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date: 17 November 2018

(p. 767) Index

(p. 767) Index

Page references followed by “f” indicate figure, “t” indicate table.

Abhidharma, 153, 330, 361. See also Buddhaghosa; Vasubandhu
Abhidharma/Abhidhamma traditions, 185n5
Abhidharmakośabhāṣya (Vasubandhu), 311
Ābhidharmikas, 94–97, 154
Abhinanda, Gauḍa, 470
abhinava-anyathā-khyāti-vāda (neo-misidentification theory), 567–73
Abhinavagupta, 7, 243n2, 244n6, 437–68
Abhyanka, Vasudeva Shastri, 45
abhyupagama-vāda (temporary concession), 617n43
abortion, 710–11, 716n20
absences, 269n33, 500–501
absolute, 115, 480–81
absolute existence (wujūd muṭlaq), 669–73, 687n93
absolute idealism, 443–44, 459nn40–41
abstract objects, 97, 107n9, 580
accident, 673
accurate circumscription (samyak-pariccheda), 524–25, 536n13
action. See karma
action-consequence. See karma
action deposits. See karmāśaya
activity (pravṛtti), 154, 429–31
causal, 158, 162, 302, 589–90
additional condition. See upādhi
adequacy theory, 526–27
adharma (demerit, non-virtue), 294, 302n16, 303n29, 304n72
adhikāra (entitlements), 22
pragmatic, 219–21, 227n45
adhikārānubandha (eligibility condition), 428–29, 435n34
Adhyātma-rāmāyaṇa, 471
Advaita Vedānta, 289. See also Śaṅkara; Caturdhara, Nīlakaṇṭha
Advaitasiddhi (Establishment of Nonduality) (Sarasvatī, M.), 573
Advaita Vedāntins, 560–61, 750
Advaitins, 648–49, 653–54
aesthetic sympathy, 727–33
affective states, 369
affirmative action, 711
afflicted mental states (kliṣṭa), 136, 140, 149n37
African thought, 59
āgama. See scripture
Āgamādhikāra (“Part of Scriptures”) (Utpaladeva), 456n15
ageing, 155–57, 163
agency
in compositionist metaphysics, 294–97, 304n45
scope of, 297–99, 304n55, 304n72
Age of Dialogue, 6, 11nn3–4, 33, 360
Age of Disquiet, 7
“The Age of the Sūtra,” 5–6
aggregates (skandhas), 389
ahetavaḥ (non-reasons), 225n13
ahiṃsā (non-injury, nonviolence), 45, 357n24
ajātivāda (non-origination), 475
ākāra (appearances), 274, 443–44, 459n40
Akalaṅka, 207n2, 403, 487, 494, 498, 503
akartā (non-agent), 484
ākāśa (ether), 158–59, 168n15, 628 (p. 768)
Akbar (emperor), 658, 680n16
akliṣṭa (unafflicted mental states), 136
Aklujkar, Ashok, 234–5, 239–2, 245n14, 249n60
Akṣapāda, Gautama, 542
Akṣayamati Sūtra, 340
‘ālam al-shahāda (sensory perception), 673–74
ālambana (objective basis), 569–70
Ālambanaparīkṣā (Examination of the Object-Support) (Dignāga), 315, 324n40
Alavi, Hamza, 714
ālaya-vijñāna, 287n36
alchemy, 64–65
Ali, Hafiz Mohammad Tahir, 660, 678n2
‘Ali Awjabī, 681n27
aloneness (kaivalya), 600
Alper, Harvey, 460n50
Alston, William, 227n45
Amassed Morsels of Refutation (Khaṇḍanakhaṇḍakhādya) Śrīharṣa, 7, 535
Ambedkar, Bhimrao Ramji, 737–49. See also moral idealism
ambiguity, 374
analogical reasoning, 23
analogies, 541. See also specific analogies
ant eggs, 545–46
color, 525–26
fire and smoke, 550
glue, 100–101
ice cream, 141
lamp, 218
mango, 284
peacock cry, 546
river swollen, 544–45
silver and mother-of-pearl, 563–73
silver and tin, 547
snake and rope, 542–43
stealing, 145
stock broker, 144–46
analysis (nikṣepavāda), 502
analytic epistemology, 555n2
analytic metaphysics, 84–85
Ānandatīrtha, 559
Ānandavardhana, 55
Ananthamurthi, 721
ānantya (endlessness), 267n7
Anderson, Perry, 715n7
anekânta-vāda (multiplexity of reality), 190
anger, 178, 329
animals, 339–40
Aniruddha, 599, 601–3
anirvacanīyatā (indeterminacy), 560, 562–65, 573
anitya-doṣa (occasional flaws), 553
annihilation (ucchedavāda), 347, 356n12
ant eggs analogy, 545–46
anti-colonial idealism, 700
anti-realism, 82–83, 103, 130n42, 256, 266n3.
conceptual fictions in, 122, 130nn40–41
designation in, 123, 130n43, 130n45
paradoxes of rule in, 124–25, 131nn48–51
useful fiction in, 123–24, 131n46
anugama (running thread), 527–28
anumāna (inference), 598, 614n2
anupalabdhi (non-apprehension), 319–20, 500–501
anusandhāna (cognitive synthesis), 443, 459n38
ānvīkṣikī (critical investigation, reflective deliberation), 9–10, 214–15, 222
anyathā-khyāti (misidentification), 560–61, 566–73, 574n5
anyathā-siddhi, 636
anyonyâśraya (mutual dependence), 411–12, 418n10
apanoda. See rejection
Aparāditya, 519n8
āpatti (downfall), 332, 335
apāya (perceptual judgment), 197
apekṣā-buddhi (ennumerative judgments), 632–33
aphorisms. See sūtras
Aphorisms of Bṛhaspati (Bṛhaspatisūtra), 18–19, 28n11, 361
The Aphorisms of Yoga. See Yogasūtra
Aphorisms on Logic. See Nyāya-sūtra
Aphorisms on Sāṃkhya. See Sāṃkhya-sūtra
apoha (exclusion theory of meaning), 256, 266nn3–5
coreferentiality of, 257–60, 262–65, 267n9, 268n26, 268n28, 269n31
differences and, 270n40, 270n43
exclusions and, 259, 262–65, 270n40, 271n52
(p. 769)
non-entities and, 261, 269n33
particulars in, 257, 260, 267nn7–8
qualifier-qualificand and, 258–62, 262–63, 268n14
subtypes and, 258–59, 261, 269n31
appamañña (immeasurables), 174
appearances (ākāra), 274, 443–44, 459n40
Appiah, Kwame Anthony, 723
appreciation, 726
apprehension, 496–97
apūrva, 585
Aquinas, Thomas (saint), 67, 610–12, 617n47, 682n39
Āraṇya, Hariharānanda, 138
Ardha-māgadhī Prakrit, 33
argumentation theorists, 120
arguments, 215, 217, 277, 397n28, 573, 574n4, 605
incongruence in, 314–15
in ontological non-foundationalism, 97–98
prasaṅga, 407–8
supervenience, 364
traditions and, 486
argumentum ad ignorantiam, 309–10, 319–20
arising, 163–65
Aristotle, 75–78, 214, 220, 355, 544, 610–11, 663–5, 741
of Allahabad, 751
Armstrong, David, 81, 126n8
Arnold, Dan, 278, 308, 319, 377n33
on Mīmāṃsā, 577–78, 595n4
artha (wealth), 20–21
artha-antara (irrelevance), 554
arthakriyā (pragmatic efficacy), 370–71, 376n25
arthāpatti (circumstantial implication), 564–65
Arthaśāstra (Kauṭilya), 9
ārthībhāvanā (result-directed force), 422–23, 422t
Āryabhaṭa, 355
Āryadeva, 110–26
Asaṅga, 104, 152, 283, 337
ascetic (śramaṇa), 4, 21
Ash‘ariyya, 671
Ashraf, K. M., 699, 701–2
āśramadharma (life-stage laws), 508–9
āsrava (karmic matter), 203
assimilation, 718–19, 730
assurance theory of knowledge
accurate circumscription in, 524–25, 536n13
rejection of, 527–29, 536n24
sameness-of-sort in, 525–26
Aṣṭādhyāyī, 55, 61
āstika (orthodox, Brahmanical, one who says or believes that it exists), 43–45, 355n1
ataraxia (disquietude), 7, 417
