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date: 21 November 2018

(p. 811) Index

(p. 811) Index

Note: Page references followed by a “t” indicate table; “f” indicate figure.

A
abdominoplasty (tummy tuck), 598
abstract conceptualization model, 704–5
academic domains
competition within, 7, 808
physical attractiveness and, 578–79
achievement motivation theories, 789
acquaintanceships, 133, 134
active distress, in grief, 340
active mate choice, 322
adaptations
of adolescent peer aggression, 89–92
or mismatch, for adolescent girls, 443–44
of primates, 43
for progenicide, 569
of women jealousy, 345–46
adaptive behavioral strategy
of appearance enhancement, 31, 250
female competition as, 25
of women, 35
adaptive competition tactic, of appearance enhancement, 31, 250
adaptive dating outcomes, peer aggression and, 96–98, 99
adaptive purpose, of grief, 342
adaptive self-deception, 180
adaptive sexual behaviors, peer aggression and, 98
adolescence and young adulthood, 3 See also preadolescence
ancestral selective process for, 91
in cultural context, 19
dating behavior in, 91
direct mate competition sex differences, 19
educational settings competition, 19
family conflict during, 426
female-female competition in, 19
fitness advantages over peers, 94
popularity aim, 19
socialization during, 19
sports during, 19
winning sex differences, 19
adolescent girls
competition in patriarchal culture, 4, 19
dating overinvolvement outcomes, 97
dominance structures of, 72
fashion importance of, 440
indirect and relational aggression impact on, 81
relational aggression of, 75
social manipulation by, 385
status and, 439–40
subfertility of, 81
teasing and exclusion use, 75
violent actions age of, 8, 93
adolescent peer aggression
as adaptation, 89–92
bullying, 89–90
cost-benefit ratio of, 101
female reproductive competition and, 95–99, 439
females and earlier dating onset, 97, 99
forms and trends of, 92–93
indirect, 92, 95
intrasexual competition strategies, 93–95
mate competition link with, 96, 100
opposite-sex friendship and, 96, 99
physical, 92–93, 100
relational, 92
sex differences in, 92–93
social, 92, 100
adolescents
aggressive expression, 94–95
dominance of, 440–41
life history theory on, 81–82
peer relationships and sleep of, 419
reproductive capacity in lifespan, 91
social network sites popularity with, 681
social status and, 440
adornment, in clothing, 638
adultery. See infidelity
adults, aggressive expression of, 93–94
adult sex ratio, OSR compared to, 251–52
advertisement
female emotions and, 665
of genetic quality, 435
affiliation, 8
benefits of, 51
friendships through behaviors of, 52
immigrant females use of, 51
in primate female competition, 43
age, 301. See also aging
of adolescent girls violent action, 93
competition responses and, 366
facial symmetry and, 458
female-female competition and, 453–73
fertility and, 304
importance of, 303–5
marital status of American women by, 303, 303f
of menarche and menopause, 453
pregnancy likelihood by, 461
public collective self-esteem and, 729–30, 730f, 731f, 732
reduced physical attractiveness and, 457, 471
single and married women percentages by, 303–5, 304f
social boundaries, of single and married women, 307
agents, women as, 4, 149
age-related changes, female-female competition and, 456, 807
desire for children, 459
extended family role, 461
life history theory and, 457–59
older, mated women competition with mate poachers, 459–60
ornament concealment, 457–59, 471
reduced attractiveness, 457, 471
resource accumulation, 460–61
sexual strategy change, 457–59
aggression, 6. See also specific types
attractive signaling link to, 183–84
biological expressions of, 169
children development of, 170–71
cognitive association models, 174
communication and, 50, 170–71
in computer gaming, 707–8
empathy lack and, 154
environmental triggers and, 8
evolutionary account on, 172, 174–75
frustration-aggression hypothesis, 171
general aggression model, 171
jealousy as motivator for, 94, 184–85
to maintain status hierarchies, 172
male-male competition and, 59, 97, 256, 435
media witnessing of, 169
physical attractiveness link to, 172, 179–81
during preadolescence, 19
primatologists definition of, 72
proximate explanation of, 174–75
during puberty, 382
sex differences, 151, 174
situational triggers for, 170, 171
social context of, 90
social learning models, 174
within social networks, 9
sociocultural explanations of, 171
(p. 812) status seeking and, 8, 71, 75–78, 90, 400, 686
in subclinical psychopathy, 154
ultimate explanation of, 172–73
verbal, 19, 170, 174
violence and, 707–8
aging, 9. See also age
gossip reduction from, 179
intrasexual competition and, 179, 294
women decreased reproductive potential, 285
agonistic behavior, 356, 359, 359f
allomothers, 479, 506, 801, 804–5. See also cooperative mothering
unrelated individuals inclusion as, 510–12
alloparents, 479, 506
women competition for, 495–96
American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (ASAPS), 598
ancestral selective process, for adolescence, 91
androcentrism, 801–2
androgens, 380
childhood level of, 382
T as, 372
anger. See also recalibration theory of anger
retaliation and, 184
anorexia, 77–78, 442, 443, 444
anovulation, breastfeeding and, 469, 472
anti-attractiveness bias, 577
anticipatory response, of T, 361, 363
anti-infanticide hypothesis, male friends and, 138
antisocial behavior
aggression, 151
attributions of guilt, 149
benefits of, 156, 162
costs of, 154
crime and conviction rates, 148–49
intimate partner violence, 148, 149–50
lying, 151
sexual assault, 150
underestimation of women, 148–52
violent crimes, 149
appearance enhancement, 31–32, 577
by beauty products, 581, 587, 588, 640
consumer behavior for, 583
through cosmetic surgery, 589, 598–99, 607, 805
by derogation, 583–84
ovulatory cycle and, 9, 399, 402, 582
by self-promotion, 580–83
arranged marriages, 20, 296, 309, 330, 424f, 425f
arrest statistics, of women, 148
artisticality
artistic products, 775–76
bodily ornamentation, 10, 772–73
evolutionary theories of arts, 759–70, 776–77
ornamented performance, 773–74
sex differences in, 766, 767t, 768t, 769–70, 779
as social arena for ornamentation, 770–77
artistic products, 775–76
artistic pursuits, through female ornamentation, 10, 807
artisticality as social arena, 770–77
artistic appreciation and production, 767t, 768t
arts for performing evolutionary analysis, 758–59
creativity, 759, 761, 763, 766, 769–70, 773–76
arts, 757
evolutionary theories of, 759–70, 776–77
assortative mating patterns, 283, 284, 288, 289, 296
for status and wealth, 319
attachment theory, 777
evolutionary theory link to, 80–81
attractive female virtual images, 665–66
attractiveness, of Tsimane women
interpersonal, 123
pair-bonding and, 125–26
personality and behavior, 120
social aggression altering of, 121
social cooperation compared to competition, 107–27, 122f
social status and, 117, 118f, 119–24, 122f
attractive signaling
aggression link to, 183–84
during ovulatory fertility, 181–84
autonomic nervous system (ANS), 356, 366
avatar attachment, in computer gaming, 708–9
B
Bayesian modeling approach, to mate choice, 324–25, 333
