- The Oxford Handbook of Indian Philosophy
- Introduction: Why Indian Philosophy? Why Now?
- Interpreting Indian Philosophy: Three Parables
- History and Doxography of the Philosophical Schools
- Philosophy as a Distinct Cultural Practice: The Transregional Context
- Comparison or Confluence In Philosophy?
- Nāgārjuna on Emptiness: A Comprehensive Critique of Foundationalism
- Philosophical Quietism in Nāgārjuna and Early Madhyamaka
- Habit and Karmic Result in the <i>Yogaśāstra</i>
- Vasubandhu on the Conditioning Factors and the Buddha’s Use of Language
- Buddhaghosa on the Phenomenology of Love and Compassion
- The Philosophy of Mind of Kundakunda and Umāsvāti
- Vātsyāyana: Cognition as a Guide to Action
- Bharthari on Language, Perception, and Consciousness
- Coreference and Qualification: Dignāga Debated by Kumārila and Dharmakīrti
- Reflexive Awareness and No-Self: Dignāga Debated by Uddyotakara & Dharmakīrti
- The Metaphysics of Self in Praśastapāda’s Differential Naturalism
- Proving Idealism Dharmakīrti
- Śāntideva’s Impartialist Ethics
- A History of Materialism From Ajita to Udbhaṭa
- Consciousness and Causal Emergence: Śāntarakṣita Against Physicalism
- Pushing Idealism Beyond its Limits: The Place of Philosophy in Kamalaśīla’s Steps of Cultivation
- Jayarāśi Against the Philosophers
- Two Theories of Motivation and Their Assessment by Jayanta
- Utpaladeva and Abhinavagupta on the Freedom of Consciousness
- The Nature of Idealism in the <i>Mokṣopāyaśāstra/Yogavāsiṣṭha</i>
- Logic in the Tradition of Prabhācandra
- An Indian Philosophy of Law: Vijñāneśvara’s Epitome of the Law
- Śrīharṣa’s Dissident Epistemology: Of Knowledge as Assurance
- A Defeasibility Theory of Knowledge in Gaṅgeśa
- Jayatīrtha and the Problem of Perceptual Illusion
- Mādhava’s <i>Garland of Jaimini’s Reasons</i> as Exemplary Mīmāṃsā Philosophy
- Hindu Disproofs of God: Refuting Vedāntic Theism in the Sāṃkhya-Sūtra
- Raghunātha Śiromaṇi and the <i>Examination of the Truth about the Categories</i>
- Nīlakaṇṭha Caturdhara’s Advaita Vedānta
- Muḥibb Allāh Ilāhābādī on Ontology: Debates Over the Nature of Being
- Jawaharlal Nehru, Mohandas Gandhi, and the Contexts of Indian Secularism
- Freedom in Thinking: The Immersive Cosmopolitanism of Krishnachandra Bhattacharyya
- Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar’s Modern Moral Idealism: A Metaphysics of Emancipation
- Anukul Chandra Mukerji: The Modern Subject
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter analyzes the cultural features in the ancient world that led to the emergence of philosophy as a distinct cultural activity and examines the way in which Indian philosophy, in contrast to the cases of Greece and China, may be understood in relation to these cultural features. It examines the influence of the technology of writing, as well as of natural-scientific inquiry, especially in the domain of health and medicine, and the transregional importance of literacy and science for the project of philosophy, while also showing that Indian philosophy functions throughout the classical and into the modern period as a relatively discrete intellectual activity. Finally it shows, by comparing the French materialist philosopher Pierre Gassendi with Indian philosophers in the mid-1660s, how differences in the two philosophical traditions’ relationships to literacy and science continued to play a role in the perception of a philosophical divide between these two traditions.
Justin E. H. Smith is Professor of the History and Philosophy of Science at the Université de Paris 7-Denis Diderot. He is the author of Divine Machines: Leibniz and the Sciences of Life (Princeton University Press, 2011), and together with François Duchesneau is currently completing a critical edition and translation of the Leibniz–Stahl controversy, to appear in the Yale Leibniz Series.
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