Atharvaveda, 345
atheism, 598–99. See also Sāṃkhya atheism
of Indian philosophy, 35–36
ātman. See self
atoms, 308–9, 314, 320, 476
essence and, 388–89, 398n33
holism and, 755
Raghunātha on, 629–31, 639n32
attention, 175, 183–84, 182, 205, 237–8, 240, 284, 298, 300, 340–1, 375, 442, 444, 446, 449–52, 464n86, 553, 589, 729
and consciousness, 375, 444, 451–52, 464nn86–88
for Mādhava, 582
attentive capacity (manaskāra), 372
Atthasālinī, 183
audibility, 490–91, 493
Aurangzeb (emperor), 658, 660–61, 677, 679n8, 689n117
Aurobindo Ghosh, 27n4, 750
Austin, J. L., 362
authority, 165–67, 509
authorship, 110
individual, 38–39
Autobiography (Nehru, J.), 699–700
autonomy, 703
reverence and, 726–27
from traditions, 720–21
autonomy of cognition
affective states and, 369
causality and, 368–75, 376nn25–26
causal totality in, 370
(p. 770)
dreams and, 368–69
perception and, 370–71
pragmatic efficacy in, 370–71, 376n25
reflexive awareness and, 372–73, 376n26
reflexivist dual-aspect theory of consciousness, 371
avadhi-jñāna, avadhi-jñānôpayoga (clairvoyant cognition), 195f, 198, 201, 202f
Avalokitavrata, 110
Aviddhakarṇa, 350
avidyā (unknowing, ignorance, illusion, nescience), 136, 474
absolute compared to, 115
brahman and, 562–64
of consciousness, 451–52, 464nn86–87
dharmas as, 285
duality and, 312
languages related to, 591–92
Śaṅkara on, 23–25
avikalpa jñāna, 239, 249n59
avyabhicāritva. See non-erroneousness
awakening, 379–80
awareness (saṃvedana), 313, 316, 364. See also reflexive awareness; self-awareness
of disorder, 591
of memory, 442, 458n31
unreality of, 391–92
Axial Age, 57
axiological realism, 291
Āyurveda, 63–65
Bādarāyaṇa, 48
Bādari, 428
bādha (sublating), 406–7, 542
Baker, G. P., 591–93, 597n31
Balcerowicz, Piotr, 492
Banārasī, Amān Allāh, 680n10, 685n83
bare particulars, 97–98
bath-graduate (snātaka), 515
Beckwith, Christopher, 57
beliefs, 227n45, 431, 523, 544
in bringing about, 421–22
evidence for, 416–17, 419n16
knowledge and, 524, 526–28, 530–31
veridical cognition and, 543, 548–49, 555n6
Belvalkar, S. K., 347–48, 356n9
Berlin, Isaiah, 733
Bernier, François, 58, 65, 69–71
Bhagavad-gītā, 135–36, 604–5, 616n36, 644, 677
Bhāgavata Purāṇa, 599, 645, 649, 654n5, 655n15
Bharadvāja, 347
Bhāratabhāvadīpa (Lamplight on the True Meaning of the Bhārata) (Nīlakaṇṭha), 654n8
liberation in, 647–48, 654n10
thread-text in, 646–47
Bharatitīrtha, 597n34
Bhartṛhari, 6, 55, 231–254, 257, 266n1, 266n5, 445, 471
language of, 233, 245nn13–16
nature of consciousness, 240–42, 250n76, 250n79, 250nn72–74, 251n83, 251n86
Vākyapadīya of, 231, 242n2, 471
Bhāṣāpariccheda (Sārvabhauma, K.), 639n15
Bhāsarvajña, 524–25, 631
Bhāskara II, 10
Bhāskarakaṇṭha, 455n9, 470
bhāṣya. See commentaries
Bhatt, G. P., 594n3
Bhaṭṭa, Akalaṅka, 403, 486–87, 494
Bhaṭṭa, Jayanta. See Jayanta Bhaṭṭa
Bhaṭṭa, Jayarāśi. See Jayarāśi
Bhaṭṭa, Kumārila. See Kumārila Bhaṭṭa
Bhattacarya, Dineschandra, 639n15
Bhaṭṭācārya, Raghudeva Nyāyālaṃkāra, 626, 630, 636–37, 638n13
Bhaṭṭācārya, Viśvabandhu, 529
Bhattacharyya, Krishnachandra, 10, 718–36
aesthetic sympathy and, 727–33
cosmopolitism and, 724–27, 734n23
on cultural subjection, 718–19
(p. 771)
intellectual decolonization and, 731–32
post-independence legacy of, 719–23
Bhaṭṭodbhaṭa, 350
bhāvanā (cultivation), 380, 384, 392. See also bringing about; meditation
Bhāvanākrama. See Steps of Cultivation
Bhāvaviveka, 350
Bhāviveka, 42, 96–7, 107, 111, 114, 116, 125
bhūta (matter), 203, 292–93
bhūtavāda (doctrine of elements), 348
Biderman, Shlomo, 577, 594n3
Bilgrami, Akeel, 278
birth, 163–65
rebirth, 178–79, 203, 351, 357n24, 473
al-Bīrūnī, 64–66
Bodhicaryāvatāra (Introduction to the Bodhisattva’s Way of Life) (Śāntideva), 327, 341–42
bodhisattvas, 327, 332, 334–35, 341–42, 606
Borges, J. L., 479
Brahmā, 480, 482
“Brahmajālasutta,” 356n12
brahman (highest self), 482, 618n49, 649–51, 653
nescience and, 562–64
nirguṇa, 739
Brahmanical (āstika), 43–45, 355n1
Brahmanism, 34–35, 52–53, 439
Brahmasattā, 481
Brahmasiddhi (Establishment of Brahman) (Miśra, V., II), 562–63
Brahma-sūtra-bhāṣya (Commentary on the Aphorisms Concerning Brahman) (Śaṅkara), 23
Brahma-sūtras (Vedānta sūtras), 47–48, 597n34, 607, 611–12
God and, 617n41, 649–51
Nīlakaṇṭha on, 646, 649–51
Sāṃkhya-sūtra and, 599, 614n11
brahmāvihāras. See sublime abidings
Brahmins, 44, 512, 515, 746. See also moral idealism
breaking down barriers (sīmasambheda), 180–81
Bṛhaspati, 19, 21, 349, 351, 353–54, 361, 366, 405. See also Cārvāka
Bṛhaspatisūtra (Aphorisms of Bṛhaspati), 18–19, 28n11, 361
bringing about (bhāvanā), 433n5
linguistic force in, 422–25, 422t
motivation as, 421–25, 422t, 433n3
types of, 422–23, 422t
as Vedic injunction, 421, 423–24, 434n14
verb form of, 421–22, 433n3
British colonialism, 8–9, 69, 700, 738
Bronkhorst, Johannes, 135, 148n2, 226n37
Buddha (Gautama), 4, 44, 53
figurative use by, 162, 166, 168n21
Buddhaghosa, 5, 171–89, 396n11
on dispelling resentment, 178–80, 184
phenomenology and, 172–73
sublime abidings of, 174–75, 186nn13–14, 186n17
Buddhavacana, 384
buddhi (intellect), 240–41, 249n72
property and, 264–65
Buddhism, 6–7, 18, 51, 243n3, 363, 375n5. See also Abhidharma; Madhyamaka
Brahmanism and, 52–53, 439
fusion philosophy and, 80–81
names in, 53–54
as nāstika, 44–45, 70–71
Pyrrhonism from, 71n5
schools of, 53–54
on scripture, 163–65
Tibetan, 94, 106, 111, 379, 395n1
Veda and, 42
virtues of, 340–41
Buddhist deflationism, 121, 129nn35–37, 130n38
Buddhist Idealism, 459n40, 470–71
Buddhist meta-ethics, 85, 87n16
Buddhist nominalists, 81
Buddhist Personalism (Pudgalavāda), 363, 375n5
Buddhist Pramāṇa, 243n6
Buddhist Vijñānavādins, 443–44
caitanya (pure consciousness), 298, 647
in nature of consciousness, 240–41, 250n73, 250n76
(p. 772)
Candrakīrti, 106, 111, 113, 116–32, 278, 524, 752
Clear Words of, 121, 129nn36–37, 131n50
Cennibhaṭṭa, 20
Cārvāka, 18–20, 26, 28nn8–9, 29n17, 344–59, 361–77, 404–5, 495, 497, 653. See materialism
materialism and, 349–53, 357n19, 357n24
religion and, 43–44
Case of the Deceived Deducer, 523, 526
Case of the Lucky Listener, 524, 527
Case of the Misprimed Perceiver, 523–24, 526
Case of the Self-Confident Gambler, 523, 526–27, 530–31
caste (varṇa), 352, 739.
