 377
confectionery 148
Conference Board 314
confidence level 94
confidentiality 6
confirmation bias 94, 107
Confucian philosophy 232–3, 518n., 519
conglomerates 149, 151, 232
top ten controlled by wealthy families 568
wide-ranging 151
Conservative Party/Government (UK) 630, 633, 644–5
ideology 631
public sector reform under 643
constrained optimization 52
static 445
constraints 60, 80, 82
borrowing 438, 439
collateral 181
financial 370
liquidity 14, 543
managerial 673
construction 149, 716
consultancy practices 272n.
consumption 35
balance between production and 64
patterns of 65, 67
contextual factors 585–7
favourable 584
contracts 49
control rights in 378
debt 51
enforcement of 53, 546, 698, 704, 716
ex ante 526
incentive 48
internal employment 50
marginal 50
venture capital 366, 373
voluntary, difficulty of enforcing 703 see also public contracts
contractual hazards:
apparently insuperable 51
methods of mitigating 51
contractual returns 68
control aversion 185–6, 187–8
Control Data Systems 391
control rights 498
controlling owners 236, 554
convertible securities 371, 373
Conway, N. 638
Cooke, Jay 141, 142
Cooper, A. C. 96–7, 444, 470, 684
cooperation 551
economic and social 71
co-ordination 139, 316, 542
partner, difficulties of 369
structural 489
‘co-pilots’ 409, 413, 420
coping behaviour 696n.
copycat operations 549
copyright 6, 364
Corley, Tony 13
Cornelli, F. 371
corner shops 586
(p. 738) corporate inflow/outflow 389
corporate raiders 149
Corporate Venture Capital Program 388
corporation VCs 361
correlated understanding 70, 71, 85
correlation coefficients 565, 566
corruption 522, 523, 548, 549, 551, 566
ambient 544
control of 550, 561, 562
engendered 556
government 26, 561
increased 700
irredeemable 546
perception ranking 704
reducing 569
cost-accountability 24
cost-benefit analysis 15
cost-minimizing decisions 202
costs 705
adjustment 679–80
capital 551
compliance 541
deadweight 454
differential 53
distribution of 170
entry and exit 664
estimate of 169–70, 171
expected 184
exploiting opportunity 472
firm growth 293
fixed 336, 369, 683
hiring and re-training 656
imperfectly known 169
information 12, 105–8, 544, 672
innovation 314
monitoring 367, 374
occupational switching 438
cotton transhipment trade 603
counterfactual thinking 12, 101–2
counterfactuals 265, 266, 268
‘country institutional profile’ 521n.
Courtaulds 146, 147
courts 6, 698
ability to enforce contracts 706
commercial 523
confidence in efficiency of 706
costly and slow 526
effective at resolving commercial disputes 550
ineffective 550
inefficient 522
less faith in the system 523
transactions rarely enforceable in 525
cousin consortium 236
covenants 523, 524
loan 488
Coviello, N. E. 130, 683, 685
Covin, J. G. 125
Cowling, M. 229, 266n., 448, 450
Cox Model 295
Coyne, C. J. 521
craft guilds 7
Cramer, J. S. 450
Cranfield, Lionel 145
creative destruction 11, 116, 118, 297, 332, 524, 555, 604
creativity 12, 542
cognition and 101
differences in geography of 25
intrinsic motivation and 100–1
credit:
access to 77
banks deciding which new entrants should be given 97
extensive use of 8
group firms obtain from each other 554
informal institutions 23, 585
lines of 364
rationing 180
revolving 607
trade 716
credit constraints 178, 179, 184, 185
leading causes of small business failure 525
creditors 164
Cressy, Robert 13, 18, 162, 164n., 165n., 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179n., 181, 182, 185, 188n., 361, 364, 381, 479
(p. 739) criminals 699, 708
Croatia 712, 714–15
Crosier, K. 115
crossholdings 554
Crouzet, François 143
crowding-out effect 101, 249, 551–2, 566
Cubans 585, 607, 608
Cully, M. 638
cultural dimension theory 522
cultural engineering 644
cultural predisposition 584–5
cultural-relativism hypothesis 520
cultural theories 584–5
cultural values 519, 521, 528, 556–7, 607
shared 589
culture 541
collectivist 521, 526
common 230, 231, 232, 582, 664
entrepreneurship and 516–21
family lies at the very core of 232
Hofstede's definition of 231
mass media and 563–4, 568–70
regional 523
Cumming, D. J. 522
cumulative prospect theory 103
customer satisfaction 115
customer service improvement 118
cutting edge technology 364
CVC (corporate venture capital) 18–19
past evidence and future directions 387–431
performance implications of 416–25
Czech Republic 708, 709, 711
Czechoslovakia 694, 700, 708, 711
Dallago, B. 697
Daly, K. 638n.
DARA (Decreasing Absolute Risk Aversion) 184
Darwinian characteristics 11, 43–4
Das, T. K. 92, 105
Davenport-Hines, Richard 147
David, P. 230
Davidsson, P. 529
Davies, H. 254n., 636
Davila, A. 373
Davis, D. L. 125
Davis, S. J. 451
Davis, S. M. 227, 298–9
Dayton 210
DeAngelo, L. 495
Dean, T. J. 333
debt 364, 372, 620
convertible 371
desire to recover 164
external 185
failure to meet obligations 163
right to sell off assets to retrieve 366
substitution for equity 491
sufficient wealth to cover 41
transaction financed by substantial amounts 485
debt-equity financing 371
decentralization 282
decision-making 40, 291, 463, 672, 673
and attitudes to risk 91–113
biases in 12, 92
cognitive 292–3
critical 317
deferring 679
emotional 231
entrepreneurial 96
exclusion from 233
faster 333
heuristics in 92, 489
influence of affective states on 98
interaction of agents in different firms 660
judgement in 3–4, 6, 9, 45, 46, 62, 104
learnt under communism 696  n.
mutual trust relations between key agents 664
rational 231
role of mood in 98
strategic 84, 488–9
sub-optimal 104
systematic 489
(p. 740)
two-stage procedure 678
unique style 493
decision rules 4
decision trees 679
Declerck, R. P. 124
dedicated funds 408, 409, 411, 412
growing salience of 410
defaults 164n.
deflationary economic policy 631
Defoe, Daniel 37
De Kuyper 149
Dell Ventures 391, 395, 408n., 417n.