beautification, of places, 10
beautification penalty, 577, 586, 588–89
beauty competition, 617
beauty is good stereotype, 588–89
beauty pageants, 805. See also children beauty pageants
competitor derogation and scandals, 625, 626t, 627
competitor manipulation, 627–28
costs of, 621
evolutionary theory and, 620–22
history of, 619–20, 631t
intelligence and, 620–21
intrasexual competition motivation, 10, 617–34
Miss America, 619–20, 622, 623, 624, 629t
Miss USA, 620, 624
paternity certainty and, 628
physical attractiveness and, 622–23
reduced BMI for, 601, 622
self-promotion, 624–25
structure of, 618, 619–20, 631t
virginal quality of evening gown, 628–30, 629t
virginity and, 618, 628
women competition evolution and, 623–24
beauty products
appearance enhancement from, 581, 587, 588, 640
ovulatory cycle and, 641
behavioral ecology, 15–16
on aggression and social dominance, 90
behavioral traits, children reproductive strategies and, 81
behaviors, 3. See also specific types
agonistic, 356, 359, 359f
challenge hypothesis and cyclical shifts in, 385
cooperative friendships with social aggressive, 114
covert research, 5
current environmental cues response, 82
defeat, 346
grief maladaptive, 340, 342
hormonal regulation of, 9, 371, 372, 375
increased oestrogen and ornamentation, 385
for mate choice, 283–84
mate value and controlling, 34
mating tactics, 284
social capital investments as motivator of, 125
submissive, 346
women computer gaming, 705–7
Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI), 727, 728–29
benevolent sexism, 147, 202
between-group
competition, 48, 48f
gossip and selection, 195
bias
anti-attractiveness, 577
female indirect aggression, 235, 414
female social aggression, 414
male physical aggression, 28–29, 112, 235, 400, 401, 414
research past, 5
sexual attribution, 586–88
bidirectional mate choice, 321–22
bilateral traits symmetry, reproductive value and, 177
biological, 785
biology
evolutionary, 107–8, 124, 261
feminist evolutionists perspectives on, 82
mate scarcity sex ratio, 251–52
sex ratio in, 251–52
biosocial status hypothesis, 359, 359f, 360, 361, 366
(p. 813) biparental care, 8, 27, 30
male reproductive variance constraints, 29
women preference for, 29
birth sex ratio, 479
birth spacing, 558–59
bi-strategic controllers
peer social attraction and, 100
for resource control, 76
black grouse leks, 326–27
Black Widow serial killer, Shephard as, 160
Blair, Madeleine, 158–59, 161
bodily ornamentation, 10, 772–73
body fat
critical fat hypothesis, 441–42
RSH and, 441
WHR deposition and, 641–43
body image
female concerns over, 435–36
media and dissatisfaction of, 436, 657–58, 673, 749
RSH and fat in, 441
body mass index (BMI)
beauty pageant reduced, 601, 622
eating disorders and, 670–71
female intrasexual aggression on, 95
pregnancy increase of, 468
bonding, in sports, 366
bond maintenance, 50
boys, mixed-age group play, 18
brain development, 357
breastfeeding, 461, 463f, 464–65
anovulation and, 469, 472
neonatal mortality and, 462
breeding opportunities, women competition for, 494–95
broods, female selective sex ratios of, 272–73
bullying, 71, 89, 233
dating and self-reported, 96
with Facebook, 10, 200
gossip as form of, 416
individual somatic and sexual benefits from, 90
of unfashionable girls, 648
C
C. See cortisol
callitrichids, cooperative breeding of, 490–91
cardiovascular (CV) measurements, 365–66
caregiving men, women competition for, 492–93
caretaking behaviors, of hamadryas baboons, 57
casual friends, 134–35
casual sex, mate scarcity and, 33
catfishing, in Facebook, 690–91, 693
celebrities, gossip about, 196, 201–2
CEO positions, fertility costs from, 21, 22
chacma baboons, female friends competition, 138, 143
challenge hypothesis, 388
bird mating systems and, 372–73
cyclical shifts in behavior, 385
evidence from men, 375–76
evidence from women, 376–78
nonhuman species evidence, 372–74
T and, 359–60, 361, 366, 372
testing, 375–78
trade-offs in, 373
charitable giving, 406
childbearing, physical attractiveness after, 458
childcare, 505
child evolved psychology, motherhood and, 469–70
childhood
androgens level in, 382
family conflict during, 426
children. See also parental investment
age and desire for, 459
aggression development, 170–71
androgen levels, 382
evolutionary approach to aggression and, 175
evolved psychology and, 469–70
mother competition through, 21
paternal investment and survival rates of, 29
progenicide and illegitimate, 562
quantity compared to quality, progenicide and, 556–57
raising of, 507–9
shared care of, 83
single women dependent, 304
social networks impact on, 8, 79–81, 115–16
traumatic rivalries and co-wives, 425–26
women mate attainment assistance, 488–89
women passing status to, 488
children beauty pageants
evolutionary themes in, 631–33
history and structure of, 630–31, 631t
negative impact of, 632–33
children reproductive strategies
behavioral traits and, 81
harshness and unpredictability, 80
juvenility and, 81
maternal care and girls sexual maturity timing, 79
parental transitions and, 80
parent-child relationships, 80
periods of life, 81
psychosocial acceleration theory and, 79
chimpanzees, 41
communication of, 55
dispersal and reproduction, 55–56
dispersing-egalitarian, 49
dominance and friendships, 56–57
female coalition against male aggression, 113
fission-fusion society of, 54, 55
socially learned maternal competence skills and, 115
social structure, 54–55
strong extra-kin female relationships, 113
China, one child policy, 277
cliques, in informational warfare, 231, 232
close friends, 134–35
exclusivity of, 231
reciprocity of, 240–41
closeness, psychological
equality and, 135–36
platonic, 135
self-expansion theory of, 135
significant other representations and, 135
clothing
adornment aspect, 638
culture taboos, 649
dress and, 638
sexy perceptions, 582, 607, 648–50
clothing choices, 581, 637
color preferences, 645–46
ovulatory cycle influence on, 10, 182, 183, 184, 401–3, 402f
promiscuous behavior and, 630
T level and, 385
virginity and, 629t, 630
coalitional behavior, of females
benevolence and, 223–24
primates for limited resources, 224
coalitional gossip, 223, 230–31, 233, 806
coalitional manipulation, of reputation, 230–31, 241
coalitional relationships, 8, 52
benefits of, 230–31
among chimpanzees, 113
context for formation of, 73–74
dominance and, 46, 47, 49
effective gossip through, 77
evolutionary accounts of, 223–32
male aggression deterrence from, 113
in reputational contests, 230
sociological model on, 223–24
coalitional support
for dominance, 46, 47, 49
from friendships, 53
coalitions
defined, 241
evolution of, 223–32
sex differences in, 233
within-coalition dynamics, 240–41
coercion-defense hypothesis, 46
coercive strategies, for resource control, 76
cognitive appraisal, in coping competition model, 9
cognitive association models, 174
cognitive mechanism tracking, of OSR, 275–76
(p. 814) cognitive variables, 355, 360, 361, 367
cohabitation, 307
collectivism, 8, 309
commercial growth, 4
common fate, gender identity and, 729
communication. See also gossip
aggression and, 50, 170–71
of chimpanzees, 55
competitive among women, 169–85
evolutionary approach to, 175
