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date: 24 June 2018

(p. xvii) List of Abbreviations

(p. xvii) List of Abbreviations

The abbreviations used in this handbook are based largely on the Leipzig Glossing Rules (available at: http://www.eva.mpg.de/lingua/files/morpheme.html).

1

first person

2

second person

3

third person

A

agent-like argument of canonical transitive verb

ABL

ablative

ABS

absolutive

ACC

accusative

ACT

active

ADEL

adelative

ADJ

adjective

ADV

adverb(ial)

AF

actor focus

AGR

agreement

ALL

allative

ANT

anterior

ANTIC

anticausative

ANTIP

antipassive

AOR

aorist

APPL

applicative

ART

article

ASP

aspect

ATTR

attributive

AUG

augmented (number)

AUX

auxiliary

BEN

benefactive

c

complementary number

CAUS

causative

CERT

certain

CF

circumstantial focus

CLF

classifier

CNT

continuative

comitative

COMP

complementizer

COMPL

completive

COND

conditional

CONJ

conjunctive

CONN

connective

CONTR

contrastive

COP

copula

CVB

converb

DAT

dative

DECL

declarative

DEF

definite

DEM

demonstrative

DET

determiner

DIR

direct

DISCNT

discontinuative

DIST

distal

DISTR

distributive

DO

direct object

DS

different subject

DU

dual

DUR

durative

ELAT

elative

EMPH

emphatic

EPENTH

epenthetic

ERG

ergative

EXCL

exclusive

F

feminine

FAM

familiar

FOC

focus

FTV

factive

FUT

future

GEN

genitive

GER

gerund(ive/ial)

HAB

habitual

HUM

human

ICP

incompletive aspect

IM

immediate (before e.g., PST)

IMP

imperative

IMPS

impersonal

INCL

inclusive

indicative

INDF

indefinite

INF

infinitive

INS

instrumental

INTER

interrogative

INTR

intransitive

INTS

intensifier

INV

inverse

IPFV

imperfective

IRR

irrealis

LGR

level-pitch grade

LNK

linker

LOC

locative

M

masculine

MID

middle

MOD

modification

MOM

momentaneous aspect

MONO

monofocal = 1st person or singular non-first person

N

non- (before e.g., SG, PST)

NAR

narrative tense

NEG

negation, negative

NEUT

neuter

NML

nominal (marking free stems)

NMLZ

nominalizer/nominalization

NOM

nominative

O

patient-like argument of canonical transitive verb

OBJ

object

OBJVRS

objective version

OBL

oblique

OBLIG

obligatory

OBV

obviative

P

patient-like argument of canonical transitive verb

PART

partitive

PASS

passive

PAT

patientive

PERM

permission

PERMUT

permutation

PFV

perfective

PL

plural

POSB

possible

POSS

possessive

postposition

POT

potential

PRED

predicative

PREP

preposition

PREV

preverb

PRF

perfect

PRO

empty pronominal

PROB

probability

PROG

progressive

PROH

prohibitive

PROP

proprietive

PROX

proximal/proximate

PRS

present

PST

past

PTCP

participle

PTL

particle

PUNCT

punctual

PURP

purposive

Q

question particle/marker

QUOT

quotative

RECP

reciprocal

RED

reduplication

REFL

reflexive

REL

relative

REM

remote

RES

resultative

RESP

respect

RLS

realis

S

single argument of canonical intransitive verb

SAP

speech-act participant

SBJ

subject

SBJV

subjunctive

SBJVRS

subjective version

SEQ

sequential

SG

singular

SIM

simultaneous

SS

same subject

SUB

subordinator

TF

theme focus

topic

TR

transitive

V

verb (derivative)

VLZ

verbalizer

VOC

vocative

(p. xxii)