Della-Giusta, Marina 24, 503, 521
demand:
capital 181
derived 9
equilibration of supply and 697
excess 48
heterogeneous 117, 118, 119
imbalances between supply and 696
influencing enough to recover costs 122
labour 447–51
means to enhance 120
objective schedules 138
stimulating and meeting 122
unknown 345
venture capital funds 363
demand curves 555
demand enhancement strategy 405
De Meza, D. 97, 164n., 181n., 182n., 183n.
Demirgüç-Kunt, A. 556
democracy 6, 282
demographics 618, 707
Demsetz, H. 50
Deng Xiaoping 694
Denmark 226
self-employment 448, 453, 614, 711
women's enterprises 614
Dennis, W. J. 253
Denny, M. 359
DeNoble, A. 447
dense ties 528
Denver 210
Department of Agriculture (US) 204
department store concept 142
dependency culture 631
Dependent VCs 361
depreciation 355, 369
depression 606
Desai, M. 520, 522, 545, 549, 551, 559, 710
De Soto, H. 53, 541, 551, 702
Dessault, Marcel 150
Dess, G. G. 684
destruction and creation 75–9 see also creative destruction
Deterding, Henri 150
Detroit 590
developing countries:
corruption 549
entrepreneurial activity 546
institutional features more important in 550
self-employment rates 436
development economics 143
Dew, N. 286
dialects 605–6
Diana Project 613, 621
Dickson, P. R. 118
Dictionary of American Biography 143
Dictionary of Business Biography 147
Dictionary of National Biography 149
Dictionary of Scottish Business Biography 147
Digital Equipment 390n.
dilution of ownership 234
Dimitratos, P. 683
direct assistance 253, 254
direct investment 405n., 408, 409, 411, 412
Directory of Corporate Venturing 399, 405n.
disclosure 548
discontinuity 227
technological 344
discount rate 163n.
discovery 39–71, 318, 557
scientific 121
discrimination 593–4
gender 238
racial 22, 583
disequilibrating theory 293
(p. 741) disequilibrium 44, 116
constant 118
movement to equilibrium 48
dishonesty 557
disk drive industry 316, 327, 341–4, 346
Disney, R. 253n.
displacement effects 454
Disraeli, Benjamin 138, 139
dissolution 321n.
distribution channels 416
preferential access to 337
distribution function 439
distrust of outsiders 232
disutility 188
marginal 186
diversification 74, 230, 235, 374, 554, 685, 716, 903
close family control of 232
exposure to uncertainty reduced by 230
financial portfolios 389
opportunities for 120
overall corporate trend (1960s) 390
diversity 82, 236, 239, 542, 659
entrepreneurial 238
family firms 234
market 296, 564, 570
network 527
skill sets 440
SME population 640
thinking 558
divestment 492, 494, 495
dividends 365, 674
division of labour 11, 70, 71
limited by extent of market 40
Djankov, S. 252, 253, 254n., 397n., 516, 551, 702, 706
Docker, Sir Dudley 147
Dodd, S. D. 640, 641, 642, 644, 645
Dolinsky, A. L. 617, 618
Dolton, P. J. 440
dominant income effect 446
Dominican Republic 551
Dow 390
downscaling 182n., 183n.
downsizing 673, 683
Drinkwater, S. 583, 584
Drucker, P. 123
drug discovery techniques 318
DTI (UK Department of Trade & Industry) 248, 249n., 639
due diligence 360, 369
unique opportunity to conduct 423
Du Gay, P. 630, 643
dummy variables 220, 449
Dunn, T. 514n.
Dunne, T. 163n., 169n., 174n., 175n.
Du Pont, Pierre 144
Du Pont chemicals 226, 240, 391
Duranton, G. 659
Durnev, A. 544n., 553
Dushnitsky, Gary 18–19, 396, 399, 405, 423, 425, 426, 427
Dutch issues, see Netherlands
Dutta, S. 232
Dutz, M. 712
Dyck, A. 563
Dyer, W. G. 236
dynamic competition 116, 118, 120
rivalrous 117
Earle, J. S. 440, 704, 710, 711, 713
early-stage ventures 40, 399n., 401, 404, 503
earnings 20, 180, 267, 555 see also salaries; wages
earnings function 441
‘earnings management’ 495
EAS (UK Enterprise Allowance Scheme) 453–4, 633
East Africa 594, 605
Indian entrepreneurs 606
East Asia:
family businesses 226
large firms, key management positions 232
East Germany 708
East India Company 603, 684
Eastern Bloc (former), see Central and Eastern Europe
(p. 742) easyGroup 461
eBay 357
EBRD (European Bank for Reconstruction and Development) 26, 695, 699, 701, 702n., 704, 705
Eckhardt, J. 285, 286, 293
ecological approach 206
ecological fallacy 517, 518
e-commerce model 683, 686–7
Econometrica (journal) 168n.
economic change 21, 33, 34, 49, 694
acceleration of 71
always uneven within and between countries 66
connection between enterprise and 63
explaining 80
explicit evolutionary view of 55
fundamentally endogenous 81
prime agents of 521
economic development 11, 51, 52–4
basic 565
connections between entrepreneurship and 138
economic variation the prerequisite for 59
Schumpeter's analysis of 139
stages of 546–7
unevenly distributed around the globe 64
economic disadvantage 583–4
economic entrepreneurs 697
economic growth 216
achieving through cultural re-engineering 637
aggregate impact of small firm formation on 14
continued dominance might not be optimal for 312  n.
enterprise-driven, restless nature of 72
entrepreneurship and 138, 281–310
igniting 546
impact of local competition on 222
measured 64
modern, rules and theories central to 70
neoclassical models of 52, 299
new knowledge and 63
originator of a theory of 11
primary indicator of knowledge spillovers leading to 201
rent-seeking in more formal models of 53
resources-pattern changes that underpin 71
resumption of 697
world, long-term 8
economic inequality 522
economic knowledge 199, 200, 201
not governed by path-dependence 202
economic migrants 605
economic stability 552–3
economic welfare 233, 282
link between social capital and 300
economies of scope 676, 680
sequential internationalization based on 681
Economist, The 149, 557
Edelman, L. 613
Edinburgh University 362
Edison, T. A. 63, 140
education 20, 180, 215–16, 558, 714
basic 542
denied 595
enhancement of human capital through 285
enterprise in 636
entrepreneurship affected by level of 557
managerial human capital and 468
market and 220
racial differences in 618
rates of return to 440, 441, 442
relative value placed on 231
transition countries 706
years of schooling 439
education levels:
average 203
high(er) 218, 468, 475, 557, 714
low 218
educational attainment 217, 218, 219, 564
effect on entrepreneur's knowledge base 591
(p. 743)
high rates of 595
levels of 221, 564
local differences in 204
measures of 214
transition economies 697
educational qualifications 443, 446, 595
ability to find employment related to 584
higher 468
vocational 450
Edwards, R. S. 50
efficacy 293
collective 100, 102, 286 see also self-efficacy
efficiency 24, 187, 499, 500, 542
ability to maximize 124
allocative 9
entrepreneur the instigator of changes that enhance 48
incentives for 694
relative 294
search for incremental improvements in 80
static 53, 293 see also productive efficiency
efficient markets assumption 106
Egan, M. L. 453
Eide, G. 295
EINs (Employer Identification Numbers) 198, 203n.
