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date: 21 August 2018

(p. 659) Subject Index

(p. 659) Subject Index

Figures and tables are indicated by “f” and “t” following page numbers. Authors’ names are listed in a separate index.

Abatement subsidies, 363
Accessibility of water. See also Demand for water; Scarcity
African politics and, 556–559
as commodity, 509
defined, 109
government provision of, 341–342
importance of, 13
indigenous people and, 120–121
NGO efforts for, 269
right to water and, 109, 341
in rural areas, 285, 341
water law and, 330, 335
Accountability of governments, 101, 104, 106, 419
Acid mine drainage (AMD), 205
ACM (adaptive co-management), 617
Activism
contestation of water injustice, 39
human right to water and, 419
of indigenous people, 122, 130
privatization, resistance to, 295–296
transboundary conflict and, 11
Actor Network Theory (ANT), 149
Adaptive capacity, 623–628
Adaptive co-management (ACM), 617
Adaptive water management (AWM), 514–515, 617–618, 622–623, 629
Affordability of water. See also Water security
human right to water and, 103, 340–343, 345
SDG on, 105
in United States, 287, 291
Africa, 549–566. See also specific countries
African Ministers’ Council on Water (AMCOW, 2013), 76
agriculture in, 81–82, 554–555
climate of, 555
colonialism in, 316
Cooperative Framework Agreement (CFA) in, 494
East African Power Pool, 494
gender equality in, 81–82
groundwater, dependence on, 471
irrigation systems in, 27, 556
politics and water access, 556–559
privatization, resistance to, 411
river basin organizations in, 533, 534–536, 540–541
Southern Africa Development Community (SADC), 533–536
Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis in, 541
violence, water and, 551–554
water availability and use in, 554–556
water coverage improvements in, 113
water delivery in, 35
Agency
expression of, 152
gender and poverty issues, 28, 78
human, nature as subject to, 142
indigenous people and, 127
material, 154–156
nonhuman, 152–156, 157n10
Agriculture. See also Food-water; Green water; Irrigation
in Africa, 81–82, 554–555
biofuels, 169–170
in China, 234, 433, 444
climate change effect on, 519–520
(p. 660)
conservation techniques for, 233
demand for, 231–232
drought and, 175–182
fertilizer and erosion runoff, 289, 354–355, 357, 359–360, 523
food-water and, 169, 235–237
foreign direct investment in, 184
fossil fuels, dependence on, 169, 231
gender and, 78–82, 231
global water consumption for, 169, 230
human rights and, 93
intensification of, 34, 143, 157n5, 157nn1–2, 176–177
land-use changes and, 254–255, 411
matrilineal inheritance of land and, 82
Mekong Delta, threats to, 495
modernization of, 254
political dimensions of water and, 235–237
pollution resulting from, 144, 354–355
as primary user of water, 353
productivity, increases in, 231
regulation of water, opposition to, 180
social meanings of, 60
subsidies for, 234, 241, 361, 364
taxes to offset externalities of, 363–364
in United States, 359
water pricing for, 36–37
Air pollution, 187, 206. See also Carbon dioxide emissions
Alabama, water conflict in, 298
Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoos River Basin, 484
Alamar Riverpark Plan (Mexico), 65–66
Algal bloom, 359–360
Algeria, desalination in, 184
Alliance for Water Stewardship, 232
Allocation, 13, 248–266
administrative mechanisms for, 250–251
availability and scarcity, 258
cap-and-trade policy, 378–379, 384–388
cause and effect of, 260
in China, 394–399, 430
climate change as challenge to, 470, 507–509
collective action and demand management, 251
conditions for, 257–260
enforcement and, 361
external processes for, 254–255
hydrological literacy, 259
institutional mechanisms for, 249–252
intentionality and, 251–252
internal processes for, 256–257
inter-sectoral, 331
IWRM for, 579–581, 586–587
local water management and, 302
marketization and, 418
market mechanisms for, 250, 355
Nile River and, 492
power and, 252–253
prioritization for, 391–392
reform in, 385–386, 397–398
research agenda for, 261–262
significance and implications of, 260–261, 261f
transborder river treaties and, 458
ungoverned spaces and, 258–259
unintended, 253–257
water markets and, 378–380, 384
water rights modernization and, 334
water transfers from rural to urban areas, 49, 54, 250–251
Alternative service delivery (ASD) models, 412
AMD (acid mine drainage), 205
Amu Darya River, 6–7
Animals and plants. See also Climate change; Environment
agency of, 152–156, 157n10
agricultural practices, effect of, 359
community-based governance and, 61
domestication of, 153
dominion and stewardship over, 147
equity issues and, 57–58
ethics and, 144, 149
extinction rates, 144
global water crisis and, 141
indigenous peoples’ relationship to, 150
interstitial connection to humans, 149
protection of, 144–145
religion and, 142
term explanation, 157–158n11
value of, 143
water transfers, effect on, 359
ANT (Actor Network Theory), 149
(p. 661) Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin, 484
Appropriation water rights, 358, 361, 366, 411, 576
Arab Gulf. See also specific countries
Disi aquifer of, 240, 471
water-energy-food nexus in, 182–185, 203
Aral Sea, 6–7, 240
Aral Sea Basin, 491–492
Argentina, resistance to privatization in, 411
Arid regions
in Arab Gulf, 182–185, 203
in China, 186–188
climate change and, 189
governance in, 188
irrigation for, 173
in United States, 175–182, 177f, 181f, 201
Arizona, climate-change information use in, 619
ASD (alternative service delivery) models, 412
Asia. See also specific countries
affluent consumers, increase in, 170
Aral Sea and, 6–7, 240
blue water, waste of, 237
colonialism in, 316
contestation of water injustice in, 39
irrigation systems in, 27–28
land distribution in, 28
political economy of food, 234
river basin organizations in, 534
smallholder farming in, 235
transportation of water within, 200
Asia Foundation, 524
Asian Development Bank, 132
Atlantic Council, 199
Australia. See also Murray-Darling Basin
allocation reform in, 388–394, 397–401
CCP program in, 277
coal, campaigns against, 204
Commonwealth Water Act (2007), 389
endangered water, sales of, 145–146
equity in, 57
human and nonhuman water connections, 155–156
indigenous people of, 121, 126–127, 129–130, 134–135, 150
Millennium Drought (1997–2009), 389, 399
minimum maintenance of water flows in, 151
reallocations in, 484
reverse osmosis in, 184
Victorian Irrigation Act (1885), 387
Water Act (2007), 597
water markets in, 378, 381, 385, 387, 418
water-quality credits, 365
Availability of water, 109, 258. See also Accessibility of water; Scarcity
Baker Hughes (water service provider), 178
Bangladesh
climate change and, 523–524
Ganges Water Treaty (1996) with India, 463, 522
Pabna Irrigation and Rural Development Project, 26
policy translation in, 603
tubewells, pollution of, 4
Bechtel, 128, 146
Benchmarks, 111
Benefit-sharing formulas, 512
Bequest value, 354
Berlin Rules (International Law Association, 2004), 131
Bias, institutionalized, 59
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 269
Biofuels, 169–170
Block-rate pricing, 37
Blue water. See also Food-water
defined, 172, 228–229
food production and, 229
for irrigation, 172–173, 189, 231
limit on, 233
marketization of, 229
metering policy for, 240
waste of, 237