caste laws (varṇadharma), 508–9, 514
Castro, Viveiros de, 296
categories, 36
of ibn Sīnā, 672, 686n92
of Raghunātha, 626, 632–37, 638n13, 640n35, 640n45
of Vaiśeṣika, 626, 638n13
Catuḥśataka (“Four Hundred Verses”) (Āryadeva), 110, 113, 116
Caturdhara, Nīlakaṇṭha, 643–44, 654n2. See also Bhāratabhāvadīpa; nonduality
Advaitins and, 648–49, 653–54
catuṣkoṭi (tetralemma), 116, 127n17
causal activity, 158, 162, 302, 589–90
causal chain, 500
causal conditioning, 155–56
causal independence, 95, 107n6
causality (kāraṇatva), 77, 95, 285, 297, 304n72, 318, 346, 385–86
autonomy of cognition and, 368–75, 376nn25–26
in Brahma-sūtras, 611–12
consciousness and, 363–68
creation and, 607, 616n34
dependent arising in, 360–62, 366–68, 371–72
mitigated dualism and, 292–93, 302nn21–22
mutual, 157–58
mutual entailment and, 362–63
in ontological non-foundationalism, 96–97
Raghunātha on, 635–37
time related to, 394
causal relations, 281–82
cause (kāraṇa), 344, 346, 366
inherence-, 635–36
certification, 541–42
Chakrabarti, Arindam, 85, 302n23, 458n28
Chakrabarti, Kisor Kumar, 496–97
Chakrabarty, Dipesh, 613, 618n59
change, 160–61, 613, 618n57
Chapple, Chris, 135, 148n7
Chapter on Logic. See Tarka Pāda
Characterization of Knowledge (Pramāṇalakṣaṇa) (Madhva), 562
Chatterjea, Tara, 721–22, 733n2
Chatterjee, Partha, 706, 708–11, 716n20
Chattopadhyaya, Debiprasad, 63–64, 354, 358n34, 405
chauvinism, 84, 87n11
China, 57, 67–69, 86n6
Chinese debate opponent, 379–80, 395. See also idealism
Chishtī, ‘Abd al-Raḥmān, 677–78
chronology, 39
cidaṇu (mind-atom), 476
circular reasoning, 219
circumstantial implication (arthāpatti), 564–65
Citsukha, 559, 563, 574n3
citta-mātratā (mind alone), 550–51
clairvoyant cognition (avadhi-jñāna, avadhi-jñānôpayoga), 195f, 198, 201, 202f
classification, 18, 580
Clear Words (Prasannapadā) (Candrakīrti), 121, 129nn36–37, 131n50
clinchers, 553–54
Clooney, Francis, 595n4
cogitation (īhā), 196
cognition (jñāna), 271n52, 277, 376n25, 543. See also autonomy of cognition; knowledge
ātman and, 442, 458n34, 459n35
avikalpa, 239, 249n59
clairvoyant, 195f, 198, 201, 202f
cognition of, 442, 448, 458n34, 459n35, 461nn62–63
of color, 410
concentration and, 392, 398n41
(p. 773)
consciousness and, 361–62
content and, 391
embodied, 377n34
essential, 202, 203f
externalism related to, 313–14
extrinsic, 202, 203f
form-possession and, 318
indirect, 199–200, 199f
inference and, 309–10, 320
knowledge and, 192, 195, 199, 199f, 228n48, 415, 532
manifestation and, 442, 459n35
memory and, 442–43, 459n38
nonduality and, 394
perception and, 310, 317, 406
reflexive awareness and, 315–16, 376n27
self and, 298, 300, 440, 442, 457n25, 458n34, 459n35
trust and, 548
truth and, 548–49
types of, 193, 195f
Vātsyāyana on, 210–12, 225n13
cognitive faculty (upayoga)
correct, 195–96, 195f
Kundakunda on, 192–93, 201–3, 202f, 205
perception in, 129n37, 193–200, 195f, 199f
self and, 204–5
teleological arrangement of, 198–200, 199f, 208n8
Umāsvāti on, 192–200, 195f, 204–5
cognitive synthesis (anusandhāna), 443, 459n38
cognitivism, 328
cognizing nature (tattva-jñāna), 522
coherence, 580, 582, 756–57
coherentism, 218–19
“collateral” information, 570–71
Collection on the Sources of Knowledge (Summary of the Means of Knowledge) (Pramāṇasamuccaya) (Dignāga), 256, 258, 272, 371
colonialism, 8–9, 69, 700, 738
color, 410, 636
color analogy, 525–26
command (niyoga), 425–26, 428, 433n5, 435n29, 454n22
commentaries (bhāṣya,vṛtti), 5, 46, 110–11, 597n34. See also specific topics
individual authorship of, 38–39
self-containment of, 60
tradition of, 36–37
Commentary (Pañjikā) (Kamalaśīla), 375n1
The Commentary of Praśastapāda (Praśastapāda), 289
Commentary on Nyāya (Nyāya-bhāṣya) (Vātsyāyana), 209, 224n1, 225n4
Commentary on Realities (Shastri), 375n1
Commentary on the Aphorisms Concerning Brahman (Brahma-sūtra-bhāṣya) (Śaṅkara), 23
The Commentary on the Comprehension of Reality (Tattvârthâdhigama-sūtra) (Umāsvāti), 190–91
Commentary on the Illumination of the Truth (Jayatīrtha), 562, 565, 568–69
Commentary on the Means of Knowledge (Pramāṇavārttika) (Dharmakīrti), 264, 272
Commentary on the Treasury of Abhidharma (Abhidharma-kośa-bhāṣya) (Vasubandhu), 153
Commentary on Yoga (Yogabhāṣya) (Vyāsa), 133
commonly held beliefs (endoxa), 544
common sense, 415–17
communication, 58–62, 71
comparative philosophy, 75–80, 760
Comparative Philosophy (Tuck), 30n39
comparison, 56, 66–69, 76–80
compassion (karuṇā), 174–75, 178, 183, 335
human rights and, 187n48
idealism and, 383
meditation, 181–82
Compendium of All Philosophies (Mādhava), 351, 354
Compendium of All Viewpoints (Sarva-darśana-saṃgraha), 19–20, 26, 30n38
Compendium of Realities (Śāntarakṣita), 379
A Compendium of the Characteristics of Categories (Padārthadharmasaṃgraha) (Praśastapāda), 289 (p. 774)
Compendium of the Elements of the True Conclusions about the Discipline (Śāstrasiddhāntaleśasaṃgraha) (ŚSLS) (Appayya), 649–51
completeness, 580
compositionist metaphysics
agency in, 294–97, 304n45
causality in, 297
dharma in, 294
ethics in, 295, 303nn38–39
instrumentality in, 296–97
naturalism in, 295–96
subjects of experience, 295, 303n35
concentration (samādhi), 172
cognition and, 392, 398n41
on earth, 176–77
love as, 175–78, 187n28
on persons, 177–78, 183
concentration levels (jhāna), 176, 187n44
conceptual fictions, 122, 130nn40–41
conceptualization, 194
conceptualization-dependence, 95–96
conditioning activity. See habits
conditioning factors, 155–56, 159–60, 167
Confucianism, 67
conscious experience (vijñāna), 283
consciousness, 273, 283, 285, 371, 464n92, 480, 724
attention of, 451–52, 464nn86–88
avidyā of, 451–52, 464nn86–87
body and, 365
causality and, 363–68
cognition and, 361–62
continuum of, 330, 364–65
creation related to, 473
freedom of, 441, 457n27
of “I,” 279–80
intention and, 447–48
knowledge and, 447, 461n57
in materialism, 344
physicalism and, 361–64
reflexivity related to, 304n55, 305n76, 372
self-awareness of, 279–81
senses and, 367–68
consciousness’s limits, 462n65, 462n67, 463n77
cognition in, 448, 461nn62–63
imagination in, 449–50, 463n74, 473n76
recognition in, 449, 462nn69–70
consecutive discourse, 637
consensus, 123, 130n45