Eisenhardt, K. M. 326
electricals/electronics 149–50
largest concerns 395
Electrolux 150
electronic publishing 327
Eliasson, G. 84
elites 530, 555–6, 643
achievements lauded 564
business 557
dominant 22
economic 699
established 541
former, entrenchment of 694
high school networks 526
industrial 143
political 556, 557, 630, 699
powerful 549
willingness to challenge 557
Ellman, M. 698, 707
emerging economies 525, 544
Emerson, Ralph Waldo 141
Emilio-Romagna 652, 660, 665
emotion 92, 100, 231
employee-based ventures 390
Employee Retirement Income Security Act (US 1979) 391n.
employment 19–21, 162, 163, 435–60, 694, 710
family firms/family members 225, 236, 239
gains from new establishments 207
length of 446
more rigid regulation 562
PDV of 169
record high levels of 638
regional growth 222
total 304, 711 see also self-employment
employment laws 523, 524, 566
rigid 562, 568
enactment 641n.
endogeneity 181, 182, 183
endogenous growth model 199–200, 202, 299
‘endogenous triangle’ 182
endogenous variables 213, 220
endorsement effect 417, 419
enforcement 7, 53, 525, 541, 698
court 716
law 544
legal 546, 706
non-legal 526, 528
property rights 698
rational 528
social 528
engineering 149
England 175, 601
north-east 633, 640, 642
northern 140
old aristocracy 37
rise of modern nation state 36
(p. 744)
small businesses 590
urban riots (early 1980s) 267
England and Wales:
enterprise initiatives 633
entrepreneurs from 1860 onwards 147
English classical school 39n.
enterprise:
disadvantaged young people 267
discovery, knowledge and 69–71
economic significance of 63–5
entrepreneur and 60–3, 69
ethnic and minority 22–3, 580–600
evolution, population approach and 72–5
relation between growth of knowledge and 69
values and attitudes which relate to 231
Enterprise Act (UK 2002) 476
enterprise-awareness programmes 15, 251
enterprise culture 9–10, 475, 629–47
attempts by governments to promote 24
building 256
failed attempt to establish 521
political propaganda surrounding 29
Enterprise Initiatives (UK) 255n., 266n., 633, 636, 639, 640
Entrepreneur magazine 417n.
entrepreneurial ability 180, 181, 182
dispersed 169
low 164
entrepreneurial firms 127–8, 130
enabled to grow by reducing idiosyncratic risk 522
growth and dynamics of 120
large established, entrepreneurial behaviour in 125
newer types of 150
research on marketing in 128
source of growth shifted away from incumbents to 304
entrepreneurial marketing 120, 123, 127, 132
defined 128–9
entrepreneurs:
better-educated 221
better-quality 181
biases among 95–6
Casson's definition of 139, 604
contrasting theories of 75–9
control aversion of 185–6, 187–8
creative 141
devout, influence on big business 148
economic importance of 141
enterprise and 60–3, 69
famous 151
function of 297
habitual 20–1, 461–83
high-profile 461
historical biographies 138–57
honeymoon period for 177
indigenous, fostering of 143
innovative 141, 144
managers and 83–6
marginal 184
migration of 23, 601–10
motives of 513–16
needs-driven 714
potential 169, 170, 711
rational 164  n.
successful 319, 471, 543
technology-based 63
top-ranking 148
wealthier 182  n.
entrepreneurship:
cognitive aspects 12, 91–113
culture and 516–21
defined 312, 320, 556
demand for 9
development of the concept 3
economic development and 52–4, 138
ethnic minority 580–600
evolutionary perspective 59–90
finance 5, 17–18, 42, 351–587
(p. 745)
geography of 657–61
Gras's theory of 142
growth, restructuring and 281–310
high-level/low-level 3
historical aspects 7–9, 13, 33–58, 138–57
human capital and 9, 216–21
innovation and 46–7
institutional obstacles to 22, 540–79
intergenerational 227
management buy-outs and 484–507
marketing and 114–37
personality factor in 8
public interest in 149
self-employment and the labour market 19, 435–60
small-scale 38
social dimensions 21–4, 511–39
study of 143, 145–9, 151, 226, 227
supply of ability 4–5
transition economies 26, 693–725
transmission of knowledge through 200
entrepreneurship anchor 466
entrepreneurship policy 250, 251–4
funding 270
Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice (journal) 241
entry 549, 558, 559, 564–72
factors influencing 583–92
laws to create procedures for 703 see also entry barriers; market entry
entry barriers 22, 53, 254, 653, 718
artificial 67
building, before others copy ideas 106
financial support needed to break 543
help to circumvent 67
local 662
low 584, 586
numerous new 694
regulatory, no adverse effect in corrupt countries 523
start-ups and 194–224
E-Partners 391
EPL (UK Employment Protection Legislation) 454
Equal Credit Opportunity Act (US 1975) 615
equilibrium 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 286
capitalism in 68
competitive 44, 48, 68
market 168
movement from disequilibrium to 48
potential 116
static 43, 116
theory of 64
trade-off 185
undermining the whole concept of 49
equity 314, 319, 362
maximization 163
outside 187, 188  n.
shares converted into 365
sharing arrangements 51
substitution of debt for 491
equity ratchets 498
equity stakes 487, 497
performance contingent 498
small 488
very modest 485
equivalence problem 705
Ericson, R. 169n., 694
Ernst & Young 405, 411, 414
errors 462
market 78
white noise 166
escalations of commitment 99, 104, 107
Eshima, Y. 265n.
estimates 104
probability 93, 97–8
estimation procedures 496
Estime, Marie-Florence 249n.