withdrawal vs. consumption, 229–230, 229f
Bolivia
contestation of water injustice in, 40
privatization of water in, 128, 146, 296, 411
water committees in, 314
water legislation and policy reform in, 7, 52
Water Wars (2000), 128
(p. 662) Border 2012: U.S.–Mexico Environmental Program strategies (2003, 2020), 297
Botswana
indigenous people in, 130
transboundary environmental problems and, 541
Bottled drinking water, 36, 201, 417
Brazil
biofuel production in, 169
displacement resulting from dams, 33, 131
drought in, 616
local water politics in, 286
Movement of People Affected by Dams and for Rivers, 131
water and reservoir management and reform, 624–626, 630, 631n6
water legislation and policy reform in, 358, 597
British Petroleum oil spill (2010), 198, 212
Buddhism, 4
Burkina Faso
gender roles in, 84–86, 89
Opération Riz, 85–86
Business risk, water supply and, 167, 173–174
California
agriculture in, 359
California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA), 290
Colorado River basin and, 298
conservation efforts in, 291
drought in, 252, 399–400
groundwater monitoring in, 214
growth politics in, 294
informal sector in, 320–321
IWRM approach in, 574, 577–580
privatization, resistance to, 295
recycled water use in, 300
urban vs. rural water allocation in, 297
water markets in, 381
water scarcity in, 179–182, 181f, 190
water transfers in, 366
Cambodia
Chinese dam construction and, 495
flow regime, dependence on, 521
Lao PDR’s hydropower development and, 521
Tonle Sap Lake, 495
Canada
business influence on policy in, 211–212
climate change and, 276–278
coal, campaigns against, 204
coal ash spills in, 198
Council of Canadians, 275
Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM), 278–279
fracking in, 204, 212
on human rights, 332
indigenous people of, 121, 126–129, 204, 275
privatization, resistance to, 295
regulations in, 214
tar sand mining in, 146
water exports of, 274–275
wetland degradation in, 126
Cap-and-trade allocation policy, 378–379, 384–388, 390
Carbon dioxide emissions, 157n3, 169, 198, 207, 272, 276–277
emission trading system, 365, 447n17
Care economy, gender and, 77, 84
Cauvery River (India), 317–318, 483
CCAI (Climate Change and Adaptation Initiative), 520–521
CCRs (coal combustion residues), 205–206, 212
Central African Republic, irrigation in, 556
Central Asian republics, Aral Sea and, 6–7, 240
CEO Water Mandate, 173, 232
“Charting Our Water Future” (Water Resources Group), 174
Cherry Creek Watershed, 365
Children
caregivers, bias against, 25, 32, 77
gender-equal households and, 80
health issues, 33
land inheritance and, 82
UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989), 8, 103–104
water collection and, 32–33
Chile
indigenous peoples of, 127–128
water legislation and policy reform in, 52
water market in, 418
(p. 663) China. See also China, water pricing policies in; Mekong River Basin
Action Plan on Water Pollution Control (2015), 443
agriculture in, 234, 433, 444
allocation reform in, 394–399
coal production in, 205
energy use in, 186
fracking in, 208
irrigation costs in, 37
land distribution in, 28
natural gas exploration in, 202
pollution in, 436–443, 447n17
Regulation for Municipal Drainage and Wastewater Treatment, 435, 437
regulation in, 213
reverse osmosis in, 184
security, water scarcity and, 414–417
self-sufficiency of, 187
Songhua River pollution incident (2007), 442
South-North Water Transfer Project in, 200, 289, 397
Three Gorges Dam, 5
urbanization, water use and, 255
water coverage improvements in, 113
water-energy-food nexus in, 186–188
Water Law (2002), 396–397, 434
Water Pollution Control Law, 435, 437–438
Xayaburi Dam, 495–496, 521
Yangtze River Basin, 289, 397, 430
Yellow River Basin, 250, 289, 395, 432
China, water pricing policies in, 430–448
affordability of, 437
environmental degradation and, 440–441, 441f
fee policy, 434
orientation for reform, 444–446, 445t
policies for, 432–434, 433t
policy implementation and supervision, 439–440
policy target violations, 437–439, 438f
pollution levy policy, 436–437
principles for water pricing, 441–442
rating water resource fees, 442–443
reform, trends in, 442–444
supply charge policy, 434–435
treatment fee policy, 435–436
water environment, 432
water resources, 430–431, 431f
Chlorine tablets, 35
Christianity, 4, 82, 147
Civil wars, 552–553
Class, gender and, 80–82
Clean Development Mechanisms, 276
Climate change, 15, 507–531
adaptation to, 471
adaptive management for, 514–515
Africa, effect on, 551
agriculture, effect on, 519–520
allocation and, 261–262
carbon dioxide emissions and, 157n3, 198. See also Carbon dioxide emissions
climate information use and, 621
conflict and, 489–490, 549
drought and, 175, 517, 519
equity issues, exacerbation of, 49
flooding and, 276, 517, 519
future of, 525–526
governance issues, 9–10, 275
Great Lakes Watershed and, 298
human causes of, 12
increased demand for water and, 143
institutions for, 513–514
knowledge of. See Climate-change information
local response to, 277–279
Mekong Basin, 519–522
Meuse Basin, 516–519
new projects, consideration in, 290
precipitation regimes, 189
resilience to, 77–78, 200
risk and, 515–516
rivers, effect on, 144
scarcity and, 508–510
supply and demand, effect on, 386
Teesta River Basin, 522–524
transboundary rivers and, 452, 464, 469–471
uncertainty in, 511–512
water scarcity and, 197, 285
water security and, 413
Climate Change and Adaptation Initiative (CCAI), 520–521
(p. 664) Climate-change information, 15, 616–636
adaptive capacity building, 623–628
Brazil, water and reservoir management in, 624–626
decision-making and, 618–621
knowledge use, 621–623
resistance to, 619
United States, water management in, 626–628
willingness to use, 620–621
Climate moisture index (CMI), 555, 561n5
Club goods, 356, 356t, 558
Coal
campaigns against, 203–204
China and, 186
global energy percentage from, 205
mining for, 186, 205
necessity of water for processing, 199
pollution from, 205–206
regulation, business influence in, 210–212
spills, environmental impacts, 198
water quality, mining and, 198
water quality and, 205–206
Coal combustion residues (CCRs), 205–206, 212
Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economies, 178
Codes of conduct, 215–216
Coercive policy implementation, 597
Collaboration and cooperation. See also River basin organizations
adaptive governance for, 576–578
cooperative management mechanisms, 487
cooperative negotiation, 497–498
equity issues, 53
transboundary water governance and, 540
water conflict prevention and, 497–498, 560
Collective action
climate change and, 10
demand management and, 251
IWRM principles in, 570, 575–576, 587
local self-governance and, 367–368
social learning and, 578–579
transboundary water governance and, 533, 536
Colombia, equity in, 53
Colonialism
food regime of, 233
gender and, 83–87
indigenous people and, 125–128
inequality and, 120
informal rulers in, 316
irrigation and, 36, 83–84
legacy of, 60
water law and, 5, 54, 178, 329
Colorado
fracking in, 214
water-quality credits in, 365
Colorado River Basin
competition in, 298
limits on withdrawals in, 398
policy reform for, 240
trading activity in, 397
water market in, 385, 388–394
Colorado River Delta, 67–68, 377
Columbia River Basin, 388–394, 397–398, 485, 499
Command-and-control regulations, 360–362, 371nn3–44
