- The Oxford Handbook of Computational Linguistics
- Pragmatics and Dialogue
- Formal Grammars and Languages
- Text Segmentation
- Part-of-Speech Tagging
- Word-Sense Disambiguation
- Anaphora Resolution
- Natural Language Generation
- Speech Recognition
- Text-to-Speech Synthesis
- Finite-State Technology
- Statistical Methods
- Machine Learning
- Lexical Knowledge Acquisition
- Sublanguages and Controlled Languages
- Corpus Linguistics
- Tree-Adjoining Grammars
- Machine Translation: General Overview
- Machine Translation: Latest Developments
- Information Retrieval
- Information Extraction
- Question Answering
- Text Summarization
- Term Extraction and Automatic Indexing
- Text Data Mining
- Natural Language Interaction
- Natural Language in Multimodal and Multimedia Systems
- Natural Language Processing in Computer-Assisted Language Learning
- Multilingual On-Line Natural Language Processing
- Notes on Contributors
- Index of Authors
- Subject Index
Abstract and Keywords
Communication via a natural language requires two fundamental skills, producing text and understanding it. This article introduces the field of computational approaches to the former-natural language generation (NLG) showing some of the theoretical and practical problems that linguists, computer scientists, and psychologists have encountered when trying to explain how language works in machines or in their minds. The corresponding task of NLG spans a wide spectrum: ranging from planning some action to executing it. Providing architectures in which all of these decisions can be made to coexist, while still allowing the production of natural sounding texts within a reasonable amount of time, is one of the major challenges of NLG. Another challenge is ascertaining just what the decisions involved in NLG are. This article overviews the cognitive, social and linguistic dimensions of NLG and finally opens issues and problems related to the field.
John Bateman is Professor of Applied Linguistics at the University of Bremen, Germany. Since obtaining his Ph.D. from the Department of Artificial Intelligence at the University of Edinburgh in 1985, he has worked in natural language generation and functional linguistics, applying the latter to the former, on projects in Scotland, Japan, California, and Germany, as well as in a variety of European cooperations. His main research focuses are multilingual NLG, multimodal document design, discourse structure, and the application of all areas of systemic-functional linguistics.
Michael Zock is Emeritus Research Director of the CNRS and is currently affiliated with University of Marseille, France (LIF-AMU). He holds a Ph.D. in experimental psychology. Having initiated (1987, Royaumont) the European Workshop Natural Language Generation workshop series, he has edited five books on language generation. His major research interests lie in the building of tools to help humans to produce language (speaking/writing) in their mother tongue or when learning a foreign language. His recent work is devoted to the navigation in electronic dictionaries, aiming at overcoming the tip-of-the-tongue problem, and facilitating the access, memorization, and automation of words and syntactic structures.
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