consequences, 116–17. See also karma
consequentialism, 342n13
consideration (pakṣa), 490, 551
consistency, 105, 108n19
constitution, 694, 714n2
construct, 15
constructivism, 739–40, 744–45, 747
content, 193, 390–94, 398n41
contextualism, 528–29
contextual universalism, 723
continuity, 282–83
continuum
of consciousness, 330, 364–65
of self, 299
stability as, 159
conventional discourse (sammuti), 173
convention-dependent, 103, 161
convergent evolution, 79
coreferentiality (sāmānādhikaraṇya), 255–56, 266n1
combining in, 259–60, 268n26, 268n28, 269n31
Dharmakīrti on, 264–65, 271n52
existence and, 262–63, 267n13
particular for, 258, 268n14
words and, 257, 267n9
correspondence, 418n10, 756–57
cosmopolitanism
Bhattacharyya and, 724–27, 734n23
traditions related to, 719–20, 722–23, 729–30
counter-māyā, 478
counterpositive, 567–68 (p. 775)
creation, 233, 245n14, 473, 480
causality and, 607, 616n34
creative power, 480–81
criteria, 15–16
criteria for valid knowledge. See knowledge
critical investigation (ānvīkṣikī), 9–10, 214–15, 222
criticism of evidence, 491–95, 503n12, 504n15, 504n19
cross-cultural philosophizing, 78
Cūḍālā, 480
cultivation (bhāvanā), 380, 384, 392. See also bringing about; meditation
cultural practice, 56–57, 70–71, 78
literacy and, 59–62
orality and, 58–62
philosophy as, 66–69
science as, 62–66
cultural subjection, 718–19
cultures, 721, 728
intuition related to, 532, 537n37
of philosophical traditions, 76–77
religion related to, 695–96
customary laws, 516–17
cyclic existence. See saṃsāra
Dalit, 479, 732. See also Ambedkar, Bhimrao Ramji
Dāmād, Mīr, 662–63, 681n27, 685n83
Dārā Śikūh, 8, 70, 658, 660, 730
darśana (seeing), 10, 193–94
as philosophy, 32–33, 73n36
Das, C. R., 700
Das, Ras Vihari, 733n2
Dasgupta, Surendranath, 594n3, 595n4
dating, 4–5, 37–38
Dawānī, Jalāl al-Dīn, 685n76, 686n86
Khwāja compared to, 668–70, 677, 684n71, 685n80
Dāyabhāga (Jīmūtavāhana), 512
dāyavibhāga (inheritance), 512–14
dyads (dvyaṇuka), 629–30
De Aeternitate Mundi (“On the Eternity of the World”) (Aquinas), 611
debate, 379–80, 395, 413
public, 215, 216f
about svabhāva, 95–96
deceased (preta), 510–11
deconstruction, 221
deconstructionism avant la lettre, 119–20, 129n32
deep dispositions (vāsanās), 138–39, 146–47, 432
defending form-possession. See external objects
defining characteristic (lakṣaṇa), 192
definite content (sākāra), 193
definitions, 535, 593, 693
about epistemology, 416
of idealism, 471–72, 476–77
of inference, 486, 544
of knowledge, 522–23, 527–28, 536n16
knowledge and, 211–12, 228n48, 415–16
about ontology, 416
of perception, 416, 544
in Peripatetic tradition, 663, 682n35
of self-awareness, 275–76
deflationary truth theory, 119. See also Buddhist deflationism
deities, 593
Deleanu, Florin, 320n1
demerit. See adharma
democracy, 693
denial, 383
of God, 203, 599, 601–3, 614n4
of self, 158–59
Denying Existence (Chakrabarti, A.), 85
dependence hierarchy, 104–5
mutual dependence and, 411–12, 418n10
dependent arising (pratītyasamutpāda), 360–62, 371–72
idealism and, 384–85
in invariable concomitance, 366–68
deśācāra (local laws), 514–16
Descartes, 292–93, 303n24, 415, 440
descriptive metaphysics, 121
designation, 123, 130n43, 130n45 (p. 776)
desire (icchā), 183
activity from, 429–31
God and, 603, 615n22
motivation and, 429–32, 435n47
for perception, 446–47, 461n55
desireless action (niṣkāmakarma), 141–42
destruction, 162–63
destruction-cum-subsistence (kṣayopaśama), 489
detachment, 156
determination of applicability (viṣayavyavasthā), 510
Determination of the Nonduality of Śiva (Śivādvaitanirṇaya) (Nīlakaṇṭha), 645, 654n4
determinism, 85, 87n16
Devasūri, Vādi, 504n19
devotional movements, 652
dhamma (phenomena), 173, 184, 186n10, 393
dhāraṇā (retention), 197
Dharmakīrti, 6, 20, 127n20, 194, 245n16, 255–71, 272–88, 307–326, 351, 360, 366, 369–78, 449, 462n66, 472, 487, 489–90, 497–506. See also idealism; reflexive awareness
on coreferentiality, 264–65, 271n52
external objects refutation by, 312–17
on internalism, 311–12
on non-observation, 266n6
against Vedism, 351–52
works of, 264, 272, 311, 449, 462n67, 472, 497
dharmas (elements, moral law, religious and legal duty), 153, 203, 283–85, 300, 337
of Ābhidharmikas, 94–95, 97
in compositionist metaphysics, 294
injunctive force and, 585–86
karma as, 517–18
types of, 508–9, 519n7
dharmaśāstra (legal texts), 514
Dharmottara, 459n41, 462, 523
diachronic causation, 285
diachronic personal identity, 80
diachronic unity of experiences, 281, 285
diaspora, 2, 726
differences, 270n40, 270n43, 316–17
Khwāja on, 669–70, 684n67
differentiators (viśeṣa), 289–90, 526–27, 630–31
Digambaras, 190
Dignāga, 6–7, 11nn3–4, 55, 130n37, 194, 224, 245n16, 255–88, 266nn1–2, 266n6, 289, 307, 309, 313, 315–6, 360, 369, 371, 441, 458n32, 460n51, 461n62, 492–3, 752, 756. See also apoha; reflexive awareness
on endless, 267n7
on evidence, 492–93
Kumārila on, 261–63, 270n37, 270nn43–44
on object, 371
works of, 256, 258, 272, 315, 324n40, 371
dignity (mānuskī), 745
Dīkṣita, Appayya, 3, 648, 652–53, 654n12, 655n13
ŚSLS and, 649–51
Dinakara, 636
discipleship, 60–61
disciplines, 3
The Discourse on Yoga (Yogaśāstra), 133
The Discovery of India (Nehru, J.), 697
“Dismissal of Disputes.” See Vigrahavyāvartanī
dispelling resentment, 178–80, 184
disquietude (ataraxia), 7, 417
dissolution of the mind (manonāśa), 482–83
diṭṭhiyo (heresies), 356n12
doctrine of elements (bhūtavāda), 348
double negation, 116, 127nn19–20
doubt, 220–21, 528, 555n6
downfall (āpatti), 332, 335
doxography, 42, 354, 643, 653–54
dravya. See substances
dreams (svapna), 310, 479–80
autonomy of cognition and, 368–69
reality of, 222–23, 229n54
waking compared to, 474–75
Dreyfus, Georges, 282–83, 312
Drop of Correct Conclusion (Siddhāntabindu) (Sarasvatī, M.), 653
Dṛṣṭi-sṛṣṭi-vāda (“Emergence through Perception”), 472, 481, 484
duality, 312. See also nonduality
dvyaṇuka (dyads), 629–30 (p. 777)
earth, 176–77
economics, 707
economy, psychological, 710–11, 716n19
educated about human values (vyutpanna-puruṣārtha), 21
education, 42
ego-consciousness (kliṣṭa-manas), 283, 285
Elaboration (Vistara), 582–83, 595n6
elements, 97–98, 346, 348, 361. See also dharmas