Commercialization, contradictions of, 412–414
Commodity trading, 234, 236
Common property and goods
club goods, 356, 356t, 558
community-based management of, 10–11
excludability and rivalry, 356, 356t
external costs of water and, 442
groundwater as, 472
international water as, 491
IWRM principles for, 576–577, 582
market failure and, 413, 423n3
overexploitation of, 513–514
privatization of, 143
property rights and, 384
public vs. industry uses of, 442
river basin closure and, 378
taxes on, 363
tragedy of the commons, 356, 367, 472
Community-based organizations, 39, 60–61, 65–66
Community-based vendors, 314. See also Delivery of water
Composite Index of National Capability, 463
(p. 665) Conference on Water (Mar del Plata 1977). See United Nations
Conflict. See also Transboundary water conflict; Water wars
activism and, 11
in Africa, 551–554, 561n1
climate change and, 489–490, 549
increasing use of water leading to, 329
local water politics and, 297–298
prevention of, 60
RBOs for dispute resolution, 537
scarcity and, 452, 464–465, 469
transboundary rivers and, 452–453, 456–459, 466–467
Congo, Democratic Republic of, irrigation in, 556
Conservation agriculture, 233
Conservation of water
agricultural crop choices for, 233
annual rights and, 362
in China, 432, 434
duty of intensification and, 57
governance for, 51
IWRM emphasis on, 8
market environmentalism and, 407
price mechanisms for, 144, 291, 414, 416
regulations for, 327, 329, 338
river basin organizations for, 536
self-governance for, 367–368
in United States, 179, 290–291, 367, 400
virtual water concept and, 60
Consumptive uses of water, 352–354, 362, 383, 431. See also specific uses
Contextual interaction theory, 604
Conventions. See United Nations
Corporate food regime, 234–236
Corporate Social Responsibility, 227, 232, 240
Corporatization, 412
Corruption, 35, 173, 302, 488, 557
Costs. See also Affordability of water; China, water pricing policies in; Water pricing
infrastructure cost recovery, 339–340, 415
multipurpose infrastructure and, 92
natural monopolies and, 413
property rights and, 383–385, 393, 397
right to water and, 341–342
of water delivery, 340
of water transfers, 366
water valuation, challenges in, 414–417
willingness to pay, 345, 415
Cover crops, 233
Crop rotations, 233
Cultural bias, 123
Cultural rights, 128, 135. See also Indigenous people
Culture
agency, expression of, 152
nature vs., 142, 147
organizational, 619
stakeholder participation and, 539
violence and, 487–488
Customary laws, 122, 127, 132, 136n1
Czech Republic, fracking bans in, 204
Dams and dam construction. See also specific dams
conflict and, 479, 489, 495
for control, 143
displacement resulting from, 33–34, 126–127, 131, 339
downstream consequences of, 34
environmental and economic consequences of, 418
international law on, 332
poverty prevention, infrastructure protocols for, 38
river basins, effect on, 376–377, 377f
transboundary conflict and, 469–470
as weapons, 489
World Commission on Dams (WCD), 131
Danube Convention (1994), 539
Danube River Basin, 273, 537, 539
Data-sharing processes, 540
Decentralization. See also Local water politics; River basin organizations
arid region water management and, 179
equality promotion and, 50–52, 60
in IWRM principles, 573–574, 584, 622–623
in Mekong River Basin, 522
of oil and gas regulation, 214
policy translation and, 604
(p. 666)
post-Soviet water management and, 491
unintended allocation and, 254
of water law in India, 335–336
of water stewardship, 232
Decision-support systems (DSS), 481, 497, 499–500
Delivery of water. See also Transportation of water
cost of, 340
informal service providers for, 558, 560
lack of regulation for, 558
poverty reduction and, 35–36, 42
water “mafias” in India, 314, 316–319
Demand for water. See also Accessibility of water; Scarcity
agricultural, 190, 254, 257
allocation and, 249, 251, 258, 260
bottled water, 201
in China, 430
climate change and, 386, 518, 523
energy production and, 178, 202, 208
equity and, 52–53
gender and, 89
industrial, 190, 442
measuring, 465
price mechanisms for, 291–293
river basin closure and, 377, 389
security and, 60
supply, balance with, 9
transboundary conflicts and, 298–299, 451, 457, 469–470, 491–492
urbanization causing, 143, 170, 231, 294
water crises and, 289
water-energy-food nexus and, 170
water pricing and, 37
Demand management, 251, 291–292
Democratic Republic of Congo, irrigation in, 556
Desalination, 168–169, 183–184, 201, 203, 469
Design standards, 361–362
Development. See also International development agencies; Millennium Development Goals; Sustainable Development Goals
Clean Development Mechanisms, 276
of hydropower, 521, 532
local water politics and, 277–279
low impact, 300–301
neoliberalism and, 60, 319
rural, 10
of rural areas, 80–81
sustainable, 277–279, 299–301, 387, 419
Diamond-water paradox, 353
Dignity, 103, 148, 342
Discrimination. See also Equality; Gender
colonialism and, 94, 316
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW, 1979), 8, 77–78, 80, 94, 102
indigenous people and, 120–121, 128, 134
progressive realization of rights, 108–110, 112
social movements to counter, 40
urban informality and, 315
Disease, 29, 35, 103–104
Disi aquifer, 240, 471
Disi pipeline, 469
Dispossession and displacement
appropriation by, 411
dam construction and, 33–34, 126–127, 131, 339
of indigenous people, 126
irrigation and, 23, 28, 34, 42
poverty stemming from, 25
Distribution of water. See Allocation
Distributive justice, 123
Diversion limits, 381, 386, 397–398, 399–400, 597
Documentary film facilitation technique, 481, 497, 499–500
Dominican Republic, water coverage in, 113
Don Sahong Dam (Lao PDR), 521
Drinking water. See also Bottled drinking water; Delivery of water; Household water supply
business opportunities in, 344, 356, 417
climate change and, 517
energy use in production of, 201
global spread of bottled water, 36
laws and regulations on, 336–337
pollution of, 4, 359–360
purification of, 34–35
value of, 353
well water for, 4, 200, 204–205, 285, 558–559
(p. 667) Drought. See also Scarcity
in Africa, 551, 555–556
allocation during, 252
in Brazil, 616, 624–626
climate change and, 276, 517, 519
conflict, effect on, 553
dam maintenance and, 469–470
irrigation during, 269
Mexico–United States relations and, 532
in Middle East, 480, 487–488
Millennium Drought (Australia, 1997–2009), 389, 399
policymaking and, 399–401
pricing during, 291
reservoir storage for, 388
transborder cooperation and, 398
in United States, 175–182, 177f, 181f, 353, 399–400
upstream activities causing, 523
water markets and, 381
DSS (decision-support systems), 481, 497, 499–500
Dualism, 142, 147–152, 156
Dublin Principles on Water Management
on equity, 50–51
gender and, 76, 78
integrated water resources management and, 284, 571
on irrigation, 37
on water as economic good, 8, 259, 336, 339
Earth Summit (1992), 8, 50, 103, 259
Economics, 14, 351–375. See also Market environmentalism; Marketization; Political economy of water markets; Privatization; Trade
affluent consumers, increase in, 170
diamond-water paradox, 353
economic ladder, 313
excludability and rivalry, 356–357, 356t
external costs and benefits, 358–360
human rights vs., 296, 333
institutional reform and, 337
international economic agendas, 8–9
local self-governance, 367–368