Estrin, Saul 26, 521, 522, 523, 707
ethics 517
ethnic enclaves 586, 607
ethnic minorities 15, 22–3, 251, 253n., 580–600
EU (European Union) 249n., 253, 549
Accession process 700
firm size distribution 709
Green Paper (2003) 254
regulatory frameworks 705
(p. 746) Euroland 638n.
Europe 22, 559
biographies of entrepreneurs 149–51
buy-outs 502
CVC investors 396
emerging markets 522
family businesses 226
family control 15
High Middle Ages 53
rates of return from education 441
secondary markets 356  n.
typical startup business 359
values and attitudes 231
VC contracts 373
venture capital practices 414 see also Central and Eastern Europe; also under individual country names
European Commission State Aid Scoreboard 249n.
European Library of Business Biography 147
European Paradox 306
European Venture Capital Association 393
Eurostat 708, 709
evaluation 250, 251, 254–7, 270, 472
undertaking 257–69
Evans, Sir Chris 461
Evans, D. S. 169n., 172–4, 175n., 179, 180–2, 184, 206, 439, 514n., 543
Evans, E. 618
Evans, M. 98
Evans, M. G. 102
Evely, R. 167n.
Everett, J. 165n.
evolution 52, 85, 297
forces that exhaust the possibility of 72
innovation-based 76
evolutionary economics 287
evolutionary market perspective 59–90
evolutionary theory 55, 293
incremental, experimental 49
Ewing, J. 125
excellence 633, 642
exclusion 675
exits 72, 73, 75, 78, 163
database identifying 303
determinants of different forms of 164
high propensity to 297
involuntary 163, 178
lucrative, capital appreciation through 404, 406
mistaken (but rational) 171  n.
related to firm/industry life cycle and calendar time 177
voluntary 178
exogenous variables 213, 220
Expansion stage ventures 399n.
expatriates 714
expectations 95
anchored on forecasts that progress so far 98
optimistic 75
reciprocity 525
too favourable or too pessimistic 97
expected utility theory 437
experimentation 118, 177, 297
bureaucratic measures that restrict 491
exploiting new opportunities through 298
learning 169
locus of 71
new and viable 61
expertise 125, 365, 416n., 417, 466
ability to enter self-employment requires 584
broader 318
firm lacks 368
functional 469
governance 493
hoarding of 317
managerial 553–4
market 659
professional 124, 557
scientific 337
specialist/specialized 124, 337
technical/technological 124, 337, 469, 493, 553–4, 659
experts 554
foreign 547
(p. 747)
psychologically trained 643
rational technology 549
explanatory variables 213, 217, 439, 619
Explorations in Entrepreneurial History (journal) 142
exports 564
externalities 222, 249, 257, 427
ignorable 555
knowledge endogenously determined as a result of 283
local information 652
positive information 97
externalization 230
extra-legal payments 522, 550
extractive industries 207, 210
Exxon 390, 391
factors of production 28, 39, 201, 290, 301
entrepreneurship as 54, 138, 140
functional specialization among 52
fundamental, relating various measures representing 281
knowledge important 283
primacy of capital 282
substitute for 9
failure 41, 42, 72, 163–5, 171n., 177
acceptable part of life 476
breakdown of 175  n.
danger 230
due to bad luck 165
effects of 173
excessive 179
hazard rate of 178
high probability of 529
interesting features of 174
larger rate 698
may reduce human capital 475
probabilities of 443
proneness to 4
response to 476
selective recall of 100
small enterprises have much higher rates 451
stigma of 319
unduly negative view of 476
variation of rates 175
Fairchild, G. 318
Falter, J. M. 515
Fama, E. 463, 502
familialism/family control 7, 15, 150, 151, 232
Family Business Review (journal) 240, 241
family firms 14–16, 225–47
mature private 491
family wealth 225, 546, 554, 556, 563
billionaire, inherited 555
top ten conglomerates controlled by 568
Farber, David 144
Fazio, R. H. 102
FDI (foreign direct investment) 564
openness to 570
outward 683
SMEs 26, 671–92
Feakins, M. 701
fealty 526
feedback 13, 169
disaggregated 499
learning from 462
Feldenkirchen, Wilfried 149
Feldman, M. P. 289, 292, 298, 381n.
Feller, W. 166n.
femininity 518
Ferguson, N. 602
Fernandez Perez, P. 231
Ferrero 226
feudalism 66
Fiat 150, 226
Fiet, J. O. 471, 477
Filipino Chinese dialect 606
filters 240
organizational 336 see also knowledge filter
final products 699
finance 5, 17–18, 42, 151, 230, 469–70
access to 22, 589, 702
alternative form of 187
binding constraint on growth 702
community 591
family 594
global 602
small business 162  n.
(p. 748)
financial backing 553
financial development 553–4
weak institutions retard 555
financial intermediaries 364, 553–4
financial markets 106, 229, 543, 683, 701
effective 397
key role 392
limited and underdeveloped 701
seriously deficient 701
financial slack 105
Finland 614
firm formation 13, 195n., 200, 201, 203, 217
aggregate impact on economic growth 14
education levels conducive to 218
effects of unemployment levels on 221
highest rate 219
manufacturing and distributive industries 210
measurement of 204–6
multi-unit 205
regional differences in rates 221
service sector 210
share of proprietors significantly positively related to 215
variability in 207–12
firm performance 338
factors that determine 20
impact of institutions on 706
obstacles to 700
first-mover advantage 25
fiscal policies 562
Fishbein, M. 102
fission processes 72, 73n.
Fitzgerald, Robert 148
fixed effects 529–30
Florida 210
Foelster, S. 304
Fogel, G. 704n.
Fogel, K. 22, 428, 551, 563
Foo, M. D. 95
food enterprises 149, 151
footwear 150
Ford, Henry 144, 150, 543
Ford Motor Company 144, 226, 235
forecasts 98
bold 104–5
foreign technologies 397
foresight 540, 542, 543, 545, 547
Fortune 500 firms 390, 419
Global 419
fortune-hunters 604
Fortunes Made in Business 140
Foss, N. J. 51n., 121
Foster, G. 373
Foucauldian analysis 643
France 644
bureaucratic burdens on small firms 252
business historians 150
CVC investors 396
interest rate premium 255  n.
large firm behaviour 167
legal systems descending from 561, 566, 570
level of entreprenurial activity 639
Nouveau Marche 356  n.
rise of modern nation state 36
self-employment schemes 453
Frank, M. Z. 170n.
