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List of Illustrations, Plans, Maps, Charts

    I.2.3. Entwistle: Weights and weighing equipment

  1. Table 1 Late Roman and Byzantine Metrological System 40

  1. Fig. 1 6 oz spheroidal copper-alloy weight, c.200–400 ce, Department of Prehistory and Europe, British Museum (Reproduced by courtesy of the Trustees of the British Museum) 41

  2. Fig. 2 3 oz copper-alloy weight with architectural decoration, 4th–5th cent. ce, Department of Prehistory and Europe, British Museum (Reproduced by courtesy of the Trustees of the British Museum) 43

  3. Fig. 3 1 lb copper-alloy weight with two emperors, late 4th–late 5th cent. ce, Department of Prehistory and Europe, British Museum (Reproduced by courtesy of the Trustees of the British Museum) 43

  4. Fig. 4a and b Copper-alloy exagium solidi with Honorius and Theodosios, and Fortuna (rev.), 408–23 ce, Department of Prehistory and Europe, British Museum (Reproduced by courtesy of the Trustees of the British Museum) 44

  5. Fig. 5 Copper-alloy counterpoise weight in the form of a bear cuddling its cub, 5th–6th cent. ce, Department of Prehistory and Europe, British Museum (Reproduced by courtesy of the Trustees of the British Museum) 46

    I.2.4. Crow: Archaeology

  1. Fig. 1 Gertrude Bell's workers at the excavations of the Byzantine settlement of Maden Şehir, Binbirkilise, Turkey 1907 (Gertrude Bell Photographic Archive, Historical Studies, Newcastle University) 48

  2. Fig. 2 Skeleton excavated from the later church at Kilise Tepe in Isauria; the bones can be dated by radiocarbon dating to the late 12th–13th centuries (M. P. C. Jackson in Postgate and Thomas 2007; for the C-14 date see Bronk Ramsey and others 2000: 73–4) 52

  3. Fig. 3 The reconstructed fragments of an 8th–9th-century amphora of the ‘Byzantine globular’ type, representing a survival from earlier Late Roman forms of LR 1 and 2; found from excavations of a late antique and Byzantine olive-press at Pyrgos Cheimarrou, Naxos; amphorae of this type are also known from excavations in Constantinople, Crete, and Aigina, and are indicative of continuous long-distance trade in the Aegean (information and photograph by A. Vionis) 55

    I.2.10. Wilson: Greek palaeography

  1. Fig. 1 Lincoln Gr. 15, p. 243 (early 11th cent.): Gospels (copyright Lincoln College Oxford) 104

  2. Fig. 2 Laud Gr. 75, fo. 2r (977 ce): John Chrysostom, Homilies on Genesis (with the permission of the Bodleian Library) 107

    I.2.11. Hickey: Papyrology

  1. Fig. 1 The manufacture of a sheet of papyrus 116

  2. Fig. 2 Quantifying and qualifying literary texts, 301–700 ce (data source: Leuven Database of Ancient Books) 117

  3. Fig. 3 Dioskoros of Aphrodite, iambic encomium on Romanos (P. Rein. II 82; joins with P. Lond. Lit. 98) 119

  4. Fig. 4 A receipt for a wage advance from the Apion dossier (P. Oxy. descr. 19) 121

  5. Fig. 5 The provenances of Greek and Latin documentary papyri (data source: Heidelberger Gesamtverzeichnis der griechischen Papyrusurkunden Ägyptens) 122

    I.2.12A. Müller: Imperial chrysobulls

  1. Fig. 1 Chrysobull, 22 Sept. 1355, issued by John V Palaiologos for the Docheiariou Monastery, Mt Athos (Dölger 1965: no. 3048) (Reproduced with permission, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften) 131

  2. Fig. 2 Chrysoboullon sigillion, Nov. 1342, issued by John V Palaiologos to the soldiers of Klazomenai (Dölger 1965: no. 2883) (Reproduced with permission, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften) 133

  3. Fig. 3 Prostagma, Jan. 1344, to the protos of Mt Athos, issued by John V Palaiologos (Dölger 1965: no. 2893) (Reproduced with permission, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften) 134