market failure, 355–356
market mechanisms, 364–366
natural monopolies and, 413
nonuse values, 354
policy instruments for, 360–366
prescriptive standards, 360–362, 371nn3–4
priority of, 570
property rights, 357–358
safety of water and, 29–30
structural adjustment of, 8
taxes and subsidies, 362–364
transboundary agreements, 368–369
use values, 336, 340, 352–354
waste receptor use, 354–355
water valuation, challenges for, 414–417
Ecuador
contestation of water injustice in, 40
equity in, 53
Education, 33, 83–84, 581. See also Climate-change information
Efficiency standards, 362
Efficiency vs. equity, 53, 56, 68
Egypt
transborder rivers and, 459
water coverage improvements in, 112
water disputes in, 489, 492–494, 532
water policy in, 182
El Salvador, water coverage improvements in, 112
EMA (Environmental Management Accounting), 238
Employment
domestic-productive household water and, 32
gender and, 77, 79–80
irrigation and, 25–27, 42
violence and, 553
wages for, 27, 42–43
Energy. See also Energy-water quality nexus; Water-energy-food nexus; specific sources
for bottled water shipping, 201
competing interests of, 148
independence in, 202
for irrigation systems, 200
necessity of water for, 178, 197, 202
power-plant cooling, water for, 5, 168–169, 176, 199, 205–207, 353–354
(p. 668)
production of, 168, 179, 190, 199, 206–210, 230
renewable, 168, 185, 187
urbanization, demand and, 143
water quality issues resulting from, 204–205
for water systems, 168–169, 184, 197, 200–201
Energy-water quality nexus, 13, 197–226. See also Water-energy-food nexus
businesses, influence of, 210–212
coal and, 205–206
concerns related to, 197–199
fragmented regulation, 214–215
future of, 217
opposition to energy-related pollution, 203–205
prevention vs. cure, 212–213
private regulation, 215–217
quantity and, 199–201
security and, 201–203
unconventional energy production and, 206–210
Environment. See also Animals and plants; Climate change; Market environmentalism; Pollution
agriculture, effect of, 359
China water pricing policies for, 441–442
conflict, effect of, 553
dams, effect of, 126
displaced effects on, 298
duty to, 57
ecological health restoration, 397–398
energy exploration, effect of, 146, 217
equity vs., 55–56
ethics and, 144, 149
federal and state law on, 289–290
fracking and, 207–209
free-market environmentalism, 379–380, 384
governance for, 575, 621–623
history of, 11–12
human relationship to, 142, 147
IRWM principles for, 582, 586–587
monitoring, 238
oil and coal ash spills and, 198
payment-for-environmental service (PES) programs, 364
performance standards and, 361–362
preservation of, 67–68, 144, 147–148
property rights vs, 60
RBOs for management of, 537
regulation of, 142–143
restoration of, 135, 297
taxes to offset externalities of, 363–364, 371n5
transboundary problems with, 541
transboundary river treaties and, 454–455
valuation of, 418
water markets and, 394
water transfers, effect on, 359
water valuation and, 414–415
Environmental Impact Statements, 619
Environmental intelligence, 381
Environmentalism, 257
Environmental justice, 135–136
Environmental law, 329–330
Environmental Management Accounting (EMA), 238
Equality
human rights and, 419
indigenous people and, 120
injustice and, 123
IWRM principles and, 586–587
laws for, 344–346
monitoring and regulating, 108–109
water rights, governance of, 250–251
water valuation and, 415
Equity, 13, 49–75
Alamar Riverpark Plan, 65–66
aspirations of, 53–58
conflict prevention, 49
critical appraisal of, 59–62
Cuatro Mujeres (Four Women) case, Morelos, Mexico, 64–65
Detroit, Michigan, 63–64
directional principles toward, 58–59
duty of, 57
efficiency vs., 53, 56, 68
governance paradigm, 50–53
governance reform and, 419
Minute 319 treaty addition, 67–68
principles of, 54–56
(p. 669)
recognizing, 62
water law modernization and, 334–335
Ethics
climate justice and, 276
environment vs. equity, 55–56
human vs. nonhuman interests, 144, 149, 153
of indigenous people, 121–123
institutionalized bias and, 59
of market environmentalism, 408–409
privatization and, 409, 411, 413
of wasteful practices, 237
Ethiopia
dam construction in, 34, 489, 492–494, 532
irrigation in, 556
Ethnicity, 23. See also Indigenous people
Ethnography for water policy, 13, 142–164
alternate agencies, 152–154
conceptual divergence, 146–149
conceptual redirections, 149–150
connective flow, 150–152
material agency and, 154–156
for policy translation, 604–606
policy trends, 142–145
Euphrates River, 470. See also Tigris-Euphrates Basin
Europe/European Union (EU). See also specific countries
biofuel production in, 169–170
Common Agricultural Policy, 241
Drinking Water Directive (1998), 336
Groundwater Directive (2008), 517
industrial water budget in, 230
integrated water resources management in, 572
Opération Riz in Burkina Faso, 85–86
River Basin Management Plans (RBMPs), 145
river basin organizations in, 534–536
shared rivers in, 329
Water Framework Directive. See European Union’s Water Framework Directive
European Commission, 157n1, 517–518
European Environmental Bureau, 145
European Union’s Water Framework Directive (WFD)
on environmental sustainability, 144–145
as policy transfer, 597
policy translation and, 604
purpose of, 360, 517–518
requirements of, 572
river basin organizations, requirement of, 534, 539–540
on value of water, 415–416
Evaporation water, 230, 255
Externalities, 358–359, 363–364, 412–413
External monitoring, 106–110
Farming. See Agriculture
Feminist theories, 149. See also Gender
Fifth World Water Forum (2009), 133
Filtration, 34–35, 269
Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB), 239
Financial crisis (2008–2009), 242–243, 410
Finish-Norwegian Transboundary Water Commission, 274
First in time, first in right (FITFIR) system, 387, 395, 417
Fishing industry, indigenous people and, 126
Flammable water, 208–209
Flooding
climate change and, 276, 517, 519
increased severity of, 523
London’s flood risk, 12
in Meuse Basin, 516
religious references to, 4
Florida
climate information use in, 621
water conflict in, 298
Fluid theories, 150–152
Food. See also Agriculture; Food-water; Water-energy-food nexus
energy production vs., 169–170
imports of, 496
meat and dairy production, 169, 177
security of, 240, 243
waste of, 170, 236–237
Food and beverage companies, 167, 173–174, 234–236
(p. 670) Food-water, 13, 227–247. See also Water-energy-food nexus
accountability of food systems, 237–239
agriculture and, 169, 235–237
Corporate Social Responsibility and, 227–228
defined, 230
global consumption of water for, 230, 242
in global food system, 233–235
green-water resource consumption, 232–233
policy reform, 239–240
politics and policy on, 227–228
productivity of, 231–232
valuing, 240–242
waste of, 237
water inputs and sectoral use, 228–230, 229f
Fossil fuels. See also specific types
agriculture’s dependence on, 169, 231
campaigns against, 203–204
carbon dioxide emissions from, Carbon dioxide emissions
necessity of water for, 197, 202
oil and gas wastewater (OGW), 209–210, 216–217
oil crisis (1970s), 201
oil plateau, 218n1
peak oil, 197, 218n1
price changes in, 185, 201
spills, environmental impacts of, 198, 212
water used for exploration, 168, 199
Fourth World Water Forum (2006), 133
Fracking
as alternative to coal mining, 206–207
average water use per well, 207–208