Frankfurt 601
Fraser Institute 562
Frecknall Hughes, J. 671n.
Fredriksen, O. 356n.
Freedom House 561
freedom of movement 6
Freeman, J. 201n., 296, 325
Freeman, R. 631, 637
French tradition 39n., 41
elaboration and refinement of 45
Frese, M. 515n.
Frey, B. S. 101, 514–15
Fried, V. H. 354
(p. 749) Friesen, P. H. 125
Fritsch, M. 303–4
frontier culture 524
Frye, T. 545, 702
FTSE indices 374
Fujian province 605, 606
full employment 281n.
Fullerton, R. A. 122
functional specialization 52
furniture/furnishings 150
Furubotn, E. 55n.
future orientations 92, 105
over-optimism about plans and events 96
futures contracts 44
Gaglio, C. M. 101, 472
gains 47, 48
financial 365, 421
potential 53
probable 103
unexploited 79
windfall 184
Galbraith, John Kenneth 283
gambles 104
Ganguly, P. 176
Gardiner, Alfred 140
Gardner, D. M. 128
Gartner, W. 300n.
Gartner, W. B. 587
Garud, R. 346
‘gazelles’ 451
GDP (gross domestic product) 397, 565, 566, 568, 637, 638
transition economies 694, 698, 699
GDP deflator 562–3
GE Business Development Services 390
GEM (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor) Study 302, 614, 712
gender 238, 617
wage and salary inequality 619
Genentec 357
general equilibrium theory 11, 43
General Motors 144
General Social Survey 620
Gentry, W. 543
George, G. 517, 518
Georgia 715
German Tradition 284
Germany 122, 141, 175, 176, 294, 521, 644
banking dynasties 603
BioRegio Program 362
biotech investments 379
CVC investors 396
entrepreneurial activity and economic growth 303, 304
level of entreprenurial activity 639
Neuer Markt 356  n.
new-firm start-ups 295
public interest in entrepreneurship 149
self-employment 440, 448, 453, 514, 581
social insurance statistics 303
start-ups and failures 174
Turkish population 581
venture capital 371
Geroski, P. A. 161, 294
Gerretson, F. C. 150
Ghemawat, P. 333
Ghoshal, S. 323, 325
Giannetti, M. 514
Gibrat's Law of Proportional Effect 13, 161, 165, 175n., 186, 188, 294
and variants 166–74
Giddens, A. 641n.
Giegerenzer, G. 92
Gilbert, B. 298
Gilbert, C. 141
Gilbert, R. 345
Gilson, R. J. 523
Gimeno, J. 469
Ginsberg, A. 389
Glaeser, E. 298, 558
glassmakers 146
Glaxo 148
global competition:
awareness of 10
emerging 27
Global Competitiveness Report (1997) 561, 562
Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 639
(p. 750) Global venture capital funds 358
globalization 581, 674, 675, 677, 680, 681
economic realities of 590
race towards 150
South East Asian 606
Godley, Andrew 23
Gold, S. J. 595
Goldschmidt, C. 522
Goldsmith, Sir James 149
Gompers, P. 312, 353, 354, 359n., 362–3, 366, 371–3, 375n., 388, 389, 391n., 399, 417, 419, 421, 424, 425, 426n., 522, 545, 549, 551, 552, 553, 554, 559
Gonner, E. C. K. 39n.
Goodnow, J. J. 521
Google Inc. 328
Gore (W. L. & Associates) 226, 328n.
Gosse, E. 140
Goswami, A. 590
governance 388, 407–12, 488, 547
active investor 498
concentrated 554–6, 563
performance and 497–8
quality of 522
weak institutions 524, 525
government:
activism 551, 561, 562, 566
clean 561
constrained 549
corrupt 26, 561
effective, uncorrupt, and transparent 568
genuinely benevolent 551
good 541, 549
impression of participation and modernization 634
interference with market price mechanisms 568
obstacles 26
quality of 561–2, 566
spending variance of 562, 563
type of 545–6
government intervention 249, 546
inverse index in imposing price control 562
minimal 476
grabbing-hand model 546, 550, 551, 552, 553, 704
Grace (W. R.) 390
gradual delegation 128
grain traders 145
Granite Ventures 408n.
Granovetter, M. S. 527, 589, 664, 666
grants 267
Gras, Norman S. B. 142
Gray, A. 35n.
Greece 23, 264n., 603–4, 606
strong family-based cultures 232
Greene, F. J. 253n., 255n., 267, 268, 637, 640
Greene, P. G. 582, 587
greenfield entrants 72, 73, 74
Gregory, Frances 143
Gregory, P. 698
Greif, A. 525
Grether, D. M. 94
grey markets 699, 710
Grey, C. 643
Grice-Hutchinson, M. 35n.
Griliches, Z. 285, 288
Gropp, R. 476
group interdependencies 100
‘groupthink’ 589
growth, see economic growth
Grub, P. D. 685
Gu, W. 72, 74
Guangdong province 605, 606
Guangdong Telecomms fund II 361
Guest, D. 638
Guinness 146
Guiso, L. 184
Gujarat 605
Gujaratis 23, 590, 593
East African 585
Gulamhussen, M. A. 671n.
Gupta, M. 373
Guth, W. 389
Ha, Y. W. 94
Hagen, E. E. 143
Hainan Island 605
(p. 751) Haji-Ioannou, Stelios 461
Hall, B. 162, 172, 174n., 175n.
Hall, Peter 241
Hall, S. 643
Hambrick, D. C. 333, 676
Hamilton, B. H. 514
Hamilton, Eleanor 14, 237
Han, J. K. 126
Handbook of Entrepreneurial Research (Ács & Audretsch) 2
Handler, W. 236
Hanks, S. H. 478
Hannah, L. 167n.
Hannan, M. 201n., 296, 325
Hansen, M. T. 317
Hanson, James, Lord 149
Harper, D. A. 521
Harriman, Edward H. 8, 141, 145
Harris, George 148
Harris, R. 496
Harrisburg 210
Harrison, R. 262, 354, 360
Harrod-Domar model 281n.