perception as bodily function and, 234, 246nn23–24
physicalism and, 363–64
resolution into, 179–80
eligibility, 435n34, 579
eligibility condition (adhikārānubandha), 428–29, 435n34
embodied cognition, 377n34
“Emergence through Perception” (Dṛṣṭi-sṛṣṭi-vāda), 472, 481, 484
emergentism, 363, 373, 376n6
emotions, 328–29. See also reactive emotions
empathy, 729
emptiness (śūnyavāda), 169n27, 355n3, 360. See also Madhyamaka; theory of emptiness
endless (ānantya), 267n7
endoxa (commonly held beliefs), 544
enemies, 183
engagement, 76
reasoned disengagement, 116, 127n17, 127n19
English language, 531–34, 751
ennumerative judgments (apekṣā-buddhi), 632–33
entities (vastu), 113–14, 157–58
fundamentally real, 98–99
material, 242, 251n86
non-entities, 261, 269n33
entitlements. See adhikāra
environment, 339–40
epics, 347–48, 726
Epicurus, 352–53
episodic memory, 274–75
epistemic criteria. See knowledge
epistemic idealism, 319–20
epistemic instruments, 100–101
epistemological non-foundationalism, 99–101
epistemological skepticism, 414–15
epistemology (pramāṇa), 34, 51–52, 83, 220, 228n48, 412
definitions about, 416
of Gaṅgeśa, 541–44
inference related to, 544–47, 555n2
interpretation and, 759
Matilal on, 529–31, 533, 537n31, 537n34
psychology and, 755–56
reflexivity and, 299–301
Sanskrit related to, 531–43, 537n37, 537n41
Śrīharṣa’s cases and, 529–30
The Epitome of the Law (Mitākṣarā) (Vijñāneśvara), 507–8, 518n4. See also law
equality, 331, 746–47
equanimity (upekkhā), 174–75, 182
The Equivalence between Giving and Receiving. See al-Taswiya bayna al-ifāda wa’l-qabū
erroneous cognition (viparyaya), 195f, 200
error states, 223
Essay on Knowledge (Dharmakīrti), 497
essence (rasa), 65, 388–90, 398n33
Essence of the Yoga-vāsiṣṭha (Yoga-vāsiṣṭha-sāra), 470
essential cognition (svabhāva-jñāna), 202, 203f
essential problems, 591
Establishment of Brahman (Brahmasiddhi) (Miśra, V., II), 562–63
Establishment of Nonduality (Advaitasiddhi) (Sarasvatī, M.), 573
Establishment [of the Existence] of Other [Cognitive] Series (Santānāntarasiddhi) (Dharmakīrti), 449, 462n67
ether (ākāśa), 158–59, 168n15, 628
ethics, 78, 336, 416. See also moral idealism
Buddhist meta-, 85, 87n16
in compositionist metaphysics, 295, 303nn38–39
as metaphysics, 295, 303n38
utilitarianism and, 331–32, 341–42
eudaimonism, 335
Eurocentrism, 613, 618n59
Europe, 696–98, 705, 724
secularism and, 696, 708
Euthyphro dilemma, 608, 616n37 (p. 778)
Eve of Independence, 8–9
evidence (hetu), 225n13, 320
for beliefs, 416–17, 419n16
counterevidence, 549, 555
criticism of, 491–95, 503n12, 504n15, 504n19
of external objects, 318–19, 324n54
inference and, 530, 537n31
second-order certitude about, 530–31
evidence-property (hetu), 319, 488–95
evolutionary adaptation, 79
Examination of Physicalism (Lokāyataparīkṣā) (Śāntarakṣita), 375n1
Examination of the Object-Support (Ālambanaparīkṣā) (Dignāga), 315, 324n40
Examination of the Truth about the Categories (Padārtha-tattva-nirūpaṇa) (Raghunātha), 623–24, 640n56
exclusions (vyāvṛtti)
apoha and, 259, 262–65, 270n40, 271n52
continuity and, 283
in Indian secularism, 708–12
reverence and, 727–28
universals and, 260, 271n52
exclusion theory of meaning. See apoha
existence, 570–71. See also svabhāva; wujūd
absolute, 669–73, 687n93
coreferentiality and, 262–63, 267n13
of quiddity, 665–66, 683n51
singular form and, 258, 268n16
specific, 666–67, 675, 677, 684n61
existence of self (ātman), 439–41, 457nn25–27
cognition and, 442, 458n34, 459n35
memory and, 348n34, 442–43, 458n31, 459n38
existentially quantified belief, 523
experience, 41, 223, 281, 283, 285, 361
past, 458n31, 458n34
perceptual, 200–202, 202f
subjects of, 295, 303n35
experience-dependent, 374
explanatory priority, 333–34
extension, 387–88
externalism, 311–14, 323n25, 389
externality, 318
external objects, 311–12
evidence of, 318–19, 324n54
external objects refutation
by Dharmakīrti, 312–17
first step in, 312–14
by Vasubandhu, 308–11
extraordinary powers (siddhi), 477
extrinsic cognition (vibhāva-jñāna), 202, 203f
failability, 528, 531, 537n34
fallacies, 552–53
al-Fārābī, Abū Naṣr Muḥammad, 683n41
al-Fārūqī, Mullā Maḥmūd al-Jawnpūrī. See Mullā Maḥmūd
fate (niyati), 476–77
al-Fayyāż, Muḥammadī, 680n10
Fażl, Abūl, 354
fiction, 122–24, 130nn40–41, 131n46. See also pan-fictionalist theory
mythologies, 592–93
figurative use (upacāra), 162, 166, 168n21
fire and smoke analogy, 550
first cause (jagat-kāraṇa), 344, 346
five faculties, 340
flaws of the prover (hetu-doṣa), 553
Fludd, Robert, 70
folk traditions, 59
forbearance, 178, 519n7
formalistic convention, 166
form-possession (sākārajñānavāda), 312–14, 318
foundationalism, 102–4, 218, 224, 227n40. See also non-foundationalism
foundational text. See sūtras
“Four Hundred Verses” (Catuḥśataka) (Āryadeva), 110, 113, 116
four nikāyas, 171
four qualities, 154–60
Franco, Eli, 11n4, 28n9, 28n11, 358n30, 404
freedom (mokṣa, svātantrya), 20–23, 26–27, 29n22. See also existence of self
absolute idealism and, 443–44, 459nn40–41
of consciousness, 441, 457n27
consciousness’s limits and, 448–50, 461nn62–63, 462n65, 462n67, 462nn69–70, 463n74, 463nn76–77
grace and, 453, 465n95
(p. 779)
of imagination, 460n49
Śaiva phenomenology of, 444–48, 460nn49–50, 460nn53–54, 461nn55–57
of speech, 708
freedom movement, 698–702
Frege, Gottlob, 255
Freschi, Elisa, 429, 594n1
fundamentally real entities, 98–99
“Fundamental Verses on the Middle” (Mūlamadhyamakakārikā) (Nāgārjuna), 93, 110–11, 114–15
fusion philosophy, 80–5
Gandhi, Mohandas, 9, 301, 693–, 717, 727, 740, 750. See also Indian secularism
Gandhi, Ramchandra, 720, 764n3
Ganeri, Jonardon, 85, 87n17, 147, 150n48, 213, 225n3, 226n18, 228n48, 274, 287n34, 302, 342n9, 376n6, 458n28, 624, 638
Gaṅgeśa, 7, 12n4, 77, 224, 528–30, 559, 625, 628, 633
epistemology of, 541–44
on perceptual illusion, 547–49, 555n6
upādhi inferential of, 549–54, 556n15, 556nn12–13, 557n16
Garfield, Jay, 122, 127n19, 187n48
Garland of Jaimini’s Reasons (Jaiminīyanyāyamālā) (Mādhava), 581–82, 596n17, 637. See also Mādhava
Garland of the Categories (Pañcānana, J. N.), 637
Gautama, 209, 487–88. See also Buddha
Gemstone (Gaṅgeśa), 628, 633