chemicals used in, 208
earthquakes resulting from, 209, 213
necessity of water for processing, 199–200, 202
opposition to, 204
permits for, 214, 218n3
pollution resulting from, 157n4, 208, 216
process of, 177–178
regulation of, 211–213
water quality and, 146, 178, 206–208
water scarcity and, 176–178
Fragmented regulation, 214–215, 301–303
Framework Directive for Water. See European Union’s Water Framework Directive
France, fracking bans in, 204, 213
Fraser River Delta (Canada), 126
Free-market environmentalism, 379–380, 384. See also Market environmentalism
Freshwater, 451. See also Surface water
Frontier analysis, 101, 110–111, 111112f
Full cost water pricing, 414–415
Gaia Hypothesis, 151
Gambia, water coverage in, 113
Ganges River Basin, 452, 462–463, 509–510, 522
Gasland (documentary), 208
Gazaldoba Barrage( India), 522–523
Gaza Strip, intrastate conflict in, 464
Gender, 13, 76–99
agriculture and, 78–82, 231
Burkina Faso, postcolonial, 84–86
Colonial Era and, 83–87
community-based governance and, 61
community management of water and, 89
dispossession and, 23
dominion over nature and, 147
equality and, 77–78
household dynamics and, 79–80
human rights and, 93–95
irrigation systems and, 27–28, 38, 41, 82–87
land control and water access, 334
male bias, 23, 25, 27–28, 80–81
NGO and international development agencies, 86–87
in people-driven planning, 90–93
policy implications of, 76–78
poverty and, 25, 27–28, 78, 81
safety of water and, 28
South Africa, colonialism in, 84
subordination and, 25
violence and, 80, 89
Wa-Luguru, Tanzania, 82–83
WASH subsector and, 88–90
water collection and, 32–33, 78
in water policies and practice, 76–78
Georgia (US) (p. 671)
Comprehensive Statewide Planning Act (2000), 627
privatization, resistance to, 295
water and reservoir management in, 626–628, 630
water wars of, 298
Germany, fracking bans in, 204, 213
Ghana
access to water in, 558
bottled drinking water in, 36
water collection and, 33
water coverage in, 113
Glacier water, 144, 417, 516, 522, 523
Global climate change (GCC). See Climate change
Global Environment Facility, 539
Globalization, 69–70, 123–124, 144, 147
Global warming. See Climate change
Global water coverage, 112–114, 113114f
Global water crisis, 414, 423n2, 509. See also Drought; Scarcity
Global Water Partnership (2000), 51, 299, 333, 536, 569
Global Water Stewardship Alliance, 232
Global water summit (1977), 7
Glocalization, 271
Governance. See also International law; Local water politics; Political economy of water markets; River basin organizations
access to water and, 557
accountability and, 101, 104, 106, 419
adaptive, 570, 575–576, 578, 587
climate-change information use in, 621–624
climate change issues and, 9–10, 275
community-based, 60–61
defined, 419, 621–622
discriminatory, indigenous people and, 121–122
dominion over water and, 148
environmental, 575
equity issues resulting from, 50–53, 63–64
everyday state actors, 311, 316
of informal sector water deliveries, 318–319
IWRM and, 7–8
monitoring, 106–110
on-site, 232
political violence and, 549–551
poverty and, 38–39, 41
principles of, 419
reform of, 419–421
science and, 540
self-governance, 135, 367–368
self-reporting, 108
top-down models for, 570
of transboundary water, 273–275
value-reflexive, 57
water characteristics and, 4
water rights, 59–60
GRACE satellite of NASA, 353
Grande Ronde Watershed, 380
Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (Ethiopia), 489, 492–494
Grandfathering, 387
Gray spacing, 314
Great Lakes Watershed, 298, 359–360, 621
Green Cross International, 536
Green infrastructure, 300–301
Green Revolution, 27
Green water
defined, 172, 228
encouraging use of, 240
as food-water, 230
improved productivity of, 231
optimizing, 232–233
value of, 231
water-energy-food nexus and, 172–173, 188–190, 191n17
Grey water, 172
Gross domestic product (GDP), human rights correlation, 113
Groundwater
depletion of, 175–176, 178–179, 183, 229, 353
fracking, effect on, 208, 216
inventory efforts, 353
irrigation use of, 126, 200, 336
for mining, 126
over-exploitation of, 144, 570
ownership of, 178
pollution of, 4, 144, 157n1, 157n4, 178
property rights and, 357
quality of, 452, 471–472
recharging with rainwater, 228, 255
storm water, urbanization and, 255
surface water, connection to, 359, 576
(p. 672)
transborder governance of, 471–473
transboundary relations and, 452–453
well water, 4, 200, 204–205, 285, 558–559
Ground Water Protection Council (GWPC), 216
Growth politics, 293–294
Guadiana River Commission, 274
Guarani Aquifer, 471
Guatemala, poverty prevention in, 38
Guinea Bissau, bottled drinking water in, 36
Gulf of Mexico oil spill (2010), 198, 212
GWPC (Ground Water Protection Council), 216
Haber-Bosch process, 169
Hai River, 432
Halliburton (water service provider), 178, 211, 218n4
Health. See Public health
Heihe Basin, 396
“Helsinki Rules on the Uses of Waters of International Rivers” (International Law Association), 3–4
High Level Panel of Experts on Water for Food Security and Nutrition (HLPE), 94
High Plains Aquifer, 367–368
Hinduism, 4
Hirakud Dam (India), 484
History of water politics, 6–10, 25, 54
Hoover Dam (US), 376–377, 377f
Household chores, gender and, 77, 81, 88–89
Household water supply. See also Delivery of water; Drinking water
gender and, 88–89
institutional policy on, 30–31
poverty and, 31, 42
purification of, 34–35, 41–42
safety of, 28–29, 109–110
small businesses and, 32
time spent collecting, 32–33
well water for, 4, 200, 204–205, 285, 558–559
Housing, lack of, 319
Human rights, 13, 100–119
agriculture and, 93
dams, displacement resulting from, 339
Dublin Statement on, 340
duty of state and, 93–94, 101
economic goods vs., 296
economic rights vs., 333
enforcement issues for, 131
equity issues and, 61, 63, 64
evolution of, 101–106, 102f
frontier analysis for monitoring, 110–111, 111112f
gender equality and, 80–81
institutional injustices and, 480
institutionalization of, 61
international law on, 101–106, 102f, 136n2, 340
IWRM vs., 339
monitoring, 106–110
quantitative indicators, 108–109
quantitative measurement, 108
UN Human Rights Council, 94, 104, 134
United Nations on, 1–2, 9, 65–66, 100, 102–103, 332, 419
WaSH Performance Index, 111–114, 113114f
water as, 4, 8–9, 329, 332, 341–342, 418–419
Human waste management, 269
Hydraulic fracturing (HF). See Fracking
Hydraulic societies, 11
Hydroelectric power. See also Dams and dam construction
in China, 187
evaporation and, 168
flooding and, 470
necessity of water for, 197
as non-consumptive use, 353–354
opposition to, 134
in Thailand, 496
treaties covering, 454
water conflicts and, 492–493, 496
Hydro-hegemony, 252
Hydrological cycle, 3–4, 228, 230, 271, 507–508
Hydrological literacy, 259
Hydromentalities, 257
Hydrosocial networks, 586–587
Hygiene. See Safety of water
ICESCR (International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 1966), 102, 103–104, 107
ICPDR (International Commission for the Protection of the Danube), 539–540
ICPR (International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine), 537, 539–540
IEA (International Energy Agency), 205
IFAD (International Fund for Agricultural Development), 80
IFC (International Finance Corporation), 174
Illinois
Great Lakes Watershed and, 298
water and reservoir management in, 628, 630
