- The Oxford Handbook of Indian Philosophy
- Introduction: Why Indian Philosophy? Why Now?
- Interpreting Indian Philosophy: Three Parables
- History and Doxography of the Philosophical Schools
- Philosophy as a Distinct Cultural Practice: The Transregional Context
- Comparison or Confluence In Philosophy?
- Nāgārjuna on Emptiness: A Comprehensive Critique of Foundationalism
- Philosophical Quietism in Nāgārjuna and Early Madhyamaka
- Habit and Karmic Result in the Yogaśāstra
- Vasubandhu on the Conditioning Factors and the Buddha’s Use of Language
- Buddhaghosa on the Phenomenology of Love and Compassion
- The Philosophy of Mind of Kundakunda and Umāsvāti
- Vātsyāyana: Cognition as a Guide to Action
- Bharthari on Language, Perception, and Consciousness
- Coreference and Qualification: Dignāga Debated by Kumārila and Dharmakīrti
- Reflexive Awareness and No-Self: Dignāga Debated by Uddyotakara & Dharmakīrti
- The Metaphysics of Self in Praśastapāda’s Differential Naturalism
- Proving Idealism Dharmakīrti
- Śāntideva’s Impartialist Ethics
- A History of Materialism From Ajita to Udbhaṭa
- Consciousness and Causal Emergence: Śāntarakṣita Against Physicalism
- Pushing Idealism Beyond its Limits: The Place of Philosophy in Kamalaśīla’s Steps of Cultivation
- Jayarāśi Against the Philosophers
- Two Theories of Motivation and Their Assessment by Jayanta
- Utpaladeva and Abhinavagupta on the Freedom of Consciousness
- The Nature of Idealism in the Mokṣopāyaśāstra/Yogavāsiṣṭha
- Logic in the Tradition of Prabhācandra
- An Indian Philosophy of Law: Vijñāneśvara’s Epitome of the Law
- Śrīharṣa’s Dissident Epistemology: Of Knowledge as Assurance
- A Defeasibility Theory of Knowledge in Gaṅgeśa
- Jayatīrtha and the Problem of Perceptual Illusion
- Mādhava’s Garland of Jaimini’s Reasons as Exemplary Mīmāṃsā Philosophy
- Hindu Disproofs of God: Refuting Vedāntic Theism in the Sāṃkhya-Sūtra
- Raghunātha Śiromaṇi and the Examination of the Truth about the Categories
- Nīlakaṇṭha Caturdhara’s Advaita Vedānta
- Muḥibb Allāh Ilāhābādī on Ontology: Debates Over the Nature of Being
- Jawaharlal Nehru, Mohandas Gandhi, and the Contexts of Indian Secularism
- Freedom in Thinking: The Immersive Cosmopolitanism of Krishnachandra Bhattacharyya
- Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar’s Modern Moral Idealism: A Metaphysics of Emancipation
- Anukul Chandra Mukerji: The Modern Subject
Abstract and Keywords
The Buddhist thinker Dignāga justified his proposal that words refer to “exclusions” (apohas) in part as the only way two words could be used to refer to the same thing or qualify each other in expressions such as “existing pot” and “blue lotus.” Specifically, he argued that if words referred to real universals their meanings would block each other, preventing the words from being used in combination. The advantage of apohas, he believed, is that they are “insubstantial” and so do not resist being combined. Kumārila challenged Dignāga’s view by alleging that all of the problems that he saw for universals when it comes to coreference and qualification are problems for apohas as well. Dharmakīrti, then, defended Dignāga’s apoha theory against these attacks by emphasizing the conventional nature of meaning and the flexibility of words to convey whatever we want—whether properties in isolation or things possessing multiple properties.
John Taber is Professor of Philosophy at the University of New Mexico. His research interests are in the history of Indian philosophy, especially the Brahmanical and Buddhist traditions. His publications include A Hindu Critique of Buddhist Epistemology: Kumarila on Perception (Routledge, 2005) and several papers on Indian logic and epistemology.
Kei Kataoka, Associate Professor, Department of Indology, Kyushu University, Japan
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