    I.2.12B. Morris: Athos

  1. Fig. 1 The Typikon of Tzimiskes (before 972), with signatures of monks (courtesy of Éditions Lethielleux) 138

    I.2.13. C. Mango: Epigraphy

  1. Fig. 1 Base of the Egyptian Obelisk, Hippodrome, Istanbul (390 ce) (Photo: Cyril Mango) 145

  2. Fig. 2 Conciliar Edict, 1166, Ayasofya Museum, Istanbul (Photo: Cyril Mango) 146

    I.2.14. Nesbitt: Sigillography

  1. Fig. 1 Seal of Nicholas of Athens (© Dumbarton Oaks, Byzantine Collection, Washington, DC) 151

  2. Fig. 2 Seal of Nikephoros Botaneiates (© Dumbarton Oaks, Byzantine Collection, Washington, DC) 151

  3. Fig. 3 Seal of Basil, Chartoularios of the Armeniakoi (© Dumbarton Oaks, Byzantine Collection, Washington, DC) 152

  4. Fig. 4 Seal of Panaretos, Judge of the Armenian Themes (© Dumbarton Oaks, Byzantine Collection, Washington, DC) 153

    I.2.15. Georganteli: Numismatics

  1. Fig. 1. Copper follis of Anastasios (491–518), large series, mint of Constantinople, officina Δ, wt 18.12 g, the Barber Institute Coin Collection B109; P. D. Whitting Collection 163

  2. Fig. 2. Gold solidus of Anastasios (491–518), mint of Constantinople, wt 4.47 g, the Barber Institute Coin Collection B16; P.D. Whitting Collection 163

  3. Fig. 3. Copper follis of Justinian I (527–65), mint of Antioch, officina Γ, regnal year 13 (=539/40), wt 17.45 g, the Barber Institute Coin Collection B792; P. D. Whitting Collection 163

  4. Fig. 4. Gold solidus of Justinian II, second reign (705–11), mint of Constantinople, Class II, wt 4.41 g, the Barber Institute Coin Collection B4463; P. D. Whitting Collection 163

  5. Fig. 5. Gold solidus of Leo IV (775–80), mint of Constantinople, Class I (776–8), wt 4.41 g, the Barber Institute Coin Collection B4583; P.D. Whitting Collection 163

  6. Fig. 6. Silver miliaresion of Leo V (813–20), mint of Constantinople, wt 2.15 g, the Barber Institute Coin Collection B4634; P. D. Whitting Collection 163

  7. Fig. 7. Copper follis of Theophilos (829–42), mint of Constantinople, wt 6.84 g, the Barber Institute Coin Collection B4695; G. Haines Collection 163

  8. Fig. 8. Gold nomisma histamenon of Nikephoros II (963–9), mint of Constantinople, Class II, wt 4.44 g, the Barber Institute Coin Collection B4928; G. Haines Collection 163

  9. Fig. 9. Gold nomisma histamenon of Nikephoros III (1078–81), mint of Constantinople, Class II, wt 4.1 g, the Barber Institute Coin Collection B5498; G. Haines Collection 163

  10. Fig. 10. Gold nomisma tetarteron of Nikephoros III (1078–81), mint of Constantinople, Class II, wt 3.2 g, the Barber Institute Coin Collection B5502; P. D. Whitting Collection 163

  11. Fig. 11. Copper follis of Nikephoros III (1078–81), mint of Constantinople, wt 6.69 g, the Barber Institute Coin Collection B5510; P. D. Whitting Collection 163

  12. Fig. 12. Gold hyperpyron of Alexios I (1081–1118), mint of Constantinople, post-reform (1092–1118), wt 4.27 g, the Barber Institute Coin Collection B5545; P. D. Whitting Collection 165

  13. Fig. 13. Electrum trachy of Manuel I (1143–80), mint of Thessalonike, wt 4.2 g, the Barber Institute Coin Collection B5782; P.D. Whitting Collection 165

  14. Fig. 14. Billon trachy of Alexios III (1195–1203), mint of Constantinople, wt 4 g, the Barber Institute Coin Collection B5931; P. D. Whitting Collection 165

  15. Fig. 15. Copper tetarteron of John II (1118–43), mint of Thessalonike, wt 5.80 g, the Barber Institute Coin Collection B5673; P. D. Whitting Collection 165

  16. Fig. 16. Silver aspron of Theodora (c.1285), mint of Trebizond, wt 3 g, the Barber Institute Coin Collection ET124; P. D. Whitting Collection 165

  17. Fig. 17. Gold hyperpyron of Michael VIII (1258–82), mint of Constantinople, wt 4.28 g, the Barber Institute Coin Collection B6141; P. D. Whitting Collection 165