IMC (International Meuse Commission), 518
Implicit allocation, 256
India. See also Indus River Basin
access to water in, 341–342
coal production in, 205
colonialism and water law, 329
contestation of water injustice in, 40
displacement resulting from dams, 33–34
Ganges Water Treaty (1996) with Bangladesh, 463, 522
Gazaldoba Barrage, 522–523
groundwater law in, 327
Hirakud Dam, 484
Hyderabad case study, 255
Indus Waters Treaty (1960), 369, 472, 507, 536
informal sources of water in, 254
institutional reform in, 337
irrigation in, 27, 34, 40
land mafias in, 319
Maharashtra Water Resources Regulatory Authority Act (2011), 337
Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MG-NREGS), 91–92
Nepal, treaty with, 462–463
social inequality in, 6
symbolism of water in, 5
Teesta River Basin and, 522–524
Tipaimuhk Dam, 522
urban informality in, 314–319
user fees in, 336
wastewater in, 255
water conflict in, 483–484
water coverage in, 113
water “mafias” in, 314, 316–319
water rights modernization, 334, 339
water user associations in, 335–336
Indigenous people, 13, 120–141
agricultural priority over, 146
attachment to place and, 121
criteria for identification, 124–125
Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP), 131–132
environmental restoration projects of, 135
equity and, 49, 54
human/nonhuman relations, 153
international recognition of rights, 130–133
redistribution, recognition, and representation, 133–135
three-dimensional theory of water justice, 122–124
treaty rights, 129–130, 136n2
values of, 62
water-justice movement, 125–130
water rights of, 9, 61, 130–133
worldviews of, 150
Indigenous Peoples Kyoto Water Declaration (2003), 133
Indonesia, displacement resulting from dams, 33
Indus River Basin
cooperation in, 452
Indus Waters Treaty (1960), 369, 472, 507, 536
river basin organizations and, 536, 542
Industry-led regulations, 216, 329
Inequality. See Equality
Infant mortality, safety of water and, 29
Informality, 310. See also Urban informality
Informal labor sector, 313
Informal service providers (ISPs), 558, 560
Information diffusion, 107
Informed consent, 132
Infrastructure. See also specific projects
allocation and, 256
architecture in river basins, 257
to combat climate change effects, 469–470
cost recovery and, 339–340, 415
deterioration of, 286, 289
ecological damage caused by, 285
(p. 674)
financing for, 287–289, 299–301, 336
food waste and, 236
IRWM projects for, 578
maintenance of, 288, 292
marketization of water and, 250
multipurpose, 90–91
poverty and, 33–34, 41
resilience against climate variability and, 77
rural areas, lack of, 204
state built, 341
stormwater management, 300–301
transborder rivers and, 464
for water transfers, 365–366
Injustice, 121–122. See also Water justice
Institutional capacity, 486–489, 491, 498
Institutional fitness, 583–584
Institutional mechanisms for allocation, 249–252
Institutional reform, 337, 394, 525–526
Integrated regional water management (IRWM), 570–571, 574–575, 577–581
Integrated water markets, 382–383, 382t
Integrated water resources management (IWRM), 15, 569–593
climate change and, 511
climate-change information use and, 617–618, 622–623, 629
collective action and institutions, 575–576
for contestation of water injustice, 39
cooperation and, 577–578
criticisms of, 172, 571
defined, 333, 510, 569, 571–572, 622
dimensions of, 572–573
Dublin Principles on Water Management and, 284
effectiveness of, 581–583
environmental justice and equity, 56, 586–587
equitable resource distribution and, 579–581
failure of, 52–53
governance based on, 7–8, 51–53, 420
institutional fitness, role of, 583–584
institutional systems and, 585
international law and, 333, 338–339
local water politics and, 299
multilevel international deployment, 573–574
policy transfer as, 597–598
social learning and, 578–579
Sustainable Development Goals and, 338
Intensification of water use, 57, 126, 143, 200, 233. See also Demand for water
Inter-American Development Bank, 132
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 157n3, 469–470, 509
International Boundary and Water Commission, 67–68, 274, 533
International Center for Agricultural Research in Drylands, 189
International Commission for the Hydrology of the Rhine Basin, 540
International Commission for the Protection of the Danube (ICPDR), 539–540
International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR), 537, 539–540
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR, 1966), 102, 103–104, 107
International development agencies. See also specific agencies
commodification of water and, 144, 146
human rights and, 94
indigenous people and, 124
male dominance of, 86–87
water management of, 173–174
International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade (1980s), 7, 102
International economic agendas, 8–9
International Energy Agency (IEA), 205
International Finance Corporation (IFC), 174
International Forest Resources and Institutions, 582, 584
International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), 80
International Joint Commission, 274
International Labour Organization, 313
International law. See also Treaty design; specific conventions at United Nations
accountability and, 106–107
domestic law, influence on, 331–333
on drinking water, 336
(p. 675)
human rights protections, 101–106, 102f, 136n2, 340
on indigenous peoples’ water rights, 130–133
progressive realization of, 107
reform in, 328
river basin organizations, support for, 536
security of water and, 508
transboundary conflicts and, 369
International Law Association, 3–4, 131, 536
International Meuse Commission (IMC), 518
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 38
International Relations theory, 508
International Rivers Cooperation and Conflict data set, 457–458, 460t
International Union for Conservation of Nature, 536
International Water Events Database, 457, 460t, 464
International Water Management Institute (IWMI), 312
International water treaties (IWT), 533–534. See also Treaty design
Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC), 216
Iran, desalination in, 184
Ireland, fracking bans in, 204
Irrigation
in Africa, 27, 256–257, 259, 556
agricultural productivity, increases in, 231
Aral Sea Basin, effect on, 491–492
in arid regions, 173, 182
in Australia, 387
in Bangladesh, 26
blue water for, 172–173, 189, 231
in China, 37
collective action and demand management for, 251
collective action efforts in, 367–368
colonialism and, 36, 83–84
as common-pool resource, 356
cost of, 36–37
of cotton and rice, 157n5
dispossession and, 23, 28, 34, 42
employment and, 25–27
energy use for, 200
full cost water pricing for, 415
gender and, 27–28, 38, 41, 82–87
gravity vs. drip, 256, 269
groundwater extraction for, 126, 200, 336
hand-pumped tube wells for, 200
increase in, 143, 229
in India, 27, 34, 40
inefficient technologies for, 184
inequality mitigation in, 38–39
land consolidation resulting from, 28
multiple uses of, 31, 91
participatory irrigation management (PIM), 335–336
permits for, 395–396
policy for, 601–602
poverty and, 23, 25–27, 26t, 41
rainfall and stormwater vs., 231
rural development and, 10
of surface water use for, 336
technology for, 256–257
in United States, 256, 364, 387–388
urban water use vs., 255
water law and, 330, 335
well capacity externality, effect of, 359
