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(p. xi) Abbreviations

(p. xi) Abbreviations

ACL

Association for Computational Linguistics

AECMA

Association Europeenne des Constructeurs de Materiel Aerospatiale (European Association of Aerospace Industries)

AFL

abstract family of languages

AI

artificial intelligence

ALPAC

Automatic Language Processing Advisory Committee

API

application programming interface

ATIS

Air Travel Information Systems

ATN

augmented transition network

AVM

attribute-value matrix

BNN

Broadcast News Navigator

CA

conversational analysis

CAl

computer-aided instruction

CALL

computer-assisted language learning

CART

classification and regressions tree

CAT

computer-aided (or computer-assisted) translation

CCG

Combinatory Categorial Grammar

CDNS

Columbia Digital News System

CF

context-free

CFG

context-free grammar

CG

Constraint Grammar

CIDE

Cambridge International Dictionary of English

CKY

Cocke-Kasami-Younger

CL

controlled language

CLAW

controlled language applications workshop

CLEF

Cross-Language Evaluation Forum

CLIR

cross-language information retrieval

CNF

Chomsky normal form

COBUILD

Collins Birmingham University International Language Database

COLLINS

Collins English Dictionary

COMPUTERM

International Workshop on Computational Terminology

COP

Constituent Object Parser

CP

cooperative principle

context-sensitive

CSG

context-sensitive grammar

DAMSL

Dialog Act Mark-up in Several Layers

DARPA

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

DCG

definite clause grammar

DFA

deterministic finite automaton

DFM

Derivation Final Model

DLT

Distributed Language Translation (MT system)

DM

data mining

DNF

disjunctive normal form

DOBJ

direct object

DP

dynamic programming

DPDA

Deterministic Pushdown Dutomaton

DRI

Discourse Resource Initiative

DRS

discourse representation structure

DRT

Discourse Representation Theory

EAGLES

Expert Advisory Group on Language Engineering Standards

EBMT

example-based machine translation

EC

European Community

ECI

European Corpus Initiative

EDA

Exploratory Data Analysis

EDL

extended domain of locality

EDR

Electronic Dictionary Research (Institute)

ELDA

European Language Resources Distribution Agency

ELRA

European Language Resources Association

EM

Expectation Maximization

ENGCG

English Constraint Grammar

EPDA

embedded pushdown automaton

EUROPHRAS

European Society for Phraseology

FA

finite automaton

FACS

facial action coding system

FAPs

facial animation parameters

FAQ

frequently asked questions

FoG

Forecast Generator (Environment Canada's bilingual text generator for meteorological sublanguages)

FRD

factoring recursion from the domain of dependencies

FSA

finite-state automaton

FUF

Functional Unification Formalism

GNF

Greibach normal form

GPSG

Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar

GQ

generalized quantifier

HCRC

Human Communication Research Centre

Human Language Technology

HMM

hidden Markov model

HPKB

high performance knowledge bases

HPSG

Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar

ICALL

Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning

ICT

Information and Communication Technology

IE

information extraction

IL

Intensional Logic

ILP

Inductive Logic Programming

IPA

International Phonetic Alphabet

IPFP

Iterative Proportional Fitting Procedure

IR

information retrieval

ISO

International Organization for Standardization

ISOBJ

‘is the OBJect of’