gender, 710–11. See also women
generality, 592
generalizability, 580
generalization, 56, 556n15
generosity, 180, 332–34, 610, 617n47
genuine debate (vāda), 413
geography, 1
Gettier cases, 523–4, 529, 531–2, 537n37, 543
Ghosh, Aurobindo, see Aurobindo
Ghosh, Ranjan, 725
“gift of Dharma,” 337
Global Workspace theory, 284
glue analogy, 100–101
goal of evidence (hetvartha), 489
Gode, P. K., 69
Goel, Dharmendra, 727
Gohain, Hiran, 722
Gokhale, Balkrishna G., 29n17
“good vision,” 183–84
Goody, Jack, 58, 72n6
governing disjunction, 278
governor, 608–9, 616n37
grace, 453, 465n95
grāhaka (subject of perception), 472
grāhya (object of perception), 472
grammarians (vaiyākaraṇas), 55
great sayings (mahāvākyas), 24–25, 29n30
Greece, 57–58, 63, 66–67
grounding, 149n37, 535
Gūḍhārthadīpikā (Lamplight on the Hidden Meaning) (Sarasvatī, M.), 648
Guide to Logic (Nyāyāvatāra) (Siddhasena), 488–89
guṇas (aspects, strands, trope), 64–65, 371, 391, 600, 638n12
model of, 98–99
numbers related to, 633–34
of Raghunātha, 626, 638n13, 639n18
habits (saṃskāra), 133–34, 148n4, 149n21, 154
action deposits and, 139–40, 142–43, 149n47
attribution of, 135–36, 148n11
avoidance of, 137
karma and, 145–46
mental states and, 146
morality of, 144–45
Halder, Hiralal, 751–2
happiness, 339–40
ḥaqīqa. See reality
ḥaqīqat al-ḥaqā’iq (Reality of realities), 674–75, 688n105
Haribhadra, 5, 10, 356n5
Heart of Recognition (Pratyabhijñāhṛdaya) (Kṣemarāja), 455n10
Heaven (svarga), 423–24
hedonism, 352
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, 449, 752, 760, 762
Hegelianism, 9, 17, 710–12, 716n20, 745–55, 761
hells, 310
Hemacandra, 349, 365n8, 497, 504n19
Heraclitus, 361
heresies (diṭṭhiyo), 356n12
hermeneutics, 16, 159, 168n16, 394–95
heterodox. See nāstika
hetu-doṣa (flaws of the prover), 553
hetvartha (goal of evidence), 489
highest self. See brahman
al-Ḥikma al-bāligha (Mullā Maḥmūd), 681n31
Hindu law, 705–8. See also moral idealism
historian challenges, 38–41
historical jurisprudence, 516–17, 518
history, 1, 732
gender and, 710–11
of Indian philosophy, 3–9, 75–76
Indian secularism and, 693–94
The History of Scepticism from Erasmus to Spinoza (Popkin), 30n30
History of the Dharmaśāstra (Kane), 433n3
holism, 755
homeostatic property cluster, 341
Homer, 58, 93
homogeneity, 366–67
horizontal (diachronic) causation, 285
how (kathaṃ), 422–24, 422t, 433n12
Hsüan-tsang, 11n3
human aspirations, basic goals or categories (puruṣārthas), 36
human rights, 187n48. See also moral idealism
Hume, David, 24, 377n35, 425, 432, 433n12, 544, 752–55, 758–762
humility, 724
Ḥusbāniyya, 671
Husserl, Edmund, 279, 282, 447
Hymns (Nāgārjuna), 115
hypotheticals, 410
ibn al-‘Arabī, Muḥyī al-Dīn, 678n5, 680n11
terminology of, 675–76
tradition of, 660–61, 680n17
Ibn Sīnā (Avicenna), 682n36
categories of, 672, 686n92
on wujūd-shuhūd dichotomy, 663–67, 682nn38–39, 683n51, 683nn41–42
ice cream analogy, 141
idealism, 51, 307–9, 397n28, 700. See also moral idealism
Buddhist, 459n40, 470–71
definition of, 471–72, 476–77
dependent arising and, 384–85
epistemic, 319–20
Kamalaśīla on, 383–87, 397n19
materialism compared to, 344
mental content and, 390–94, 398n41
mental events and, 389–90, 398n34
pressing beyond, 389–90, 398n34
realism and, 756, 758
transcendental, 753, 758
of Vasubandhu, 382, 387–89
of Yogācāra, 381–82
idealist syllogism, 551
ideals, transformatory, 744–47
identity, 80, 187n47, 447, 461n56, 721
misidentification, 560–61, 566–73, 574n5
ignorance. See avidyā
īhā (cogitation), 196
Ilāhābādī, Muḥibb Allāh ibn Mubāriz. See Muḥibb Allāh
Illuminationist (ishrāqī), 663, 671, 682n33, 686n86, 686n88
Illumination of Truth (Tattvoddyota) (Mādhva), 567, 574n4, 575n24
illusion. See avidyā
imagination, 441
in consciousness’s limits, 449–50, 463n74, 473n76
of mind, 472–73
perception compared to, 445
reality and, 473
in Śaiva phenomenology, 444–45, 460n49
world and, 473–74, 476
imaginative illusions, 570–71
Imaginism, 477, 484
immeasurables (appamañña), 174
impartial benevolence, 329–31
impelling, 434n20
command in, 425–26, 428, 435n29, 454n22
eligibility condition in, 428–29, 435n34
linguistics of, 426–28, 434n23
relation as, 426–27, 434n23, 435n24
(p. 781)
Vedic injunction in, 426, 428–29, 435n29
verb form in, 426–28
impermant, 386
imprints (saṃskāra), 294, 303n29, 444
incongruence, 314–15
independence, 693–94, 697
causal, 95, 107n6
indeterminacy (anirvacanīyatā), 560, 562–65, 573
Indian Arabo-Persian, 677
Indian Buddhist idealism, 459n40
Indian classicity, 731–32
Indian Philosophical Congress, 763–64
Indian philosophy, 729. See also specific topics
atheism of, 35–36
description of, 32–36
historian challenges for, 38–41
history of, 3–9, 75–76
misconceptions about, 35
philology and, 80
regional centers of, 751
“schools” co-emergence in, 45–50
“schools”’ relations in, 50–52
six systems of, 346, 653
Indian secularism
commitments in, 706–7
conditions in, 704, 709–12, 716n20
constitution and, 694, 714n2
economics related to, 707
exclusions in, 708–12
failures related to, 713–14
fascism and, 709
Hindu law and, 705–8
history and, 693–94
independence and, 693–94, 697, 704–8
Jinnah and, 702–4, 715n12
lexicographic ordering in, 706–10, 712
majoritarian nationalism and, 697, 705, 712–13
Muslim Mass Contact campaign and, 701–3, 715n11
nationalism and, 698–705, 712–13, 715n7, 715n12, 716n15
negotiation in, 702–4
neutrality related to, 706–8
political conflicts and, 697–98
rationalism and, 710
replacement of, 709–12
secularization and, 695–96, 714nn3–4
unselfconscious pluralism and, 697–98
indirect cognition (parokṣa), 199–200, 199f
individual authorship, 38–39
individuality (pratyaktā), 241–42, 251n83
Indology, 16
induction
criticism of evidence and, 491–95, 503n12, 504n15, 504n19
universals and, 495–98, 504n22, 504n24, 505n35
inference, 211, 270n43, 350, 598, 614n2
ants eggs analogy on, 545–46
canonical form of, 487–88
cognition and, 309–10, 320
definition of, 486, 544
epistemology related to, 544–47, 555n2
evidence and, 530, 537n31
externality and, 318
forms of, 487–88
Gaṅgeśa on, 541, 543
inherence and, 630
Jainism and, 487–91
modus ponens, 488
natural connections and, 498–500, 505n40
negative statements and, 500–501, 506n44