World Bank financing of, 37
IRWM (integrated regional water management), 570–571, 574–575, 577–581
Islam, 4, 5, 57
ISO (International Organization for Standardization), 38
ISPs (informal service providers), 558, 560
Israel
desalination in, 184, 201, 203
Gaza Strip, intrastate conflict in, 464
Jordan, peace treaty with, 452, 467, 486
Jordan Basin and, 452, 464
National Water Carrier, 200
reallocations in, 484
water conflicts in, 482
Issue Correlates of War (ICOW), 457, 461t, 464, 467
IWMI (International Water Management Institute), 312
IWT (international water treaties), 533–534. See also Treaty design
(p. 676) Japan, reverse osmosis in, 184
Jiao River Basin, 396
Joint Monitoring Project (WHO & UNICEF), 31
Joint Water Quality Baseline Survey, 541
Jordan
Disi aquifer and, 471
Disi Water Conveyance Project, 200
Israel, peace treaty with, 452, 467, 486
King Abdullah Canal, 200
Jordan River Basin, 452, 464, 488
Judeo-Christian traditions, 4, 82, 147
Kansas
collective action efforts in, 367–368
groundwater extraction, effect of, 359, 361
irrigation retirement in, 364
Kazakhstan
Aral Sea Basin and, 492
policy translation in, 602–603
Kenya
displacement resulting from dams, 33
gender and, 89
small business facilitation in, 32
water conflict in, 552
Klamath River Basin (US), 38, 359, 483
Kumgansan Dam (North Korea), 489
Kyrgyzstan
policy translation in, 601–602
Toktogul Reservoir in, 491–492
Lake Mead (US), 177, 177f, 388
Land consolidation, irrigation leading to, 28
Land mafias, 319
Land Matrix database, 27
Land purchase, water grabbing and, 411
Land-use changes, 254–255, 411, 516–517
Lao PDR
hydropower development in, 521, 532
water conflict in, 486
Xayaburi Dam construction in, 495–496, 521
La Paz Agreement (1983), 67
La Plata Basin, 452
Latin America. See also specific countries
antiprivatization movement in, 51, 69–70, 296, 411
contestation of water injustice in, 39
delivery of water in, 314
groundwater depletion in, 240
informal sector in, 313
river basin organizations in, 534
Law, 14, 327–350. See also International law; Regulations; specific countries
customary, 122, 127, 132, 136n1
efficiency vs. justice, 339–342
environmental, 289–290
gaps in, 339
global, 329–331
international vs. domestic, 331–333
IWRM paradigm, 338–339
legal entitlement to water, 101–103, 128–129, 178–179
modernization, 333–337, 344
privatization and commercialization, 342–344
water conflict and, 484–485
LEMAs (Local Enhance Management Areas), 367–368
Lesotho, transboundary environmental problems and, 541
Lesson-drawing, 596, 598
Liao River (China), 432
Libya, Great Man-Made Canal, 200
LID (low impact development), 300–301
Life expectancy, safety of water and, 29
Lobbies
agricultural, 126, 176, 182–183
business influence on policy through, 174, 210–211
intervention research and, 606
resource allocation and, 580
of utilities, 179
Local Enhance Management Areas (LEMAs), 367–368
Local water politics, 14, 284–309. See also Decentralization; River basin organizations
allocation and, 252–253
boundary conflicts, 297–298
environmental law, 289–290
fiscal decentralization and infrastructure funding, 287–289
(p. 677)
fragmentation vs. coordinated effort, 301–302
governance paradigm for, 51
growth politics, 293–294
managers and users, values of, 290–291
privatization, 294–296
reform and, 328
rural to urban transfers, 296–297
scale and, 271
self-governance, 135, 367–368
sustainable development and, 277–279
urban water management, 299–301
Logistics, 234
Lower Jaguaribe River Basin (Brazil), 626
Low impact development (LID), 300–301
Luxury uses of water, 89
Madagascar, irrigation in, 556
Maldives, water coverage improvements in, 112
Male bias, 23, 25, 27–28, 41. See also Gender
Malnutrition, 103, 480, 487
Mapping Systems and Services for Multiple Uses of Water Services (MASSMUSS) guidelines, 91–92
Mar del Plata Action Plan, 102
Mar del Plata Conference (1977). See United Nations
Market environmentalism, 14, 407–429
commercialization, contradictions of, 412–414
governance reform and, 419–421
implementation of, 422
marketization debate, 417–419
privatization, limits of, 408–412
strategies overview, 408, 409t
valuation, challenges in, 414–417
Market failures, 355–356, 413, 416
Marketization. See also Economics; Food-water; Political economy of water markets
allocation and, 250, 259
debate over, 417–419
defined, 417–419
global trend toward, 8, 51
human rights vs., 296
local water politics and, 286
market failure and, 355–356
Market mechanisms, 250, 355, 364–366
MASSMUSS (Mapping Systems and Services for Multiple Uses of Water Services) guidelines, 91–92
Matrilineal inheritance, 82, 86
McKinsey (global consulting firm), 174
Meat and dairy production, 143, 169, 177
Medea hypothesis, 157n9
Mekong River Basin
adverse impact of, 187
climate change, effect on, 509, 519–522
cooperation in, 452, 533
dispute resolution in, 486, 494–497
governance of, 507
Mekong River Commission (MRC), 495, 520–521, 533, 541
size of, 515–516
water conflicts in, 532
MEMA (monetary environmental management accounting), 238–239
Metal contamination, 205–206
Meuse River Basin, 515–519
Mexico
Cuatro Mujeres (Four Women) case, 64–65
desalination in, 298
earthquake (2010), 67
equity issues in, 64–66
land conservation incentives in, 292
US relations with, 65–68, 297–298, 532–533
water legislation and policy reform in, 52
Michigan
Detroit Water Brigade, 63
Flint, water crisis in, 4
water shutoffs in, 63–64
Middle East and North Africa. See also specific countries
arid regions in, 182–185
climate change, effects on, 469
drought in, 480, 487–488
transboundary conflicts in, 369
transportation of water within, 200
water systems, energy requirements for, 203
Migration, 27, 143, 176, 391, 480, 487. See also Dispossession and displacement
(p. 678) Millennium Development Goals, 49, 103, 109, 121. See also Sustainable Development Goals
Miniaturization, 257
Mining
for coal, 186, 205
fracking as alternative to, 206–207
groundwater extraction for, 126
necessity of water for, 199
pollution resulting from, 205–206
tailing resulting from, 205
water quality and, 186, 205
Minorities, 61, 63–64, 84, 316. See also Gender; Indigenous people
Mississippi River (US), 353
Modernization theory, 313, 321
Monash Sustainability Institute (MSI), 524
Monetary environmental management accounting (MEMA), 238–239
Mongolian Plateau, surface water of, 240
Mono Lake (California), 297
Monopolies, 412–413
Monsoons, 328, 523
Moral reasoning, 56
Morocco, irrigation techniques in, 256
MSI (Monash Sustainability Institute), 524
Multiple-use water services (MUS), 90–93
Municipal water politics. See Local water politics
Murray-Darling Basin (Australia)
agriculture intensification and, 157n5
coercive policy implementation in, 597
ecological health restoration, 397–398
Murray-Darling Basin Plan (2010–2012), 386, 400
water market in, 381, 385, 389–391, 393–394, 397
MUS (multiple-use water services), 90–93
Nairobi, water delivery in, 36
Namibia, transboundary environmental problems and, 541
NASA
GRACE satellite of, 353
Soil Moisture Active Passive programs, 172
Natural gas, 199–200, 206–207, 209–210, 214. See also Fracking
Natural monopolies, 412–413
Nature vs. culture, 142, 147
Navigation, 353, 357, 516
NBI (Nile Basin Initiative, 2012), 76
Nebraska, irrigation retirement in, 364