Hart, O. D. 51n., 360n., 366
Hart, P. 167, 168
Hartmann, H. 84
Hartwell, R. M. 40
Harvard Business School 142–3, 147, 151
Harvard University 362
Harvey, Charles 148
Hassbring, Lars 150
Hauser, Herman 461
Hawaii 204
Hawk, Ashton 22, 428
Hawkins, R. M. F. 100
Hawley, F. 502
Hayek, Friedrich A. von 3, 44, 49n., 66, 106, 116, 200, 542
Hayes, R. L. 124
Hayton, J. 517, 518
hazard rate methodology 178, 372, 373
Hebert, R. 284
Heckman, James 266
hedging 716
financial instruments 553
Heelas, P. 641
Heerding, A. 150
Hege, U. 371, 373, 378, 380–1
Heinz 390
Hellmann, T. 363, 366, 373n.
helping-hand model 545, 546, 550, 551, 552
Henderson, R. 316, 333, 334
Hendrix, Paul 150
Herfindahl Index 563
Hertwig, R. 104
Heshmati, A. 294–5
heterarchies 682
heterodox economists 11
heterogeneity 461
buy-out types 499
Hetzner, C. 637, 641, 642
heuristics 12, 97, 467, 489, 492
adjustment 94
anchoring 94, 98
availability 93, 94
decision-making 92
information processing based on 466
representativeness 93–4, 95
Hewitt-Dundas, N. 266n.
Hewlett-Packard 391
hierarchies 315n., 316
corporate 523
decision-making 25, 290, 314
organizational 658
organizational 661
permeable decision 325
religious 563
high-level entrepreneurship 694
high-school dropouts 217, 218, 220, 221
high-tech sector 295, 356, 357, 358n., 661
ethnic minority businesses 587
firm growth potential 364
managers replaced 367
remarkable success of industry 523
Hildebrand, Karl-Gustaf 150
Hill, C. 497
Hill, S. A. 421
Hills, G. E. 128
(p. 752) Hiltzik, M. 313
hindsight bias 94
Hindu immigrant entrepreneurs 605
Hippel, E. von 318
hire purchase 364
hiring and firing 373
difficulty firms encounter in 562
strict restrictions on 566
Hiroshima 325, 326
Hirschleifer, J. 94
Hispanics 581, 582
immigrant communities in US 607
self-employment 595
Hisrich, R. D. 354, 612, 619
Hitachi 345
Hite, G. L. 495
Hoang, H. 529
‘hoarding of expertise’ problem 317
hobby-type businesses 615
Hoffmann-La Roche, Fritz 151
Hofstede, Geert 231, 512, 517, 518, 520, 523, 524
Högfeldt, P. 551
Hokkien 606
Holcombe, R. G. 39, 51n.
Holland, see Netherlands
Holmquist, C. 612
Holthausen, D. 496
Holtz-Eakin, D. 180, 182–3, 303, 514n., 543
Honda 74, 151
honesty 526
transactional trust based on 548
verifiable 548
Hong Kong 232, 605, 606
Honig, B. 529
Hooley, Ernest 146
Horton, Willy 549
Horvath, M. 74
hospitals 325, 633–4
Houghton, S. M. 95, 98
House of Commons Trade and Industry Select Committee (UK 1999) 255–6
household names 235
households 65
county-level indicators of income 181  n.
self-sufficient 35
Houston, F. S. 118
Howorth, Carole 14, 231, 233, 234, 239
Hoy, F. 227, 242
Hubbard, G. 543
Hudson, George 37
Hughes, J. R. T. 8, 144
Hughes, Mathew 114n.
Hultman, C. M. 130, 132
Hult, G. T. M. 126
human capital 14, 19, 42, 178n., 180, 300, 450, 473, 474, 554, 707
accumulation/development of 465
capital constraints, performance and 182
characteristics 472
coefficient for 215
controlling for 182
different dimensions of 443
enhancement of 285
entrepreneurship and 9, 216–21, 440–4
failure may reduce 475
families an important source of 225
heterogeneity that relates to 440
initial stock of 564
intra-family flows of 618
investments in 290, 546
managerial 181, 468
measured by entrepreneurial age 181
measuring the level in the economy 214
policy initiatives to improve 475
potentially more diverse 462
role of 13
rusty 443
socio-economic factors and 706–8
transferable 181
venture-specific 469
women business owners 620
Hungary 699, 701, 704, 706, 709, 712, 715
networks 717
number of firms 708
self-employment share in total employment 711
Hunt, S. 518n.
Hurst, E. 183
Hutton, W. 642
(p. 753) Hymer, S. 172
hysteresis effects 652
Iams, H. M. 447
IBM 337, 428
IBOs (investor-led buy-outs) 486, 493
ICI (Imperial Chemical Industries) 146
identity 527
family firm 240
shared 526
social 232
IDEO 325
ignorance 117
radical 78
IKEA 150, 226
illiquidity 362, 374, 679
illusion of control 95, 97, 98
over-optimism due to 96
imagination 119
IMF (International Monetary Fund) 631
imitators 70
potential 120
immigrants/immigration 23, 582, 512, 587
entrepreneurs/entrepreneurship 582, 601–10
openness to 6
impediments 253
imports 564
imprecise dynamics 43
improvisation techniques 326
in-firm training 231
incentive problems 316
incentives 48, 290
adverse 638
financial, ‘hard’ 476
government 568
initiative 696  n.
lack of 314
management, misalignment of 489
misaligned 324, 492
monetary, enhanced 489
notoriously weak under communism 694
pay 233
perceived 338–9
reputational 716
stifled 22
tax 361
income 164, 213, 445
contractual 45  n.
distribution of 701
growth 216
household 181  n.
psychic 491
residual 41, 45, 80
risky 184 see also earnings; target income
income effects 445, 446, 447
income support 454
income taxation 445
avoidance 163
incremental approach 25
incubator environments 362
incumbents 201, 327, 332–50
ability to exploit spillovers 202
absorptive capacity of 202
decision-making bureaucracy 291
differential growth of 72
entry serves as mechanism to discipline 293
focal venture is chosen by 417
less innovative 297
preventing firms from artificially closing off markets by rivals 67
slowness of 316
source of growth shifted away from 304
strengths and weaknesses 17
turbulent industries 392
turnover among 73
independence 466
India 602
attracting venture capital 358
family businesses 226, 232
software boom 555
trade restrictions 53  n.