  18. Fig. 18. Gold hyperpyron of John V Palaiologos with John VI Kantakouzenos (1347–53), mint of Constantinople, wt 3.83 g, the Barber Institute Coin Collection B6370; P. D. Whitting Collection 165

  19. Fig. 19. Silver basilikon of Andronikos II with Michael IX (1294–1320), mint of Constantinople, wt 2.13 g, the Barber Institute Coin Collection B6288; P. D. Whitting Collection 165

  20. Fig. 20. Silver stavraton of John V (1341–91), period 1354–76, mint of Constantinople, wt 8.8 g, the Barber Institute Coin Collection B6380; P. D. Whitting Collection 165

  21. Fig. 21. Silver one-eighth stavraton of Constantine XI (1449–53), mint of Constantinople, wt 0.57 g, the Barber Institute Coin Collection 4–2006; the Despot Collection of Late Byzantine Coins 165

    I.2.18. Bardill: Brickstamps

  1. Fig. 1 Constantinople (from Bardill 2004); Thessalonike (from Hébrard 1920, Tafrali 1913, Soteriou 1952); Rome 195

    II.3.1. Whittow: Geographical survey

  1. Map 1 The Balkans: physical geography (after J. Haldon, The Palgrave Atlas of Byzantine History) 221

  2. Map 2 Asia Minor: physical geography (after J. Haldon, The Palgrave Atlas of Byzantine History) 224

    II.3.2A. Greatrex: Political-historical survey, c.250–518

  1. Map 3 The Roman Empire in the late 4th cent. (after C. Mango, The Oxford History of Byzantium) 234

    II.3.2B. Haldon: Political-historical survey, 518–800

  1. Map 4 The Byzantine Empire in the 6th cent. (after C. Mango, The Oxford History of Byzantium) 251

  2. Map 5 The Byzantine Empire in the 8th cent. (after C. Mango, The Oxford History of Byzantium) 259

    II.3.2C. Holmes: Political-historical survey, 800–1204

  1. Map 6 The Byzantine Empire under Basil II (after C. Mango, The Oxford History of Byzantium) 270

    II.3.2D. Laiou: Political-historical survey, 1204–1453

  1. Map 7 The Byzantine Empire in 1204 (after C. Mango, The Oxford History of Byzantium) 281

  2. Map 8 The Byzantine Empire in the second half of the 14th cent. (after C. Mango, The Oxford History of Byzantium) 284

    II.4. Belke: Communications

  1. Map 9 Major roads in the Balkans, 7th–12th cents. (after J. Haldon, The Palgrave Atlas of Byzantine History) 297

  2. Map 10 Major routes in Asia Minor, 7th–12th cents. (after J. Haldon, The Palgrave Atlas of Byzantine History) 299

    II.7.1. Bardill: Building materials and techniques

  1. Fig. 1 Byzantine styles of vaulting 340

    II.7.2. Ousterhout: Churches and monasteries

  1. Fig. 1 Jerusalem, Holy Sepulchre, redrawn after Corbo 363

  2. Fig. 2 Constantinople, St John Stoudios, redrawn after Mathews 364

  3. Fig. 3 Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, redrawn after Van Nice 364

  4. Fig. 4 Trilye, St Stephen(?), redrawn after Pekak 365

  5. Fig. 5 Constantinople, Myrelaion, now Bodrum Camii, redrawn after Striker 366

  6. Fig. 6 Chios, Nea Moni, redrawn after Bouras 366

  7. Fig. 7 Constantinople, Christ Pantokrator, now Zeyrek Camii, redrawn after Megaw 367

  8. Fig. 8 Hosios Loukas, redrawn after Stikas 368

  9. Fig. 9 Constantinople, Christ of the Chora, now Kariye Camii, redrawn after Underwood 368

    II.7.4. Cormack: Wall-paintings and mosaics

  1. Fig. 1 The apse of the Church of the Koimesis, Nicaea 392

    II.8.2. Parani: Fabrics and clothing

  1. Fig. 1 The Middle Byzantine imperial chlamys-costume (based on the portrait of Michael VII Doukas in Coislin 79, fo. 2r, 1071–81; after M. Parani, Reconstructing the Reality of Images) 414

  2. Fig. 2 The Middle Byzantine male crossed loros-costume (based on the portrait of Michael VII Doukas in Coislin 79, fo. 1 (2 bis)v, 1071–81; after M. Parani, Reconstructing the Reality of Images) 414