extant models of, 170
in friendships, 308
honest compared to dishonest signaling, 182
philopatric sex members reliance on, 52
signals of, 684–85
women preference for games with, 706
competition, 3, 265, 505. See also specific types
cosmetic surgery and culmination of, 611
defined, 15
exploitation as, 152–54
between ex-wives and current wives, 568–69
between female friends, 133–34, 138–42
as mate preference function, 252
over physical attractiveness characteristics, 31–32, 372
reasons for, 26, 321–22, 788
tactics, for mates, 324–25
types, 48f
women stopping of, 346–47
competitive beautification, 577–79
appearance enhancement by derogation, 583–84
appearance enhancement by self-promotion, 580–83
envy and, 584–88
for successful mate competition, 580
competitive fathering, 471
competitive motherhood, 804
in cooperative breeding mammals, 489–96
in independently breeding primates and humans, 484–89
competitive mothering, 9, 470–71, 472, 505–13, 804
cooperative behavior examination problems, 519–20
ecological and social context of, 521–22
female intrasexual competition, 514–15
indirect aggression and, 517–18
outside of mating context, 515–16
problems mothers face, 516–17
trade-offs in mother decision-making, 516
competitive skills, in gaming, 699, 700, 705–6, 708, 709
competitor derogation, 17, 20, 72, 179, 292, 435, 446, 617
beauty pageants scandals and, 625, 626t, 627
to diminish rivals, 99
effectiveness of, 215
fertility link to, 386
mate poaching and, 209–10
mate scarcity and, 584
at pageant local level, 627
perceptions of, 215
on physical appearance, 33, 293
physical attractiveness and, 182–83, 284–85, 302, 607
as relationship maintenance tactic, 584
reputation-based gossip for, 209
results of, 94
risks of, 77
subtle intrasexual competition and, 386
women effective use of, 213, 344, 619, 638, 683
women oestrogen level and, 401
competitor manipulation, 617, 619, 703
in beauty pageants, 627–28
Facebook use of, 690–92
female competition use of, 94
competitors, self-assessment dependent upon, 291
computational modeling, 268
computer gaming, 10, 805
aggression and violence, 707–8
avatar attachment and in-game socialization, 708–9
in context, 709–10
grrl gamers, 709
in-game socialization, 708–9
ubiquitous computing influence, 710–11
video games, 699, 700, 701, 705, 708, 710
women communication preference, 706
women competition in, 702–5
women gaming behaviors, 705–7
con artist, exploitation and, 153
conception, competition from, 480–84
consanguineous marriages, 111–12
conspecifics, in natal group, 51
conspecific threat hypothesis, 46
conspicuous consumption battles, 404
consumer behavior, 397, 405, 407
for appearance enhancement, 583
consumption patterns, 9
contest competition, 48, 48f, 256. See also female-female competition; female intrasexual competition; male intrasexual competition; male-male competition
coalitions useful in, 225
dominance hierarchies in, 225
intensity of, 436
for sexual dimorphism, 112
within-group, 224
contraceptive use, during reproductive years, 382–83
conversation, 232
cooperation, 505, 804
evolutionary model of, 226–27
Prisoner's Dilemma game and, 152–53
social reputations improvements, 108
social skills for friendships, 108
Tsimane women competition and, 107
cooperative breeding, 82, 492–96
callitrichids, 490–91
maternal competition among, 498–99
wild dogs, 489–90
cooperative breeding, of humans, 491–96
alloparents women competition, 495–96
breeding opportunities women competition, 494–95
men with resources women competition, 492
women competition for caregiving men, 492–93
cooperative friendships, 8, 108
fitness outcomes from, 114
with social aggressive behaviors, 114
social intelligence impacted by, 115, 116, 120
of Tsimane women, 113–17, 118f, 119f
cooperative marriages, 112
cooperative mothering, 9, 505–19, 524, 804. See also allomothers
ecological and social context of, 521–22
coping competition model, 9, 355, 360, 360f, 361, 366
cortisol (C), 356
elevated, significance of, 363–64
HPA release of, 374
cosmetics. See beauty products
cosmetic surgery, 10, 640
abdominoplasty, 598
appearance enhancement, 589, 598–99, 607, 805
attitudes and acceptance of, 599
changing face and, 599–600
competition culmination and, 611
cultural influences, 601–2
derogation and, 609
evolution and male mate preference, 602–3
female intrasexual competition and, 597–612
history of, 598
intrasexual selection theory, 605
male intrasexual competition, 605–6
mother nature deception, 607–8
risk taking and, 609–10
types of, 603
women and physical attractiveness pursuit, 600–601, 603–5
youthfulness attempt, 600
cost-benefit analysis, of OSR, 268–69, 270
cost-benefit ratio
of adolescent peer aggression, 101
physical aggression and sexes, 93
costly signaling theory, 170, 185, 211, 214
attractive signaling link to aggression, 183–84
honest compared to dishonest communication, 182
on mate quality, 227
(p. 815) physical attractiveness signals during ovulatory fertility, 181–83
provocative clothing, 182, 183
for same-sex rivals, 184
covert behaviors, in research, 5
covert competition, 6
co-wives, 7
competition among, 19–21
conflict among, 20–21
pragmatic cooperation, 414
traumatic rivalries and children, 425–26
creativity, 759, 761, 763, 766, 769–70, 773–76
critical fat hypothesis, 441–42
cross-cultural, 249
ethnographic information on female-female competition, 112
female competition evidence, 330–32
marriage systems, 255
mate poaching, 305
mate preferences, 330
mating systems, 308, 308f
OSR research, 274
on physical aggression and sex ratio imbalances, 256
physical attractiveness preference, 302
sex ratio effects and, 259–60
CrossFit, 794, 795
cross-group friendships, 135, 136
cultural context, of sex differences, 18–19
cultures
clothing taboos, 649
jealousy across, 332
mass media access, 670
patriarchal, 4, 19
on women and standards of beauty, 601
D
daily lives, Tsimane women, 109
Dark Triad of personality, 8, 162
antisocial behavior underestimation, 148–52
benefits of, 161
Blair as gentlewoman madam, 158–59, 161
competition and, 154–55
exploitation as competition, 152–54
Flanders as Defoe's antiheroine, 159–60, 161
Machiavellianism, 8, 116, 147, 155, 158–60, 161, 807
mate poaching and, 154
Moran as international spy, 158, 161
narcissism, 8, 147, 154, 158–60, 294
Nicotine as repeat offender, 157–58, 161
reproductive benefits of, 154
sex differences in, 155–57, 161
Shepard as sweet old black widow, 160
subclinical psychopathy, 8, 147, 154, 155, 157–58
surprise element, 157
workplace and, 154–55
Darwin, Charles, 6, 16, 801
on natural selection, 15, 26, 78, 194–95, 266, 371, 682
on sexual selection, 26, 288, 658–59, 682
on sexual struggle, 25
on women progenicide, 553–70, 805
dating behaviors, 89, 801
in adolescence, 91
adolescent girls overinvolvement outcomes, 97
adolescent peer aggression connection with, 91, 95–96
dominance and, 96
earlier onset of, 97
peer aggression and adaptive outcomes, 96–98, 99
peer victimization outcomes, 97
reproductive fitness and, 98
self-reported bullying and, 96
speed-dating, 290
thin women preference, 580
daughters, 529
mothers killing, 562–63
deception, 152
in intersexual and intrasexual competition, 153