Indiana 210
Indian populations 581, 584
entrepreneurs 591, 594, 606
high rates of educational attainment 595
(p. 754)
immigrant 605, 587
self-employment rates 594
indifference curves 185
individualism:
cultures high in 518
desiccated and socially unconnected 51
emphasis on 585
greater development increases 520
high 21, 518, 523
highly competitive and materialistic 10
methodological 55, 60
individualism/collectivism 518, 520–1
individuality 70, 117
Indonesia 232, 602
attracting venture capital 358
Chinese in 605, 606
Industrial and Corporate Change 74n.
industrial clusters 8, 24–5, 226, 619, 651–70
industrial complexes 663, 664
industrial relations 149
reform 631
industrialization:
family firms at the heart of 230
rapid 141
industry life cycle 177
industry sectors 206–7, 214–15
inefficiency:
macroeconomic 555
microeconomic 555
small business 283
static 53
inequality 641
gender 619
inertia 335, 338, 339, 357–8, 718
entrepreneurial 606
organization 315
structural 325, 333
technological 333
inflation:
average 562, 563
higher 568
reduced 697
variance of 562, 563, 568
information:
ability to utilize 471
asymmetric 15, 233, 257, 367, 547, 588, 717
by-product 107
codifed 70
company-level 373
different access to 286
disconfirming 94
dissemination mechanisms 524
distinction between knowledge and 70, 71
distorted and slowed down 316
employee-level 373
exclusion from 233
faulty 371
feedback 13
freely available 4
gained by experience 120
gathering 587, 698
imperfect 249, 257, 286
incomplete 50
inside 368, 495
interpreted in a biased manner 240
intertemporal 378  n.
non-redundant 527
perfect 286
personal sources 475
privileged 360
scientific, proprietary 337
shared 526, 589
transferability of 472
uneven distribution of 78
valuable 48
valuable, sharing 525
information access 662
improving 475
information acquisition 545
cost of 675
information collection process 12, 106–7, 108, 540, 678–80
bias 94
cost of 676
information flows ability to generate 55
acquiring contacts that provide 471
Alderson's emphasis on 128
altruistic environment 240
(p. 755)
generated to confirm or challenge beliefs 82
improving the quality of 51
institutional features that impede 544
middle managers inhibit 324
information mismatch 117
information overload 92
information processing 547
based on heuristics 466
information search behaviour 470–1, 475
infrastructure 203
basic communication and transportation 546
e-business 337
market 550
Inglehart, R. 518n., 520
inheritance 5, 20, 183n., 543
family firm attitudes to 230
Inkson, K. 643
innovation 15–17, 37, 40, 115, 123
cautious 126
discrepant market only cleared by 117
exploitative 424
geography of 657–61
household names with long history of pursuing 235
incentives for 694
incremental 126, 334, 336, 491
large firms 47, 311–31
major forms/sources of 8, 249
market leader 74
marketing's role in 128
need to finance 77
organizational approaches to sustaining 327
organized rational 125
periodic clustering of 8
R&D-driven 126
real opportunity costs of 68
role of context for 327
Schumpeterian 46–7, 76, 332–50
spending on 555
stagnated 7
strategic 492, 493
theoretical 52
validated in terms of profitability 77
waves of 7, 341
women's contribution to 612 see also radical innovation; technological innovation
insolvencies 177
instability 699
instituted market frame 65–9
institutional economics approach 512, 519, 718
institutional environment 5, 7, 694, 695, 702–6
not very supportive 716
institutional variables 560–4, 564–5, 566
institutional venture capital 360–1
institutionalization 71
institutions 6, 68, 87, 566, 697
financial 698, 701
formal, underdeveloped 717
higher education 558
impact on firm performance 706
informal 705
more developed 698
partial 696
planning system 693
weak 524, 525, 555 see also social institutions
insurance 184
intangibles 18, 227, 547
Intel 345, 387, 391, 396, 428
Intel Capital 417n.
intellectual property 287, 423
eroded 524
protection 290, 396
intellectual property rights 558
intelligence 540
‘intelligent failure’ 476
intention 519
intentions-based models 12, 102
interactions:
complex, family and firm 226
economic 41
mutual 528
repeated 548
interest rates 556, 620
high 705
(p. 756) inter-firm relations 25
intergenerational succession 15, 227, 228, 235–7
alternatives to 239
ensuring 239
internal locus of control 518
internalization theory 680–1
important element of 681
International Business Review 683
international expansion 671–92
internationalization 25, 26, 672–6
early 671, 682–4
sequential 681
simultaneous 681
Internet 337, 395, 516, 686–7, 706
explosion in new venture creation 391
rise of 683
run-up in CVC investment driven by 396
inter-organizational relationships 389
‘interpreneurship’ 227
intertemporal substitution possibilities 446
‘intrapreneurship’ 52, 128, 633
invention(s) 40, 52, 426
commercial exploitation deliberately delayed 17
entrepreneurial 413
possible to access earlier than before 327
restrictions on 66
successful 313
university 362
inventiveness 340–1
Inverse Gaussian distribution 176n.
investigation 106
investment:
capital 355, 499
commercialization of 285
firm-specific 526
incremental 494
joint 528
longer-term projects 697
mutual 526
portfolio approach to 368, 374
prospects for realization of 487
returns to 287, 357, 368, 404–5, 420, 529
reversible 680
superior selection of 369 see also syndication
investment banking 18
investment opportunities 60
investment relationships 388, 412–15, 426
investment staging 371–3
Investors in People 255n.
invisibility 237, 238
invisible hand concept 11, 40, 545, 546, 550
involuntary cessation/closure 163, 164, 178
IPOs (Initial Public Offerings) 18, 78, 375–80, 404, 406, 411n., 419, 428, 496–7
collapse of the market (1973) 391
Iran 602
Ireland 618
IRR (internal rate of return) 381, 421
irrational non-entry 344–5
IRS (US Internal Revenue Service) 196–7, 449
Irvine 325–6
Islamic economic retardation 606
Ismailis 23
East African 585
IT (information technology) 396, 419
Italy 150, 175, 294, 295, 603
family businesses 226, 229, 231, 232
industrial districts 151, 652, 660, 665
new business procedures 252
non-agricultural self-employment rates 436
rigid labour market 639
women 619
IV (Instrumental Variables) estimator 442, 446
IVCs (Independent VCs) 361, 399, 401, 405, 410, 413, 427
Iwasaki, Yataro 151
‘jack-of-all-trade’ attributes 440
Jacobs, J. 558, 570
Jaffe, A. 289, 292
Jain, S. C. 125
James, H. 239
Japan 150, 151, 226, 265n., 633 (p. 757)
buy-outs 494, 503
CVC investors 396
few currently successful entrepreneurs 319
innovation system 320
level of entreprenurial activity 639
motorcycle industry 74, 75
social values and attitude to family 232–3
TEA 614
Jardim, Anne 144
Jarillo, J. 285, 321
Jefferson, P. N. 448
Jegen, R. 101
Jensen, M. 371–2, 463, 495, 502, 555
Jephcott, Sir Harry 148
Jeremy, David 148
Jevons, William Stanley 42, 281
Jewkes, J. 38
Jews 585, 601
Baghdadi 606
money lenders 606
rationalism 585
job creation 10, 27, 249, 474
EAS effects on 454
small firms the engine of 283, 451
women's contribution to 612
job satisfaction 514, 612
declining 643
long-term decline in 638
job search 452
job security 642
decline in perceptions of 638
job tenure 451, 642
decline in perceptions of 638
Johanson, J. 677
Johnson, S. 522, 523, 548, 550, 699, 702, 706
Johnson & Johnson 391, 395, 396
joint distribution 375–6
joint probability 376–7
joint ventures 368, 408, 423, 549, 664
evaluating a potential agent 673
Jones, C. 499
Jones, Edgar 148
Jones, E. 8
Jones, Geoffrey 148
Jones, H. G. 52n.
