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date: 19 January 2019

Abstract and Keywords

The Tattva-cintā-maṇi, “(Wish-fulfilling) Jewel of Reflection on the Truth (about Epistemology),” by Gaṅgeśa (c.1325), is widely recognized as among the greatest accomplishments within classical Indian systems. It carries the long-running Nyāya school into a new period of rigorous analysis and innovative argumentation. The organizing idea is that of the “knowledge source,” pramāṇa, of which there is said to be four: perception, inference, analogy, and testimony. Defeating and defending of claims center on these generators of true beliefs as opposed to imitators (pramāṇa-ābhāsa) that generate false beliefs or true beliefs in the wrong way. Thus Gaṅgeśa’s theory of knowledge highlights defeaters including fallacies such as “pseudo-provers” (hetv-ābhāsa) and “inferential undercutters” (upādhi).

Keywords: theory of knowledge, knowledge source (pramāṇa), perception, inference, testimony upādhi (inferential undercutter), Nyāya, Gaṅgeśa, defeater (bādhaka, nigraha), pseudo-prover (fallacy, hetv-ābhāsa)

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