decision-making, trade-offs in mother, 516
defeat, 139, 341, 346, 348
in coping competition model, 359f, 360, 360f, 361
demographic research, on OSR, 273–74
dependent rank, dominance determined by, 73
depression, 657, 668–70
IDS and, 669
inactive grief state of, 340
mate loss and, 340–41, 347
social risk hypothesis on adaptive function of, 341
social withdrawal from, 342
derogated individual, gossip perspective by, 216–17
derogation, 72
appearance enhancement by, 583–84
cosmetic surgery and, 609
of female physical attractiveness, 284–85, 302
of fidelity and physical appearance, 33, 293
for male status, 284–85
mate value and, 293–94
desirable mother, as strategy, 466–69
developmental evidence, in female competition, 332–33
developmental history, 8
developmental instability hypothesis, 458
deviant peer groups, reproductive strategies and, 81–82
dictator game, ovulatory cycle and, 405, 644–45
dieting behaviors, extreme, 9, 435
indirect aggression and, 445
reproductive suppression and, 445
social support influence on, 444
differential parental investment, sexual selection influenced by, 27
digital age
Facebook for mate and competitor manipulation, 690–92
Facebook frenemies, 689–90, 805
females as competitors and cooperators, 685–88
selfie promotion, 688–89, 805
digital games, 699
direct aggression
defined, 75
females cost of, 93
disadvantaged mating markets
male, 272
discriminative parental solicitude, progenicide and, 564–66
disequilibrium, for infanticide, 50
dispersal
of chimpanzees, 55–56
co-transfer and, 51
in female primate sociality, 48–52
genetic diversity from, 51
of hamadryas baboons, 57
inbreeding avoidance from, 61
of ring-tailed lemurs, 59
dispersing-egalitarian female-to-female relationship, 49
divergent sexual strategies, strategic interference and, 30
division of labor, 505
divorced single women, 304–5
happiness of, 347
dominance, 5, 8, 41, 435
adolescent girls structures of, 72
of adolescents, 440–41
basic and dependent rank determination of, 73
of chimpanzees, 56–57
coalitional support for, 46, 47, 49
definition of, 73
establishment of, 52
of female primates, 73
in female primate sociality, 48–52
within friendship, 138, 144
of hamadryas baboons, 58–59
male tolerance and, 55
of ring-tailed lemurs, 59–60
sex differences in, 234
subordinance hierarchy and, 56
dominance hierarchies
benefits of human, 235
in contest competition, 225
female animals common, 234
informational warfare and human, 234–35
dowry, 258–59
dual-hormone hypothesis, 388
evidence from men, 375–76
evidence from women, 376–78
HPA and HPG function in, 374
nonhuman species evidence, 374–75
(p. 816) Ducking Stool, for gossip, 193–94, 193f
duolocal residence, 310–11
dyadic power, in mate scarcity, 250
E
eating disorders, 32, 442, 657, 670–72, 749
anorexia, 77–78, 443, 444
evolutionary account of, 446
intrasexual competition on, 444–45
mass media and, 657–58
reproductive suppression and, 435–47
WHR, BMI and, 670–71
ecological model, 46–47
education
delayed parenthood from, 304
similarities, in romantic relationships, 283
educational settings
adolescent competition in, 19
hierarchical, peer aggression, 90–91
egalitarian gender roles, 4
egalitarianism
as friendship feature, 133
of women, 723
emotional regulation, 328
emotional responses
to mate loss, 339–41
to OSR, 276–77
empathy, subclinical psychopathy and lack of, 154
endocrinological responses, of women, 361
hormonal regulation of behavior, 9, 371, 372, 375
ovulatory cycle, 9, 398–406, 402f
endocrinology, of female competition, 389
challenge hypothesis, 372–78
dual-hormone hypothesis, 374–78
female sex hormones, 379
T, peptide and steroid hormones, 378–80
women competitive behavior lifespan, 371, 380–88
entitlement, in narcissism, 154
environmental cues
reproductive choices and, 78
sexual strategies theory and, 338
environmental harshness, mate poaching and, 331, 332
environment of evolutionary adaptedness (EEA), 456, 460–62, 463, 467
envy, 577, 584–88, 589
epigamic display, 25, 26, 32, 35
variables in mate scarcity, 33
women use of, 31
equality, 4, 133
psychological closeness and, 135–36
social power and status degrees, 134
equitable mating markets, 266
equity theory, 134
error management theory, 152
estrogen. See oestrogens
ethical decision, 406
Ethiopia, Sidama women of, 413–29
evaluative gossip, 212
evolutional ecological theory
competition and aggression between women, 413–14
on sleep, 417, 418
on social capital and sleep effect on health, well-being, 428
on social stress from aggression, 419
evolutionary accounts, 553
of adolescent girls peer aggression, 8, 93
on aggression, 172, 174–75
of children and aggression, 175
of coalitional relationships, 223–32
of communication, 175
of deceit for genetic fitness, 323
for decision-making, 324
of direct competition, 667
of eating disorders, 446
of fitness emphasis, 639
of indirect aggression, 169–70
of intrasexual competition, 6
for sex ratio, 266
of women aggression, 173–74
evolutionary biology
evolutionary psychology unified with, 261
on female access and men reproductive success, 124
on female mate choice, 108
on reproductive constraints and costs, 108
on reproductive success, 107–8
resources rivalry, 108
on women resources and inclusive fitness, 124
evolutionary ecological theory
on mate selection choice, 112
Tsimane women social dynamics, 123
evolutionary heritage, 681
evolutionary mismatch theory, virtual others perception and, 665–66
evolutionary process, 4
of competition and aggression, 44–50
differential parental investment theory and, 93
for male-male sports competition, 19
peer aggression in, 91
polyganous societies, 20
reproductive success and, 107–8
evolutionary psychology, 657, 803
evolutionary biology unified with, 261
mate preference emphasis, 260
on mate value, 284, 295
virtual intrasexual competition and, 659–60
evolutionary psychology, of gossip, 191, 196–98, 207, 228
between-group selection, 195
detailed recollection social skill, 194–95
good provider indicators, 213
intrasexual competition strategy, 208, 209
MST and, 195
natural selection and, 194–95
within-group selection, 195
evolutionary theories, of arts, 759, 767–70
for artisticality, 776–77
female role in, 760–66
sex differences and, 760–66
sexual selection and, 760–66
evolutionary theory, 6, 617
attachment theory link to, 80–81
beauty pageants and, 620–22
on mate guarding, 101
exaggeration, of physical attractiveness, 170, 323
exclusion, by adolescent girls, 75
exploitation as competition, 154
con artist and, 153
game theory model, 152–53
extant communication models, 170
extended family, 461
extended phenotype, 681, 687, 692
extra-pair copulation (EPC), 467
mothers as sexual partners and, 469
extra-pair sexual relationships, 306–7
cultural variations in, 332
mate retention efforts and, 320
ex-wives and current wives competition, 568–69
F
Facebook, 191, 681–82
age of, 683–85
behavior change, ovulatory cycle and, 693–94
catfishing and, 690–91, 693
frenemies, 689–90, 805
as friend-networking site, 683
gossip spreading and tracking, 200–201
jealousy-related feelings and behaviors, 201, 219
for mate and competitor manipulation, 690–92
motivations for use of, 684
News Feed of, 684