Jones, M. E. 683
Jones, M. V. 683
Joslyn, C. S. 143
Joulfaian, D. 543
Journal of Business Venturing 241
journalistic exposés 151
Journey-to-Work data 204
Jovanovic, B. 20, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172–4, 175, 179, 180–2, 184, 186, 206, 293–4, 462, 479, 514n., 543
JSTOR database 516
judgement 44, 48, 462, 540, 542, 543
decision-making 3–4, 6, 9, 45, 46, 62, 104
poor 164
resource allocation 46
statistical, general knowledge 96
subjective 218
judiciary/judicial systems:
effective 549
efficienct 549, 561, 566
inefficient 544, 570
‘just price’ 35
Kahneman, D. 92, 94, 103, 104, 105
Kaiser, Henry J. 144
Kamprad, Ingvar 150
Kann, A. 405, 410–11
Kanter, Rosabeth Moss 633
Kao, C. 303
Kaplan, S. N. 316, 496
Kashima, K. L. 345
Kashmir 602
Kasper, W. 55n.
Katz, J. A. 101, 472
Kaufmann, D. 561, 562
Kay, J. A. 167n.
Keat, R. 641
Keeble, D. 213
Keep, E. 642, 643
Keh, H. T. 95
Keil, T. 423
Keilbach, Max 16, 284, 292, 298, 299, 301
keiretsu groups 494
Kerin, R. A. 98
Kerins, F. 514
Ketchen, J. 126
Khanna, T. 554, 555
Kihlstrom, R. E. 168n.
Kim, N. 126
King, A. 327, 342, 343n., 346
King, R. 544n.
King, Zella 24, 503, 521
kinship 14, 228, 582
extended group 230
Kirzner, Israel M. 3, 11, 41, 44, 48–9, 51, 69, 70, 75, 78, 79, 83, 86, 101, 106, 116, 117, 118, 121, 284, 472, 519, 542, 588, 604, 697, 708
Klapper, L. 523
Klayman, J. 94
Klein, P. 55n.
Klepper, S. 73n., 168n., 389
Knight, Frank H. 3, 11, 44, 45, 46n., 47, 49, 50, 51, 81, 139, 141, 164, 201n., 284, 435, 437, 601, 604
knowledge:
certain 164
core 74
discovery, enterprise and 69–71
dispersed 321
disseminated amongst market participants 116
endogenously determined 283
exogenous 291
experience-based 472
exploitation of 16, 199, 337
firm-specific 201, 202
growth of 60, 69
idiosyncratic 200
invariant 61
local 49, 200
‘monolithic’ 238
need to increase stock of 322
non-excludability and non-exhaustibility of 290
organizational 334
partial, dependence on 62
partitioning of 200
perfect 79, 106
prior 588
private 368
radical 62
relevant 212, 217
representation of 70
scientific 201
sharing of 718
specialized/specialist 217, 673
stationary 70
technological 681 see also commercialization of knowledge; economic knowledge; new knowledge; tacit knowledge; also under following headings prefixed ‘knowledge’
knowledge accumulation 44, 299
existing 334
incumbent firms 201–2
progressive 12
values that serve to encourage or discourage 337
knowledge acquisition 405
knowledge-based economies 81, 284
knowledge creation 287
commercialization and 199
linking growth to 16
knowledge-driven industries 526
knowledge filter 16, 200, 284, 288, 290–1, 292
severity of 299
knowledge-intensity 14, 16
growth rates, small and young enterprises 295
knowledge production functions 285, 286, 287, 288, 291
knowledge spillovers 195, 201, 288–92
ability to exploit 202
commercialization of innovation is based on 16
conduits of 284, 288, 298
future absorption of 202
high/low level of 292
locally available 216
potentially useful 217
(p. 759) knowledge transfer 241
Ko, A. 126
Kobrak, C. 239
Kockesen, L. 371
Kogut, B. 700
Kolvereid, L. E. 468, 474
Kondratieff long waves 8
Kontorovic, V. 709
Koppelkamm, D. 361
Koput, K. W. 527
Koran 606
Koreans 585, 593, 607–8
Kornai, J. 693
Kotler, P. 115, 118, 123
Kraay, A. 561, 562
Kreuger, Ivar 150
Krooss, H. E. 141, 142
Krueger, A. O. 53 n., 552
Krueger, N. F. 100, 102, 284, 285
Kruger, J. 98
Krugman, P. 203, 655n.
Krupps dynasty 140
Kuala Lumpur 606
Kuemmerle, Walter 16–17, 319n., 322, 333, 335
Kuhn, P. J. 448
Kuhn, T. S. 70, 121
Kumar, B. 676
Kuran, Timur 606
Kutch region 605
Kutchhi Lohana 585
Kuusisto, J. 272n.
Kuznets, Simon 66
Kyrgyzstan 712
labour 51, 162, 656
cheap 216, 218
economic growth determined explicitly by stocks of 299
elasticity of substitution between capital and 450
family 589–90
inexpensive and reliable 589
shortages of 215
slave 595
specialist 666
labour demand 447–51
labour markets 75, 206, 216, 230, 231
entrepreneurship, self-employment and 19, 435–60
ethnic minority business 583
evaluation of 266
flexibile 637, 638, 642
high- and low-skilled ends required to work harder 643
high-velocity 523
international 604
managerial or technical, inefficient 554
non-redundant information about 527
over-regulated 713