non-apprehension and, 500–501
non-difference and, 316–17
others and, 449, 462n65, 462n67
peacock cry analogy on, 546
quality and, 563–64
reliability of, 225n13
river swollen analogy on, 545
Sautrāntika on, 324n54
thesis statement for, 489–91
three groups from, 551
validity of, 494–95
Vātsyāyana on, 544–47
inferential undercutter. See upādhi
infinite, 267n8
infinite regress, 219–20, 629–30
infinite regress argument, 277
Ingalls, Daniel H. H., 23
inherence, 630
inherence-cause, 635–36 (p. 782)
inherent existence. See svabhāva
inheritance (dāyavibhāga), 512–14
injunction, 426, 585–87. See also Vedic injunction
injunctive force, 585–86
injunctiveness, 433n3
Inquiry of Ugra, 328
insanity, 328
insentient (jaḍa), 316
insight meditation, 392–93
insights, 79, 395
instrumentality, 296–97
integration, 152–53
intellect. See buddhi
intellectual decolonization, 731–32
intellectualism, 328
intelligibility, 588–89, 593–94, 675, 688n109
intention
consciousness and, 447–48
of Mādhava, 583–84, 596n20
intention to perceive (upalipsā), 236, 247nn39–41
internal deliberation, 716n20
internalism, 101, 311–12, 323n25
internal realism, 130n40
interpretation, 15–16, 18, 122, 395, 514–15. See also theory of karma contemporary interpretation
epistemology and, 759
of legal categories, 510–12, 519n14, 519n18
intoxication (smyos pa), 121, 130n38
intrinsic nature. See svabhāva
Introduction to Philosophical Investigation (Parīkṣā-mukha) (Māṇikyanandin), 486–87, 492
Introduction to the Bodhisattva’s Way of Life (Bodhicaryāvatāra) (Śāntideva), 327, 341–42
introspection, 762
intuition, 532, 537n37
invariable concomitance (vyāpti), 406, 491–92, 503n12
cause and, 366
conclusion on, 501–2
dependent arising in, 366–68
homogeneity in, 366–67
phenomenology and, 367–68
physicalism and, 365–68
universals and, 495–96, 505n41, 505n43, 506n44
Investigation on Knowledge (Pramāṇamīmāṃsā) (Hemacandra), 497
irrelevance (artha-antara), 554
ishrāqī (Illuminationist), 663, 671, 682n33, 686n86, 686n88
Islam, 69–70
Islamic philosophy. See Khwurd, Khwāja; Mullā Maḥmūd
Islamic trends, 8
Īśvarāpākaraṇasaṅkṣepa (Śaṅkaranandana), 465n102
Īśvarapratyabhijñā ([Treatise on] the Recognition of the Lord) (Utpaladeva), 437–38
Īśvarapratyabhijñāvimarśinī (Abhinavagupta), 455nn9–10
Īśvarapratyabhijñā-vivṛti (Utpaladeva), 437–38, 454n3, 454n7, 455nn8–9
Īśvarasiddhi (Utpaladeva), 465n102
Iwata, Takashi, 316–17
Iyer, Subramania, 243n5
jaḍa (insentient), 316
Jagadīśa, 290, 297
jagat-kāraṇa (first cause), 344, 346
jāgrat (waking), 223, 474–75
Jahānābādī, Kalīm Allāh, 689n113
Jaimini, 48, 594n3
on sacrifice, 587–88
Jaiminīyanyāyamālā (Garland of Jaimini’s Reasons) (Mādhava), 581–82, 596n17, 637
Jainism, 4–5, 42, 52. See also Jayarāśi; Kundakunda; Umāsvāti; Umāsvāti, Śvetāmbara
inference and, 487–91
as nāstika, 44–45
al-Jāmī, ‘Abd al-Raḥmān, 669, 672–73, 684n71, 687n93, 688n107
Jawnpūrī, Maḥmūd, 8, 659, 661–2, 679n8
Jayadeva Pakṣadhara, 624 (p. 783)
Jayanta Bhaṭṭa, 7, 325n58, 345, 350, 353, 420–36, 499, 504n16, 505n40
Jayarāma Nyāyapañcānana, 637
Jayarāśi (Bhaṭṭa, Jayarāśi), 3, 7, 18–19, 325n58, 353–5, 403–19, 535n3. See also specific topics
affiliation of, 404–5, 418n2
common sense and, 415–17
critics of, 411–14, 412nn10–11
materialism (Cārvāka) and, 353–55, 358n30, 358n34
Nyāya and, 406–10, 408f
reductio ad absurdum and, 410–11
Śaṅkara and, 406, 418n9
skepticism of, 409–10, 414–15, 419n15
Jayarāśi critics
epistemology and, 412
genuine debate and, 413
mutual dependence and, 411–12, 418n10
nominalism and, 414, 418n11
on theses, 413
truth and, 413
Jayatīrtha, 7, 559–76. See also Madhva, perception; perceptual illusion
Naiyāyikas and, 570–73
works of, 562, 565–69, 573, 574n4
Jha, Ganganatha, 375n1
jhāna (concentration levels), 176, 181, 187n44
Jīmūtavāhana, 512
Jinendrabuddhi, 259–61, 267n13, 268nn16–17
jīva. See self
jivana (life), 299, 304n72
jīvanmukta (liberated person), 137, 203, 215, 483, 604–6, 616n30, 616n37, 649–51
Jīvanmuktiviveka (Mādhava), 581
jñāna. See cognition; knowledge
jñānôpayoga. See cognition
joy (pīti), 176
sympathetic, 174–75, 182
Judaism, 580–81
Judaism as Philosophy (Neusner), 581
judgement (vimarśa, vyavasthā), 70–71, 197, 460n50, 511, 516, 520n43
ennumerative, 623–33
kaivalya (aloneness), 600
Kāla-Mādhava, 596n18
Kamalaśīla, 6, 19, 21, 114, 321n5, 353, 357n15, 357n19, 365–75, 375n1, 376, 379–402, 461n63. See also Śāntarakṣita
on idealism, 383–87, 397n19
reason of, 381
Kambalāśvatara, 350
Kaṇāda, 290
Kane, P. V., 433n3, 507
Kant, I., 20, 120, 377n33, 719, 723–30, 752–5, 762
Kantian philosophy, 106, 120, 129n32, 373, 428, 734n23, 745
Kapila, 46, 599, 617n43
kāraṇa. See cause
kāraṇatva. See causality
kārikā (reminding verses, memory devices), 36–37
the Kārikās (Utpaladeva), 437–38
karma (action, action-consequence), 44, 601, 602–3, 608–10, 617n41, 711. See also theory of karma
action deposits from, 140–43, 146
as dharmas, 517–18
erroneous cognition and, 200
habits and, 145–46
perception as bodily function and, 235–36, 247n33, 247n35
as ritual, 517–18
karmāśaya (action deposits), 137–38
from action, 140–43, 146
habits from, 139–40, 142–43, 149n47
karmic matter (āsrava), 203
karmic results (vipāka), 139–41, 149n43
kartavyatā (obligation), 517–18
karuṇā. See compassion
Karunadasa, Y., 130n43
Kashmir Śaivism (Kāśmīra Śaivism), 437, 471
kathā (public debate), 215, 216f
kathaṃ (how), 422–24, 422t, 433n12
Kauṭilya, 9–10, 348, 519n6
kāvya, 471
Ken, Pranab Kumar, 85
Kesakambala, Ajita, 347, 349
Kevalādvaita Vedānta, 51
kevala-jñānôpayoga (perfect cognition), 195f, 198 (p. 784)
Khan, Yusuf Husain, 659–60, 681n27
khaṇḍana. See refutation
Khaṇḍanakhaṇḍakhādya (Amassed Morsels of Refutation) Śrīharṣa, 7, 535
Khilafat movement, 699–702
Khri srong lde btsan (king), 360
Khwāja. See Khwurd, Khwāja
Khwurd, Khwāja, 659, 685n72
Dawānī compared to, 668–70, 677, 684n71, 685n80
on differences, 669–70, 684n67
on Necessary, 669–70, 685n80
kings, 360, 507–8, 583
law and, 515
skills of, 584
kleśa. See reactive emotions
kliṣṭa (afflicted mental states), 136, 140, 149n37
kliṣṭa-manas (ego-consciousness), 283, 285
knower (pramātṛ), 211
self and, 441, 457n26, 761