profile pages sex differences, 683
sex differences in activity on, 201
signaling and, 687
stalking, bullying, self-promotion with, 10, 200, 688–89, 805
facial beauty, 639–41
faithful as your options hypothesis, 251, 252, 259, 260, 261
marriage and, 253
family, 9
conflict during childhood and adolescence, 426
extended, 461
material and social resources availability, 79–80
multifamily communities, 486–89
fashion, 10, 617, 637, 806
(p. 817) adolescent girls importance of, 440
corseting practice, 641–43
evolutionary account of fitness emphasis, 639
importance of, 646–48
leg length and gait, 643
mate guarding role, 648
sexy clothing perceptions, 582, 607, 648–50
skin health and facial beauty, 639–41
unfashionable girls bullying, 648
WHR and fat deposition, 641–43
fashion, across ovulatory cycle
clothing preference changes, 644–45
color preferences, 645–46
fashion trends, 637
evolution influence on maintenance of, 643–44
fat. See body fat
fathers
parental care by, 20
spouse selection by, 20
fecundity
exaggeration of, 323
mate value and, 285
WHR as predictor of, 32
Federal Drug Administration (FDA), 598
Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, Medical Devices Amendment of, 598
female aggression, 82
examination of, 71–72
feminist evolutionists on, 71, 73, 75–78
powerful social networks and, 77–78
female competition, 191, 757, 801. See also competitive mothering; contest competition
as adaptive behavioral strategy, 25
for alloparents, 495–96
beauty pageants evolution, 623–24
for breeding opportunities, 494–95
for caregiving men, 492–93
competitor manipulation, 94
in computer gaming, 702–5
context-specific, 505–6
covert, 702
cross-cultural evidence, 330–32
developmental evidence, 332–33
feminist evolutionist perspectives on, 71–84
gossip role in, 200–202, 435
health costs of, 417
for males with resources, 492, 618, 704, 802
in mammals, 436–37
mate manipulation, 94, 292, 628
menopause effect on, 387–88
older, mated women with mate poachers, 459–60
phylogenetic evidence for, 271–73, 325–28
psychobiological responses to, 9, 355–67
psychological evidence, 328–30
reproductive suppression and eating disorders, 435–47
self-promotion, 94, 619, 624–25, 638, 682
in sports, 785–96, 802
for status, 802
suppression of other women, 445
T and, 470
theoretical evidence for, 321–25
Tsimane women cooperation and, 107
in workplace, 725
female disadvantaged mating market, 266–67, 274–75
female exogamy, 239, 240
female family members conflict, 529
during childhood and adolescence, 426
general predictions, 535–37
genetic conflict behavioral expression, 529, 531f, 533–34
mothers and daughters comparison, 537, 538f, 543f, 543–47, 544t, 545f, 546t, 547t
parasite load effects, 549
parent-offspring conflict and sibling competition, 547–49
parents and siblings influence, 534
preference differences, 535
reasons for, 530, 532–33
female-female competition, 15, 26
in adolescence and young adulthood, 19
by age and parity, 453–73
age-related changes and, 456, 457–61, 807
ethnographic cross-cultural information on, 112
for good mates, 17
through gossip, 200–202, 435
in humans, 439–41
motherhood and fertility cues, 461–70
reproductive career course, 455–57
research on, 454–55
sexual selection and, 346
for spouses, 20
survival and reproductive fitness benefits, 28
female-female relationships
dispersing-egalitarian, 49
primate categories, 45t
primate schematic factors, 46f
female-female sociality, of primates, 8, 41, 44, 47
competition types, 48f
dispersal and dominance, 48–52
food competition, 48
social evolution summary, 50
female friends, 806
casual and close, 134–35
competition between, 133–34, 138–42
competition underestimated, 135
conversation and emotional support emphasis, 135
emotional sharing and self-disclosure, 211
friendship, 134–36
hierarchy and friendship functions, 137–38
intrasexual competition among, 139, 144
jealousy over, 231
sex differences in same-sex friendships, 135, 136–37
zero-sum games and, 142–43
female intrasexual competition. See also primates, female intrasexual competition in
cosmetic surgery and, 597–612
fashion as, 637–50
psychology exploitation, 664–65
female lifespan
competitive behavior across, 371, 380–88, 389
ovarian hormone changes across, 381f
female pairs, negative gossip and, 212
female philopatry, 47, 485
females, 5. See also women
adolescent peer aggression and dating behavior, 91, 95–96
advertisement and emotions of, 665
anisogamous gametes, 27, 28
beautiful, advantages and disadvantages, 10
competitor derogation effective use by, 213, 344, 619, 638, 683
as competitors and cooperators, 685–88
cosmetic surgery and physical attractiveness pursuit, 600–601, 603–5
early and committed relationships, 97, 99
evolutionary process for reproductive success, 107–8
genetic benefits and active mate choice, 322
gossip represented by, 192–93, 198–200
long-term mate standards of, 338–39
males partnering with younger, 465, 580, 604–5, 638, 673
mate competition intrasexual selection, 16
mate loss and competition stop, 346
mate quality motivation of, 173
mate value influence on intrasexual competition, 281–96
menarche and decision-making, 358
nesting of, 462–64, 463f
philopatric primate species, 47, 485
positive stereotypes of, 147–48, 157
promiscuous behavior outcomes, 96
reproductive limits from offspring, 96
research variables, 355
resource scarcity and violent crimes, 173
resources priority for mate acquisition, 108
selective sex ratios of broods, 272–73
sexual inducement of, 327–28
XX chromosomes of, 17
(p. 818) female sex hormones
competitive behavior regulation by, 378–79
oestrogens, 177–78, 378–80, 398
female sexual development, HPG axis control of, 381
female sociality, primate sociality and, 8, 44, 47–52, 48f
female status striving, 479
child quality improvement and, 487–88
feminist evolutionists perspectives, 83–84
aggression and status seeking, 71, 75–78
on biology and environment influence, 82
on female aggression, 71, 73, 75–78
on female competition, 71
primatology legacy, 72–73
reproductive strategies, 71, 78–82
on social networks, 71, 73–75, 82
fertility. See also infertility; ovulatory cycle; ovulatory fertility
adolescent girls subfertility, 81
age and, 304
CEO positions cost to, 21, 22
competitor derogation link to, 386
cues, motherhood and, 461–70
grandmothers human lifetime, 22
harassment to reduce, 460
HPG axis control of, 381
intrasexual competition influenced by, 397–407
mate value and, 285
menarche beginning of, 453
motherly tasks and proof of, 461–65
ovulatory, 169, 181–84
ovulatory competition hypothesis, 397, 400–406, 807–8
primates aggressive intrasexual behaviors and, 384
proof and motherly tasks, 461–65
social capital investments support, 115
variation in, 464–65
weight relationship with, 441–42
women behavior and ovulatory shifts, 399–400
fidelity
derogation of, 33, 293
males premium of, 96
fight or flight response, 356, 686
sex differences in, 358
financial decision-making, 9, 397, 405, 808
fission-fusion, of primates, 43
of chimpanzees, 54, 55
fitness. See also genetic fitness; reproductive fitness
emphasis on, 639
evolutionary account of emphasis in, 639
flexible response model, in ovulatory cycle, 442
