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date: 14 November 2018

(p. 623) Index

(p. 623) Index

Abrams, Elliott 497
Acheson, Dean 153, 503, 548
Aden 150, 252
Adenauer, Konrad 8, 147, 166, 547
and Elysée treaty (1963) 165
and Western integration 163, 436–7
Adler-Karlsson, Gunnar 408
Afghanistan:
and great power rivalry in 78
and Islamist radicalism 96
and mujahidin 100
and Pakistan 216–17
and Soviet Union:
invaded by 78, 114, 169, 258
unsuitability for fighting 354
withdrawal by 260
and United States:
covert action by 420
reaction to Soviet invasion 258
and women in 47n.37
Africa and the cold war 265, 281–2
and China 268–9, 278
appeal of Maoism 268–9
rivalry with Soviet Union 269
and Cuba 276, 281
independent policy of 269
intervention by 77, 266, 514
and decolonization 265, 478–9, 481
and geopolitics of the cold war 76–7
and legacy of the cold war 265, 266
and Non-Aligned Movement 270
and Soviet Union 267–8, 275–6, 278, 280–1
development model 268
intervention by 76–7, 266
rivalry with China 269
support for liberation movements 274, 420
and United States 77, 267, 271–2, 273–5, 278, 280, 281, 508, 513–14
Congressional action 515–16
development model 267–8
domestic protests against policy of 516
intervention by 96, 266
review of policy by (1969) 273, 515
and white minority rule in southern Africa 272–3 see also individual countries
African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States (ACP) 593
African Liberation Support Committee (ALSC) 516
African National Congress (ANC) 273, 274, 456
Agency for International Development (AID) (USA) 201, 202
Agent Orange 22, 568
Agnew, Spiro 515
aid and the cold war 394–5, 402–5
and expansion of 403–5
as instrument of diplomacy 402–3
and legacy of 405, 409–10
and research trends 403
and uncertainty over effectiveness of 404
Ailey, Alvin 458
Alaska 480
Alavi, Hamza 95–6
Albania 175, 176, 183
al-Fatah 252, 253
Algeria 251–2, 607, 617
Alia, Ramiz 183
Ali Khan, Liaquat 218
Allende, Salvador 202, 331
All-Russia Society for the Conservation of Nature 578
al-Qaeda 78, 454, 616, 617, 618
Alvor Accord (1975) 276
American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man 490
(p. 624) American Federation of Labor 329, 508
American Institute for Free Labor Development 201
American Legion 326
Ames, Aldrich 421
Amin, Hafizullah 78
Amin, Samir 33
Amnesty International 495
Anderson, Mary 524
Andrew, Christopher 76–7
Andropov, Yuri 80, 115, 180
Ang Cheng Guan 236, 241
Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC) 248
Angola 76, 269, 272, 273, 274–7, 416, 419, 516
and Cuba 276, 277, 478
and nationalist movements 275, 478
and South Africa 276–7, 478
and Western investments in 275
Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (1972) 169
anti-communism 323, 325–9, 336–7
and basis of 545
and Canada 327
and France 327
and Italy 327
and Latin America 327–8
as moral framework for containment 545
and private organizations 326, 328–9
and propaganda 328, 336, 420
and religion 545–8
and Roman Catholic Church 546
and transnational nature of 325, 457
and United Kingdom 326–7
and United States 325–6, 457, 506
effects of 326
post-1945 Red Scare 325–6
private organizations 326, 328–9
propaganda 328, 336
Soviet espionage 364 see also cold war culture (Western)
apartheid 215, 273–4, 479
Appadurai, Arjun 585
Arab League 253, 257
Arab Spring 618
Arbatov, Georgy 314
Arbenz, Jacobo 195, 331
Arévalo, Juan José 195
Argentina 190, 198
Armas, Colonel Carlos Castillo 195–6, 197
Armenia 186
arms control 112, 114, 180
Armstrong, Louis 458
Arrighi, Giovanni 90, 91
Asian Development Bank (ADB) 293
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) 231, 593
and aim of 238
and formation of 233, 237–8
Aswan Dam 7, 165, 250, 270, 474
Athenagoras I, Patriarch of Constantinople 547
Atlantic Charter (1941) 174
Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) 566
Attlee, Clement 143, 146, 327
Australia 415
Ayub Khan, Mohammed 214
Azerbaijan 186
Baghdad Pact 75, 96, 211
Bahr, Egon 167
Baldwin, James 460