IST

Information Society technology

IV

intransitive verb

KBMT

knowledge-based machine translation

KDD

Knowledge Discovery in Databases

KIF

knowledge interchange format

KNF

Kuroda normal form

KNN

K Nearest Neighbor

KPML

Komet-Penman MultiLingual resource development environment

KWIC

keyword in context

LCS

Lexical Conceptual Structure

LDC

Linguistic Data Consortium

LDOCE

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

LFG

Lexical Functional Grammar

LIN

linear grammar

LINDI

Linking Information for Novel Discovery and Insight

LLIN

left-linear grammar

LM

language model

LMI

linguistically motivated indexing

LPC

linear predictive coding

LREC

Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

LSI

Latent Semantic Indexing

LTAG

Lexicalized Tree-Adjoining Grammar

LTS

letter-to-sound

LVCSR

large vocabulary continuous speech recognition

MAHT

machine-aided human translation

MAP

maximum a posteriori

MATE

Multi-level Annotation Tools Engineering

MBROLA

multiband resynthesis overlap add

(p. xiv) MC-LTAG

multi-component Lexicalized Tree-Adjoining Grammar

MCS

mildly context-sensitive language

MC-TAG

Multi-Component Tree-Adjoining Grammar

MDL

Minimal Description Length

ME

maximum entropy

MFC

Mel frequency cepstral

MFCC

Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients

ML

machine learning

MLLR

maximum likelihood linear regression

MMR

Maximum Marginal Relevance

MRD

machine-readable dictionary

MRL

meaning representation language

MT

machine translation

MTM

Meaning-Text Model

MUC

Message Understanding Conference

N

noun

NEC

Nippon Electric Company

NER

named entity recognition

NFA

non-deterministic finite automaton

NIML

non-indigenous minority language

NIST

National Institute of Standards and Technology (USA)

NL

natural language

NLG

natural language generation

NLI

natural language interface

NLP

natural language processing

NODE

New Oxford Dictionary of English

NP

noun phrase

NP

non-deterministic polynomial

NPDA

non-deterministic pushdown automaton

+Nsg

singular noun

OALD

Oxford Advanced Learners' Dictionary

OALDCE

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English

OCR

Optical Character Recognition

OED

Oxford English Dictionary

OOV

out-of-vocabulary

OPP

optimum position policy

OT

Optimality Theory

P

probability

P

(deterministic) polynomial

PARC

Palo Alto Research Center

PaT-Nets

parallel transition networks

PCFG

Probabilistic Context-Free Grammar

Parallel Correspondence Model

PDA

pushdown automaton

PDF

probability density function

PLP

Perceptual Linear Prediction

PNF

Penttonen normal form

POS

part of speech

QA

question answering

RAGS

Reference Architecture for Generation Systems

RE

Recursively Enumerable language

REG

regular grammar

RLIN

right-linear grammar

RST

rhetorical structure theory

RTN

recursive transition network

S

sentence

SAT

speaker adaptive training

SBD

sentence boundary disambiguation

SDC

Systems Development Corporation

SDS

spoken dialogue system

SFG

systemic functional grammar

SGML

Standard Generalized Mark-up Language

SIGGEN

Special Interest Group on Generation

SIGPHON ACL

Special Interest Group in Computational Phonology

SL

source language

SLT

spoken language translation

SNOMED

Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine

Sp

speaker

SUBJ

subject

SURGE

Systemic Unification Realization Grammar for English

SUSY

Saarbrucker Übersetzungssystem (MT system)

TAG

tree-adjoining grammar

TDM

text data mining

TD-PSOLA

time-domain pitch-synchronous-overlap-add

TDT

topic detection and tracking

TEFL

Teaching English as a Foreign Language

TEI

Text-Encoding Initiative

TELRI

Trans-European Language Resources Infrastructure

TESL

Teaching English as a Second Language

TF*IDF

term frequency and inverse document frequency

TIDES

Translingual Information Detection, Extraction, and Summarization

TL

target language

TM

translation memory

TMR

text-meaning representation

Text Retrieval Conference

TRINDI

Task Oriented Instructional Dialogue

TSA

tree-structure analysis

TTS

text-to-speech

UMLS

Unified Medical Language System

URL

universal resource locator

+Vb

verb

VP

verb phrase

+VpastT

verb past participle

WFST

well-formed substring table

WOZ

Wizard of Oz

WSD

word-sense disambiguation

WSJ

Wall Street Journal

WWW

World Wide Web

XDOD

Xerox Document On Demand

XIFSP

Xerox Incremental Finite State Processing

XML

eXtensible Markup Language

XRCE

Xerox Research Centre Europe