flirting, as mate retention tactic, 33
follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), 380, 381
pregnancy halt of, 383
food, female power struggles and, 739–53
consumption and beauty, 746–50
motherhood and food preparation, 740–47
food competition, in female sociality, 52–53
contest, 48, 48f
group formations and, 50
during scarcity, 72
scramble, 48, 48f
in Tsimane women, 114
food intake, 10, 739
contextual influences on women food choice and, 747–50
eating to beauty, 746–47
female facial attractiveness and, 747
food intake and women reputation, 750
hormonal influence on, 748
women reputation influenced by, 750
women's food choice and food intake, 747–50
food preparation, 10, 805
caring and commitment signal from, 742–46
learning to cook, 740–42
food resources, OSR and, 269
food studies, 739, 740, 752
frenemies
Facebook, 689–90, 805
friends and, 307–8
Freud, Sigmund, 801–2
friend-networking site, Facebook as, 683
friendships, 7, 8, 107, 802, 806. See also cooperative friendships; same-sex friendships
acquaintanceships and, 133, 134
through affiliative behaviors, 52
benefits of, 53, 71, 74, 137–38
of chimpanzees, 56–57
coalitionary support from, 53
communication in, 308
as competition-nullifying force, 134, 139–41, 144
cross-group, 135, 136
defined, 134
dominance within, 138, 144
egalitarianism feature of, 133, 136, 143
equality in, 133–34
frenemies and, 307–8
of hamadryas baboons, 58–59
influences of, 74
offspring survival from, 113
opposite-sex, adolescent peer aggression and, 96, 99
power differentials in, 141–42, 143
preexisting status differentials, 134, 136
psychological and mental health improvement from, 115
psychological and physiological health from, 52, 115
psychological closeness and equality, 135–36
reciprocal altruism in, 137
reciprocity in, 74, 134, 240–41
of ring-tailed lemurs, 59–60
social status through, 108
status differences in, 135–36, 141–42, 143
unequal-power, 143
unrelated women help from, 512–13
vulnerability from, 71
well-being from, 137
frustration-aggression hypothesis, 171
G
game theory model
on exploitation, 152–53
female competition simulations, 322–24, 326
of parental care, 268
prudence in, 323
gaming, 699, 700, 709
male preferences in, 701
women behaviors in, 705–7
women covert competition in, 702
women risk preferences, 704
gender, 4, 719, 785
belief system, in workplace, 723–24
gender identity
common fate and, 729
social identity and, 723, 728
general aggression model, 171
genetic conflict, 529, 531f
behavioral expression, 533–34
genetic diversity, from dispersal, 51
genetic fitness
faking, 323–24
female preference for, 323
female sexual attraction to, 399–400
physical attractiveness value, 401
proximate mechanisms display of, 687
genetic polymorphisms, aggression as consequence of, 183
genetic quality, 607
advertisement of, 435
mate value and, 286, 435
genetic similarities, in romantic relationships, 283
genomic imprinting, 21, 22
genotypes
natural selection and, 266
successful reproduction and, 338
girls, 3. See also adolescent girls
competition during puberty, 382
gossip affect on, 416
menarche and competition, 382
sexual maturity timing and maternal care, 79
socialization for competition, 18–19
subtle preadolescent competition, 18
glitz pageants, 631
gonadotrophic hormones
FSH, 380, 381, 383
LH, 380, 381, 383, 398
good provider indicators, in gossip, 213
(p. 819) gossip, 72, 169, 174, 446, 690. See also evolutionary psychology, of gossip; reputation-based gossip
aggressive use of, 8, 198–200
aging reduction of, 179
bad, selfish within own group, 195–96
bullying and, 416
about celebrities, 196, 201–2
coalitional relationships effective, 77
control through, 77
cosmetic surgery and, 609
defined, 208, 228
from derogated individual perspective, 216–17
Ducking Stool for, 193–94, 193f
to enforce group norms, 197
evaluative, 212
Facebook spreading and tracking, 200
female competition role, 200–202, 435
female representation of, 192–93, 198–200
function of, 208
good, serving group interests, 196–98
good provider indicators in, 213
group norms enforced by, 197
individual differences in, 198
as informational aggression, 8, 227–32
information management of, 229, 232
as intrasexual competition form, 207–9
low and high frequency, 198
male intrasexual competition and, 308
for mate poaching, 8, 207–19
mate value and, 292–93
motivations for, 191–92
natural selection and, 194–95
to promote solidarity, 232–33
relationships and, 209, 215–16, 218
religious sanctions against, 192–93
as reputational information manipulation, 8, 227–32
research on sex differences in, 212–15
risk-acceptance mechanisms, 211
Scold's Bridle for, 193, 193f
sex, mate competition, and mate poaching relationships, 207–19
show-off hypothesis for men, 212
sneering physical appearance comments, 95
as social control mechanism, 197, 208
social networks functions of, 77, 416
social status and, 196
strategy learning, 208
time engaged in, 212–13
among Tsimane women, 110, 111, 121
in workplace, 198, 199
grandchildren, grandmothers survivors influence, 22
grandiosity, in narcissism, 154
grandmother hypothesis, 21–22, 387, 741–42
grandmothers, 8, 21–22
grandchildren survivorship influenced by, 22
human lifetime fertility influenced by, 22
Tsimane women as, 109
grief
active distress in, 340
adaptive purpose of, 342
inactive, depressed state, 340
maladaptive behavior from, 340, 342
mate loss and, 340
grooming and gossip theory, 777
group decision-making, Lost on the Moon task measure, 141–42, 142f
group formations, female
bad gossip, selfish within, 195–96
food competition and, 50
good gossip, serving interests within, 196–98
for predation risk, 50
group norms, gossip to enforce, 197
grrl gamers, 709
guilt, sex differences in, 149
guppies, mate copying behavior of, 325–26, 333
H
hamadryas baboons
caretaking behaviors, 57
dispersal and reproduction, 57
dispersing-egalitarian, 49
dominance and friendships, 58–59
fission-fusion society, 57
harems of, 57
herding of, 57
social structure, 57
hammer-headed bats, 327
happiness
after divorce, 347
materialism dimension of, 404
harassment
infertility and spontaneous abortions from, 74, 79
by primates subordinate females, 28
to reduce fertility, 460
sexual, 587, 724
harems, of hamadryas baboons, 57
health, 302. See also mental health
consequences, 7, 9
in fashion, 639–41
female competition costs for, 417
friendships psychological and physiological, 52, 115
lack of studies on women, 355
positive social support and, 415
of Sidama women, 420–26, 424f, 806
sleep and, 7, 9, 417, 420–23, 427, 806
social networks benefits of, 74–75, 415, 427
WHR correlation with, 32
women fertility predictor, 401
health-insurance theories, 227
herding, by hamadryas baboons, 57
heterogamy, 283
hierarchies, 5, 6
aggression to maintain status, 172
benefits of, 137
dominance, in contest competition, 225
human dominance, informational warfare and, 234–35
high frequency gossip, 198
high-performance sports, 792–93
high status
mate guarding and, 345
reproductive rewards from, 17
women mating opportunities for, 172–73
homogamy, in romantic relationships, 283–84
hormonal contraceptive use
competition and, 383–87