knowledge (jñāna, pramāṇa), 5, 11n3, 118–19, 309, 522, 537n31. See also assurance theory of knowledge; skepticism
of absences, 500–501
belief and, 524, 526–28, 530–31
circular reasoning about, 219, 227n42
cognition and, 192, 195, 199, 199f, 228n48, 415, 532
coherentism and, 218–19
consciousness and, 447, 461n57
definitions and, 211–12, 228n48, 415–16
definitions of, 522–23, 527–28, 536n16
failability and, 528, 531, 537n34
four aspects of, 211
fragility of, 528–30
language and, 233, 245n15
liberation through, 439
love of, 36
Nāgārjuna on, 226n37
non-erroneousness and, 406–11, 408f
objects of, 213, 217–18
perception as bodily function and, 233–34, 245nn17–18, 246n19, 246n21
pramā compared to, 532–34
principles for knowing reality as, 5
recognition and, 449, 462nn69–70
of self, 759
sources of, 212, 217–18, 228n48
translation of, 225n6, 531–43
Vātsyāyana on, 210, 212–13, 217, 225n5, 228n48
veridical cognition and, 226n14
krīḍā. See play
Krishna, Daya, 21–23, 721
Krishnamacharya, 324n47
Kṛṣṇa, 616n36
Kṛṣṇadāsa Sārvabhauma, 626–28, 633, 636, 639n15
kṣanikavāda. See momentariness
kṣayopaśama (destruction-cum-subsistence), 489
Kṣemarāja, 455n10
Kudala, Sivadatta D., 355n3
kullīyāt. See universals
Kumārila Bhaṭṭa, 6, 76, 77, 255–271, 277, 313, 318, 325n58, 345, 376, 421, 427–28, 440, 456n18, 462n65, 509, 535, 757n18, 583, 590, 594n3, 614n4
Kundakunda, 190–208
on cognitive faculty, 192–93, 201–3, 202f, 205
typology of, 201–3, 202f
Laghu-Yogavāsiṣṭha (Abhinanda), 470
lakṣaṇa (defining characteristic), 192
Lakṣaṇa-sāra (The Quintessence of the Definition of Cognitive Criteria), 404
lamp analogy, 218
Lamplight on the Hidden Meaning (Gūḍhārthadīpikā) (Sarasvatī, M.), 648
Lamplight on the True Meaning of the Bhārata. See Bhāratabhāvadīpa
Lamplight on the Truth (Tattvapradīpikā) (Citsukha), 560–62, 568
languages (śabda), 1, 60–61, 231–32, 244n7, 246n26. See also linguistics
avidyā related to, 591–92
of Bhartṛhari, 233, 245nn13–16
knowledge and, 233, 245n15
learning, 426, 434n20
of Mādhava, 582
(p. 785)
meaning of, 257, 266n6
perception and, 445
thought and, 256, 266n4
Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra, 393, 472, 482–83
laukika (worldly), 513–14
Lavaṇa, 479–80
law, 507, 705–8. See also dharmas
category interpretation of, 510–12, 519n14, 519n18
ritual and, 508, 517–18
social and religious ends of, 512–14
sources and types of, 508–9, 519nn7–8
state and, 514–17, 520n43
Laws of Manu, 508. See also moral idealism
Laws of Yājñavalkya (Vijñāneśvara), 508
legal assembly, 509
legal categories, 510–12, 519n14, 519n18
legal duty. See dharmas
legalism, 514
legal ownership, 513
legal positivism, 518
legal texts (dharmaśāstra), 514
lexical priority, 337–39
lexicographic ordering, 706–10, 712
liberated person. See jīvanmukta
liberation (mokṣa, nirvāṇa), 20–3, 221, 420, 439, 482–83, 650
in Bhāratabhāvadīpa, 647–48, 654n10
life (jivana), 299, 304n72
Life of Naiṣadha (Śrīharṣa), 352
life-stage laws (āśramadharma), 508–9
Light on [Sāṃkhya] Argumentation (Yukti Dīpikā), 605
līlā (God’s play), 478, 606–8, 612, 616n32
limiting condition. See upādhi
lineage (sampradāya), 2
linguistic force (śābdibhāvanā), 431
in bringing about, 422–25, 422t
linguistic non-foundationalism, 102–3
linguistics, 430
of impelling, 426–28, 434n23
The Lion Assailing the Verities (The Lion of the Dissolution of All Categories) (Tattvopaplavasiṃha) (Jayarāśi), 18, 353, 403–4, 418n3
The Lion of the Dissolution of All Categories (Tattvopaplavasiṃha) (Jayarāśi), 18, 353, 403–4, 418n3
literacy, 59–62
literalism, scriptural, 157–60, 168nn15–16
literature, secondary, 39–40
literature loss, 40
living beings, 192–93
living well, 213–16, 216f
local laws (samayācāra, deśācāra, samācāra), 514–16
logic. See specific topics
logical inference, 486
lokaprasiddha (what is well-recognized by society), 516–17
lokavidviṣṭa (what is despised by society), 516
lokāyata. See materialism
Lokāyataparīkṣā (Examination of Physicalism) (Śāntarakṣita), 375n1
love, 172, 174, 186n17, 187n33
as concentration, 175–78, 187n28
as freedom, 180–81, 184, 187nn47–48
of knowledge, 36
loving kindness (mettā), 174–75, 179–81
of mind, 186n17, 187n23
Luther, Martin, 25, 30n34
Maas, Philipp A., 133
MacKenzie, Matthew, 121, 129n35, 281
Mādhava, 28n14, 351, 354, 559, 595n6
intention of, 583–84, 596n20
as philosopher, 593–94, 597n34
reason and, 586–87, 592, 594
two examples of, 584–90, 596n22
Wittgenstein and, 590–93, 597n31
Madhusūdana Sarasvatī, 8, 472, 573, 643, 647–9, 652–3, 677
Mādhva tradition, 559–62, 567, 574n4, 576n24
Mādhva Vedānta, 559–60
Madhyamaka, 93–94, 107n4, 125n1, 380, 396n8. See also Nāgārjuna; non-foundationalism
legacy of, 106–7
quietism of, 112
Śāntarakṣita and, 377n32
(p. 786)
Madhyamakālaṃkāra (The Ornament of the Middle Way) (Blumenthal), 377n32
Mādhyamikas, 17, 25, 30n35, 54, 125n1
svabhāva of, 95–96
term use of, 381, 396n8
Magnus, Albertus (saint), 686n92
Mahābhārata, 4, 26, 34–35, 347–48, 727
commentary on, 643, 646–47, 654n11
Mahābhāṣya, 245n13
Mahāmati, Siddhasena, 194, 488–89
mahāsaṃmata, 29n17, 29n22
mahāvākyas (great sayings), 24–25, 29n30
Mahāvihāra, 171
Mahāvīra, Vardhamāna, 4–5, 190
Mahāyāna Buddhism, 53, 311
Mahāyāna-uttaratantra-śāstra, 337–38
māhiyya. See quiddity
maitrī (unconditional friendship), 745–46
Maitrī Upaniṣad, 349
majoritarianism, 697, 708–9
majoritarian nationalism, 697, 705, 712–13
manaḥ-paryāya-jñānôpayoga (telepathy), 195f, 198
manaskāra (attentive capacity), 372
Maṇḍana Miśra, 244, 463, 481, 562
mango analogy, 284
manifestation, 196, 199, 460n50
cognition and, 442, 459n35
Māṇikyanandin, 487–88, 492
Maṇimēkalai, 348
manonāśa (dissolution of the mind), 482–83
Manorathanandin, 320, 323n37, 324n51
manuscripts, 38–39
mānuskī (dignity), 745
Marco Polo, 65
material entities, 242, 251n86
materialism (lokāyata), 63
Cārvāka and, 349–53, 357n19, 357n24
description of, 344–46, 355n1, 355n3
elements of, 361
Jayarāśi and, 353–55, 358n30, 358n34
pre-eighth century CE, 346–49, 356nn7–9, 356n12, 357n15
mathematics, 10, 107n9, 124
mati-jñāna (sensuous cognition), 195–98, 199f, 202f, 204
mati-jñānôpayoga (sensuous cognition), 195–98, 195f, 199f, 202f, 204
Matilal, Bimal Krishna, 26, 27n5, 84–85, 129, 224n1, 226n37,