  3. Fig. 3 The Late Byzantine male simplified loros-costume (based on the portrait of Manuel II Palaiologos in Par. suppl. gr. 39, fo. vi, 1407; after M. Parani, Reconstructing the Reality of Images) 414

  4. Fig. 4 The Middle Byzantine female loros-costume (based on the portrait of Maria of Antioch in Vat. gr. 1176, fo. iir, 1166; after M. Parani, Reconstructing the Reality of Images) 415

  5. Fig. 5 The Late Byzantine female loros-costume (based on the portrait of Anna of Savoy in Stuttgart, cod. hist. 2° 601, fo. 4, 1328–41; after M. Parani, Reconstructing the Reality of Images) 415

  6. Fig. 6 Late Byzantine male official dress (based on the portrait of the protosebastos Constantine Komnenos Raoul Palaiologos in Oxford, Lincoln College, MS. gr. 35, fo. 6r, 1327–42) 416

  7. Fig. 7 Episcopal dress (based on the portrayal of St Ignatios in the katholikon of Hosios Loukas Monastery, Phokis, Greece, 11th cent.) 416

  8. Fig. 8 Monastic dress (adapted from the portrayal of St Gregory of Agrigento in the chapel of the Holy Trinity, Monastery of St John Chrysostom, Koutsovendes, Cyprus, early 12th cent.) 417

    II.8.4. Armstrong: Ceramics

  1. Fig. 1 Cooking pots: (a) round-bodied; (b) casserole-style; (c) one-handled with flat bottom 432

  2. Fig. 2 Plain tablewares: (a) small jug; (b) jug; (c) table amphora; (d) chafing dish 437

  3. Fig. 3 Storage vessels: (a) open container for dry ingredients; (b) free-standing pithos; (c) pithos that would have been partly buried 438

    II.8.7. Lowden: Book production

  1. Fig. 1 Monastery of Megaspelaion, MS 8, 12th cent.: Gospel Book, opening of Gospel of Luke (photo: J. Lowden) 467

  2. Fig. 2 Jerusalem, Greek Patriarchate, MS Taphou 14, 11th cent.: Homilies of St Gregory of Nazianzos (photo: J. Lowden) 468

  3. Fig. 3. Istanbul, Topkapi Saray Museum, MS 8, 12th cent.: Octateuch, unfinished miniature (photo: J. Lowden) 469

    III.9.1. Featherstone: Emperor and court

  1. Fig. 1 Plan of the Great Palace (adapted from W. Müller-Wiener, Bildlexikon zur Topographie Istanbuls, 1977: 232) 507

  2. Fig. 2 Plan of the Chrysotriklinos area of the Great Palace 510

    III.10.1. Haldon: Structures and administration

  1. Fig. 1 The imperial and fiscal administration, c.560 547

  2. Fig. 2 The imperial military and palatine administration, c.560 548

  3. Fig. 3 The imperial administration, c.700–1050 549

  4. Fig. 4 Court and administration under the Komnenoi and Angeloi, c.1081–1204 550

  5. Fig. 5 Court and administration under the Laskarids and Palaiologoi, 1204–1453 551

    III.16.1. Maguire: Art and text

  1. Fig. 1 Icon with the Annunciation, Monastery of St Catherine, Sinai 727

    III.16.2. Ševčenko: Art and liturgy

  1. Fig. 1 Hamilton Psalter: veneration of an icon of the Theotokos 735

    III.16.4. Cormack: Art and iconoclasm

  1. Fig. 1 Khludov Psalter: iconoclasts whitewashing an image of Christ (Moscow, Historical Museum, cod. 129, fo. 67r) 753

    III.16.5. Vassilaki: Icons

  1. Fig. 1. Sinai, Monastery of St Catherine, encaustic icon of Christ Pantokrator, 6th cent. 760

  2. Fig. 2. London, British Museum, the Restoration of Icons, c.1400 (Reproduced by courtesy of the Trustees of the British Museum) 761

  3. Fig. 3. Sinai, Monastery of St Catherine, two wings of a triptych with the Mandylion, mid-10th cent. 762

  4. Fig. 4. Kastoria, Byzantine Collection, bilateral icon, second half of the 12th cent. 763

    IV.20. Howard-Johnston: Byzantium and its neighbours

  1. Map 11 The Caucasus, c.1000–1460 (after J. Haldon, The Palgrave Atlas of Byzantine History) 941

  2. Map 12 The Empire's northern neighbours (after C. Mango, The Oxford History of Byzantium) 942