mate guarding behavior and, 386
mate preferences and choice influenced by, 398–99
ovulatory phase and, 398
psychosocial behavior negatively impacted by, 386
hormonal mechanisms
competition associated with, 356
influencing intrasexual competition, 311–12, 333
hormonal regulation, of behavior, 9, 371, 372, 375
hormonal trade-offs, 9, 365, 371, 372, 375, 377
hormonal variations, 378–79
across female lifespan, 371, 380–89
hormones, 397
reproductive suppression and, 438
trade-offs regulation, 9, 365, 371, 372, 375, 377
women food choice and intake influenced by, 748
human competition, sexual selection applied to, 28–29
human evidence, of OSR
cross-cultural research, 274
demographic research, 273–74
laboratory research, 274–75
human evolution, 505
on aggression, 172, 174–75
of children and aggression, 175
of communication, 175
of indirect aggression, 169–70
women active influence on, 4
of women aggression, 173–74
human lifetime fertility, grandmothers influence on, 22
Human Relations Area Files (HRAF)
on organized sports, 19
on polygynous societies, 255
(p. 820) humans
cooperation and competition of mothers, 520–22
cooperative breeding of, 490–96
female-female competition in, 439–41
fertile aggression of, 384
primates compared to, 43–44, 60
reproductive suppression in, 441–42
hypercompetitiveness, 139
sex differences in, 140
hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis
C release in, 374
T control by, 372
hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA), 356, 357
I
illegitimate children, progenicide and, 562
immigrant female, affiliative behaviors of, 51
immune function, T and, 372
inactive, depressed state of grief, 340
inbreeding, dispersal avoidance of, 51
independent breeding primates and humans, 484–89
female philopatric primate species, 485
male philopatric primate species, 485–86
maternal competition among, 497–98
multifamily communities, 486–89
India, mate scarcity impact, 33
indirect adolescent peer aggression, 92, 95
indirect aggression, 3, 19, 25. See also gossip; manipulation
attractiveness attack, 32
competitive communication among women, 169–85
competitive mothering and, 517–18
correspondence to men mate preferences, 33
costly signaling theory, 170, 181–85, 211, 213, 227
defined, 75, 624
derogation, 72, 284–85, 293–94, 302, 583–84, 609
dieting behaviors and, 445
effectiveness of, 237
evolutionary accounts of, 169–70
female bias for, 235, 414
flirting, 33
indirect competition, 6
mating effort and, 257
multitheory approach on, 170
oestrogen and women, 400–401
ostracism, 169
physical attractiveness relationship with, 170, 289
recalibration theory of anger, 170, 175–81, 185, 295
retaliation lower in, 237
rumor spreading, 32, 169, 344
sex differences, 236–40
sex ratio imbalances and, 259
sexual reputation attack, 32
social exclusion, 32, 72
social status attack, 32
indirect peer aggression, negative perceptions from, 94
individualism, 8
infancy
nutritional resources in, 17
paternal investment and survival rates in, 29
infanticide, 9, 49, 51, 439, 553, 801, 805
disequilibrium for, 50
female-skewed sex ratios influence on, 113
reproductive competition and, 53
resource shortage influence on, 113
infertility
from harassment, 74, 79
male, 238–39
social devaluation from, 347
infidelity, 94, 301, 305, 314
by high-quality males, 320
men mate retention tactics and, 34, 320, 330
negative effects from, 339
women impacted by, 30, 96–97
informational resources, 76
informational warfare, 77, 223–24, 242, 806
cliques and, 231, 232
costs of information collection and analysis, 231
empirical support for, 232–34
evolutionary model of cooperation, 226–27
gossip as reputational information manipulation, 8, 227–32
human dominance hierarchies, 234–35
indirect aggression sex differences, 236–40
physical aggression sex differences, 235
resource competition and coalitions evolution, 223–32
sex differences in, 231
socioecological model, of competition, 224–26
storyteller in, 232
within-coalition dynamics, 240–41
within-group competition, 235–36
information management, gossip as, 229
conversation and, 232
in-game socialization, in computer gaming, 708–9
insomnia, 418–19, 426
intelligence, 17, 290, 302
beauty pageants and, 620–21
for pair-bonding, 108
interpersonal attractiveness, of Tsimane women, 123
interpersonal dominance, 133, 138, 144
interpersonal relationships
costs of poor, 415
of Sidama women, 420–21
stress and, 415–16
intersexual competition, 4, 153
intersexual selection, 26–27, 288
intersibling conflict, 805
intimate partner violence, 148, 149–50, 156
intrafemale competitiveness, 210
intramale competitiveness, 210
intrasexual aggression, 801
intrasexual competition, 3, 4, 169, 265, 553, 577. See also virtual intrasexual competition
for abundance of women, 33
adolescent aggressive expression, 94–95
adolescent peer aggression strategies, 93–95
adult population aggressive expression of, 93–94
aging and, 179, 294
arranged marriages and, 330
in beauty pageants, 10, 617–34
competitor derogation and subtle, 386
deception in, 153
on eating disorders, 444–45
evolutionary accounts of, 6
in female disadvantaged mating market, 266–67
among female friends, 139, 144
females indirect aggression use, 93
fertility effect on, 397–407
food and, 739
gossip and, 207–9
hormonal mechanisms influencing, 311–12, 333
male, 605–6
male observers response to, 311
mate value importance to female, 288–90
OSR and, 272
physical aggression and, 407
progenicide and, 561–62
protagonists in, 208
relationship dissolution and, 337–48
between sisters, 9
socioeconomic status and, 290
for status and mates, by adolescents, 91
between Tsimane women age-mates, 459
types, 8
virtual, 657–74, 805
women mate value influence on, 281–96
women suppression of, 5
women use of computer gaming, 699–712
in workplace, 719–34
intrasexual conflict
peer aggression and, 91
of Tsimane women, 116
intrasexual selection, 7, 17, 288
intrasexual selection theory, 605
involuntary defeat strategy (IDS), 669
J
jealousy, 585–86
as aggression motivator, 94, 184–85
across cultures, 332
(p. 821) Facebook and, 201, 219
low physical attractiveness and, 34, 94
mate retention and guarding, 328
over female friends, 231
over previous partners, 304
of partnered women, 305
in relationships, 345
rivalry and, 302
women adaptations of, 345–46
juvenility, 81
K
kin-preference marriages, 111–12
kin selection, 51
kin support, 52–53
knowledge, 17
L
legal outcomes, physical attractiveness and, 579
leg length, fashion and, 643
lethal risks, for reproductive rewards, 16
life history theory, 8, 15, 17, 22, 414
on adolescents, 81–82
age-related changes and, 457–59
group living roles and women, 509–10
mate poaching and, 332
partner investment and offspring in, 442
progenicide and, 555–58
on reproductive strategies, 78, 81–82
trade-offs in, 371, 457
women pursuit slow life-history, 458
lifespan, 9, 15
adolescent reproductive capacity, 91
nutrition in, 17
limited resources, 356, 361
Darwin on competition for, 15
female competition for, 436–37
mate quality, 7, 208, 414
primates coalitional behavior for, 224
lipstick effect, 583
local resource competition, 273, 482–84
long-term mates, 288