Negative peace, 488–489
Neoliberalism
in Africa, 51
criticism of, 57, 295
equity and, 50, 53, 59, 69
food-water and, 237, 239, 241, 243
governance reform and, 421
market environmentalism and, 107, 419–421
marketization of water and, 60
transboundary river treaties and, 466–468
urban development and, 60, 319
Nepal, treaty with India, 462–463
Nevada, water scarcity in, 176–177, 177f, 190
New Public Management (NPM), 412
New York, fracking ban in, 214–215
New Zealand
agriculture priority in, 146
indigenous people of, 126–130
NGOs (nongovernmental organizations), 269, 538–539. See also specific organizations
Niger, water coverage improvements in, 112
Nigeria, water coverage improvements in, 113
Nile Basin Initiative (NBI, 2012), 76
Nile River, 459, 489, 507, 509–510
Nile River Basin, 240, 492–494, 532
Non-consumptive uses of water. See also Hydroelectric power
navigation, 353, 357, 516
power-plant cooling, 5, 168–169, 176, 199, 205–207, 353–354
recreation, 353–355, 357
Non-discrimination, 108–109
Non-food water, 230
Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), 269, 538–539. See also specific organizations
Nonhuman species. See Animals and plants
North Carolina, water-quality credits, 365
North Korea, Kumgansan Dam in, 489
Norway, Alta River hydroelectric project in, 134
(p. 679) No-till conservation agriculture, 233
NPM (New Public Management), 412
Nuclear power, 168, 186, 199
OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development), 376, 439
Ogallala Aquifer, 354
Ohio
fracking in, 214
pollution in, 359–360
Oil. See Fossil fuels
Okavango Basin, 541
OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries), 170
Opération Riz (Burkina Faso), 85–86
Option value, 354
Oregon
agricultural practices, effect of, 359
Grande Ronde Watershed, 380
Instream Water Rights Act (1987), 380
water trading in, 393
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 376, 439
Organizational culture, 619
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), 170
Organized crime, 314, 316–319
Owens Lake (California), 297
Pakistan
Indus basin management in, 507
Indus Waters Treaty (1960), 369, 472, 507, 536
water coverage improvements in, 112–113
Pangani River (Tanzania), 38
Paraíba do Sul River Basin, 626
Participatory irrigation management (PIM), 335–336
Pastoralists, 558
Path dependence, 385–387
Patriarchy, 147
Payment-for-environmental service (PES) programs, 364, 371n5
Peak oil, 197, 218n1
Peak water, 197
PEMA (physical environmental management accounting), 238–239
People-driven planning, 90–93
Performance standards, 361
Peri-urban areas, 258–259, 262n3
Permits
as administrative mechanisms, 250–251
in Brazil, 624
cap-and-trade allocation policy, 378–379, 384–388, 390
in China, 444
cross-sectoral issues of energy and water quality and, 215
for wastewater disposal, 214
for water use, 358, 361, 363–364, 387, 395–396
Peru
oil spills in, 198
water injustice in, 40
water legislation and policy reform in, 52–53
PES (payment-for-environmental service) programs, 364, 371n5
Philippines
irrigation and labor increases in, 26
water coverage in, 113
Physical environmental management accounting (PEMA), 238–239
Pigovian taxes, 363–364
PIM (participatory irrigation management), 335–336
Pipelines, 200, 469
Plants. See Animals and plants
PLoS Medicine
on household purification, 35
on safety of water, 28–29
Policy and policy reform. See Ethnography for water policy; Lobbies; Water policy models; specific countries
Policy entrepreneurs, 603
Political dimensions of water, 3–19. See also Governance; Local water politics
agriculture and, 235–237
businesses, influence of, 210–212
dominion over water and, 148–149
historical trajectory of, 6–10
importance of water and, 3
reimagining communities and, 156
scholarship on, 10–12
(p. 680) The Political Economy of Soil Erosion (Blaikie), 12
Political economy of water markets, 14, 376–406
allocation reform, 385–386
of Australia, 388–394
cap-and-trade institutional reforms, 386–388
of China, 394–397
emerging markets, 380–382
free-market environmentalism, 379–380
hard limits and vested interests, 389–390
integrated water markets, 382–383, 382t
IRWM principles and, 580–581
lessons learned, 397–399
local path, 401–402
narrow approach to, 400–401
political aspects of capping, allocation, and trading, 390–394
poverty and, 42–43
property rights and transaction costs, 383–385
prospects for, 399–401
risk management, 399–400
river basin closure, 376–378, 377f
of United States, 388–394
water markets, 378–383
Political violence, 549–550, 552–553
Pollution. See also Carbon dioxide emissions; Energy-water quality nexus; specific incidents and countries
from agriculture, 144, 354–355
in Bangladesh, 4
in China, 432, 436–443, 447n17
climate change and, 517–518
from coal, 187, 205–206
of drinking water, 4, 359–360
from fracking, 157n4, 208, 216
of groundwater, 4, 144, 157n1, 157n4, 178
metal contamination, 205–206
mobility of, 354–355, 359–360
from oil and coal ash spills, 198, 212
performance standards and, 361, 371n4
poverty, vulnerability and, 204
property rights and, 358
regulations for, 294
stormwater management and, 300–301
of surface water, 206, 213, 289–290
taxes to offset externalities of, 363–364
thermal, 206
transboundary conflicts and, 368–369, 533
in United States, 4, 294
water recycling and, 230
Polycentrism, 419–421
Population growth. See also Urbanization
demand and, 170
in Great Lakes Watershed, 298
infrastructure needs and, 292
security of water, 413
sustainability of, 143
water scarcity and, 176, 197, 465
Portugal, Guadiana River agreement with Spain, 514
Positive peace, 488–489
Poverty, 12–13, 23–48. See also Sustainable Development Goals
bottled water and, 201
causes of, 24–25
cheap food and, 241
climate change, vulnerability to, 519
cost of water and, 340
descent-preventing governance, 37–38
dispossession of land and, 34
domestic-productive household water and, 30–33, 42
gender and, 25, 27–28, 81
health and, 28–30, 2930f, 41–42
household water supply and, 31, 34–35, 42
informal sector and, 314
infrastructure construction, deprivation and, 33–34
injustice, contestation of, 39–40
irrigation and, 23, 25–27, 26t, 41
local water management and, 302
pathways out of, 24–25
perspectives on, 23–24
policy vs. economics, 42–43
pollution vulnerability and, 204
prevention of, 28, 38, 41
pricing for agriculture, 36–37
water delivery, 35–36
water shutoffs and, 63–64
(p. 681) Power-plant cooling, 5, 168–169, 176, 199, 205–207, 353–354
Power relations. See also Lobbies; River basin organizations
allocation and, 252–253
climate-change information access and, 625–626
household, gender and, 78, 81–82
law, water conflict and, 485
transboundary rivers and, 452, 459, 462–463
water politics and, 551
PPPs (public-private partnerships), 411–412, 597
Precipitation. See Rainfall and stormwater
Prescriptive standards, 360–362, 371nn3–4
Prior appropriation doctrine, 387, 395, 417
Private governance, 216–217
Private sector. See also Lobbies
accountability for water use, 237–238
public-private partnerships, 411–412
water supply and, 167, 173–175, 190
Privatization
of common property, 143
governance paradigm of, 51
informal sector and, 313
international promotion of, 8, 296
justification for, 408–409
laws on, 342–344
limits of, 408–412
local water politics and,