Dark Triad personality traits and, 154
female standards for, 338–39
men choosiness in selection of, 35
motivation for, 303
sexual strategies theory and, 338
women preference for, 173
long-term relationships, short-term relationships compared to, 458–59
Lost in the Moon task, 141–42, 142f
lovers, women as, 804–5
low frequency gossip, 198
luteinizing hormone (LH), 380, 381, 383, 398
lying, 151
M
Machiavellianism, 8, 116, 807
cold and manipulative individuals, 154
examples, 158–60
males higher scores for, 155, 161
maladaptive behavior, from grief, 340, 342
male competition. See also contest competition
through dominance, resources and social status, 28
over resources within groups, 225–26
physical aggression and, 28–29, 112, 235, 400, 401, 414
T and, 357, 361, 375, 400
male disadvantaged mating markets, 272
male friends, 136–37
anti-infanticide hypothesis, 138
male intrasexual competition, 514, 605–6. See also contest competition
gossip and, 308
intensity of, 16
mating and aggression, 235, 704
in mating markets, 321
OSR and, 272
parental investment and, 267, 302, 321
resource and status display in, 661
women observation of, 324
male-male competition, 273, 321, 436, 605, 801. See also contest competition
aggression and, 59, 97, 256, 435
Darwin on, 682
in organized sports, 19
pair-bonding reduction of, 112
physical harm in, 237
risk taking behaviors in, 597
sexual dimorphism and, 112
male preference
in gaming, 701
for low WHR, 582
for nulliparous women, 471, 472
for physical attractiveness, 31, 111
for sexual variety, 30
for status, 686
for virginity, 618
males, 29, 311. See also men
body scent, ovulatory cycle and preference for, 399–400
evolutionary process for reproductive success, 107–8
exclusive sports, 19
higher Machiavellianism and psychopathy scores, 155, 161
infertility of, 238–39
intrasexual competition, 605–6
low WHR preference, 582
mothering tasks value, 465–66
multiple mating opportunities, 27, 97
penile erection, 666
philopatric primate species, 485–86
physical attractiveness preferences, 31, 111
reproductive fitness and, 96
with resources, women competition for, 492, 618, 704, 802
self-promotion by, 199
sexually dimorphic features, 27
sexual variety preference, 30
surviving and reproducing importance of, 16
tolerance and dominance, 55
visual stimuli arousal, 602
wealth and status mate preference, 282, 319, 435
women less agency than, 149
workplace and, 722–23
younger women partnering, 465, 580, 604–5, 638, 673
mammals
female competition in, 436–37
reproductive suppression in, 437–39
managers, sex segregation for, 722, 723–24, 729
manipulation, 72, 437
adolescent girls social, 385
coalitional, of reputation, 230–31
gossip as reputational information, 8, 227–32
in Machiavellian individuals, 154
of mate value, 291–93
reproductive self-suppression and RSH, 445
rival, 682–83
marital conflicts, women psychological detriments from, 415
marital status, of American women by age, 303, 303f
marketing strategies, physical attractiveness and, 589
marriages. See also mating systems
arranged, 20, 296, 309, 330, 424f, 425f
consanguineous, 111–12
cooperative, 112
faithful as your options hypothesis, 253
kin-preference, 111–12
mating supply and demand hypothesis, 253
reproduction and, 253
reproductive success influenced by, 255
systems as indicators, 255–56
teen, 303
T levels and, 376
mass media, 674
cultures access to, 670
eating disorders and, 657–58
women mental health and, 657–58
mate acquisition
female resource production priority, 108
peer aggression and, 98–99, 100, 101
physical attractiveness, of Tsimane women and, 111
Tsimane conflicts over, 109, 111, 116, 457
Tsimane long-term mate bonds, 111
mate choice, 249, 256, 296, 319, 529, 606
Bayesian modeling approach to, 324–25, 333
behavior for, 283–84
bidirectional, 321–22
evolutionary ecological theory on, 112
female consequences for, 321
by females, 93
(p. 822) hormonal contraceptives influence on, 398–99
mate preference and, 260
mate quality and active, 322
observation and social information for, 324–25
unidirectional, 321
mate choice competition
physical attractiveness and, 257–58
resources and, 258–59
mate competition, 373, 597
adolescent peer aggression link with, 96, 100
female intrasexual selection, 16
as same-sex friendships disadvantage, 307
sex ratio influence on, 8–9, 178, 256
women physical attractiveness for, 580
women tactics and sex ratio, 8–9, 178, 256
mate copying, 9, 305, 319, 320
cost parameters in mating environment, 322–23
of guppies, 325–26, 333
mate poaching compared to, 328–29
normative influence compared to, 329
risk avoidance pattern in, 323
social conformity and, 329
vulnerability to faking, 324
mate desertion, 284
mate guarding, 101, 259
fashion role in, 648
high status and, 345
hormonal contraceptive use and, 386
jealousy and, 328
male observers and, 311
ovulatory cycle and, 694
mate-guarding tactics, 30
appearance enhancement, 31–32
mate loss, 337. See also relationship dissolution
avoidance through mate retention tactics, 345–46
depression and, 340–41, 347
due to rivals, 341
emotional response utility, 342–44
grief and, 340
personal growth following trauma, 343–44
personal insights from, 343
positive rumination over, 344, 348
reactions to, 339–42
sex differences in emotional distress, 341
sexual strategies theory and, 338–39
social support and female competition after, 344–45
women who stop competing, 346
mate manipulation, 682–83, 703
Facebook utilized for, 690–92
female competition use, 94, 292, 628
mate poaching, 101, 169, 173, 207, 339, 406, 605, 801
competitor derogation tactics, 209–10
Dark Triad personality traits and, 154
defined, 209
environmental harshness and, 331, 332
gossip for, 8, 207–19
mate copying compared to, 328–29
negative consequences of, 210
older, mated women competition for, 459–60
OSR and, 331
partnered women and, 305
of physically attractive women, 30
provocative clothing and, 184
reproductive fitness through sperm competition, 30
reputation-based gossip and, 209–10, 217
resource scarcity and, 331
sociosexuality, 253–54
vulnerability to faking, 324
mate preferences, 249
competition as function of, 252
cosmetic surgery evolution and male, 602–3
cross-cultural, 330
evolutionary psychology emphasis on, 260
females pair-bonding, 108
homogamy, 283–84
hormonal contraceptives influence on, 398–99
intrasexual competition and, 660–63
for male wealth and status, 282
mate choice and, 260
mate value and intrasexual competition, 282
of nulliparous female by male, 471, 472
resource scarcity and, 330
self-concepts and, 284–85
sex ratio and, 250
social information for, 326
virtual intrasexual competition and, 660–63
of young women by males, 465, 580, 604–5, 638, 673
mate quality, 302
active mate choice and, 322
costly signaling theory on, 227
limited resources and, 7, 208, 414
long-term mating relationships attraction, 29
males infidelity, 320, 330
mate retention and infidelity, 34, 320, 330
same-sex competition for, 414
short-term sexual encounters upgrade for, 30, 173
show-off hypothesis emphasis, 227
women motivation for, 173
mate retention, 9, 173, 319
competition for, 7–8
efforts and extra-pair relationships, 320
flirting as tactic for,