Ball, George 237
Baltic Sea, Helsinki Convention on the (1974) 570
Baltic states 70, 186
Bandung Conference (1955) 7, 124, 233, 381, 459–60, 511
and China 129, 234–5
and comparison with SEATO 234
and decolonization 473–4
and human rights 490
and principles of peaceful coexistence (panchsheela) 222
and significance of 234, 270 see also Non-Aligned Movement
Bangladesh 223
Barghoorn, Frederick C. 417
Barrera-Osorio, Antonio 35–6
Baruch Plan 364
Batista, Fulgencio 197, 199
Bayly, Christopher 29
Bay of Pigs (1961) 419
Beard, Charles A. 51
(p. 625) Beaulac, Willard 197
Belarus 187
Belgium 271, 272
Bellagio conference (1972) 27
Benes, Edvard 175
Beria, Lavrentii 363
Berlin:
and Checkpoint Charlie confrontation 70, 148, 166
and Four-Power Agreement on Berlin (1971) 168
and opening of borders between East and West 170–1, 185
and post-war division of 70
and Quadripartite Treaty on (1972) 112, 151
and tensions over 70, 150, 166
Berlin Blockade (1948–9) 70, 161
and source of conflict 5–6
and United Nations 6
Berlin Crisis (1961) 166, 366
Berlin Wall:
and building of 70, 150, 166, 177
and fall of 158, 171, 605
Bernstein, Carl 555
Berreby, David 48n.60
Bevan, Nye 146
Bevin, Ernest 143, 146
Bikini atoll nuclear tests 437–8, 566
bilateral investment agreements (BITs) 594
Bill, James A. 249
Black, Eugene 383
Blair, Tony 612
Blum Léon 436
Bohr, Niels 365
Booth, John 203
Boutros-Ghali, Boutros 535, 613
Bowles, Chester 218
Boym, Svetlana 452
Boy Scouts 326
Brandt, Willy 152, 434
and Ostpolitik 8, 151, 166–7, 476, 591
Brazil 77, 190, 202, 328
Bretton Woods Conference (1944) 379
Bretton Woods system:
and collapse of 23, 54–5, 593
and difficulties faced by 54
and globalization 20
and limitations on American power 54
and objectives of 53
and United States’ leading role in 53–4
Brezhnev, Leonid 58, 180, 591
and European Security and Cooperation 314–15
and human rights 495
and Jackson-Vanik Amendment 496
and legitimizing impact of world power status 113
and re-Stalinization 493
and trade with the West 399
Brezhnev Doctrine 67, 170, 178
and renounced by Gorbachev 170, 180
Bricker, John 489
British Empire 91
and India 213–15
British Guiana 77, 477
Brower, David 567–8, 569, 571, 578
Brown, Gordon 612
Brown, Neville 68
Brubaker, Roger 93
Brubeck, Dave 458
Brunei 231
Brussels Treaty Organization 146, 162
Brzezinski, Zbigniew 78, 553
Buck, Pearl 95
Buck-Morss, Susan 454, 464
Bukharin, N.I. 542
Bulgaria 81, 175, 182
Burlatsky, Fedor 314
Burma 231, 591
Bush, George H.W. 80, 116, 117, 152, 610, 619
and end of the cold war 158, 605, 607
and German unification 171
and Gulf War 607–8
and new world order 608
and United Nations 613
Bush, George W. 43, 142, 614, 617
Byrnes, James 160
Caetano, Marcelo 476, 478
Calcutta Conference (1948) 233
Callaghan, James 443–4
Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND) 438, 444, 566, 572, 573
Camp David process (1978–9) 257, 380–1
Canada 327, 591
Cárdenas, Lázaro 191
Caribbean Free Trade Association (CARIFTA) 593
Carter, Jimmy 78, 204, 444
and Africa 516–17
and human rights 496
and Latin America 203
and Middle East 257
and religion 554–5
Carter Doctrine 114, 258
Castle, Timothy 236
Castro, Fidel 197, 200, 201, 311, 367, 419, 461
Catholicism 458, 547
and anti-communism 546
and cold war culture 329, 333
and democracy 550
and Poland 555
and Soviet Union 542, 544–5, 554 see also religion
Ceaucescu, Nicolae 182–3
Central America:
and geopolitics of the cold war 77–8
and United States 89–90
strategic significance for 190–1
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA):
and Afghanistan 420
and Angola 276
and Chile 202–3
and covert operations 419–20
and decolonization 74
and intelligence analysis 423, 424
and intelligence liaison relationships 416
and military coup in Iran (1953) 72, 95, 164, 248
and propaganda 328, 420
and Soviet intervention in third world 111
Central Treaty Organization (CENTO) 72
Cesaire, Aime 464
Chacko, Shubha 534
Chalidze, Valerii 493
Chanda, Nayan 232, 238
Chapultepec conference (1945) 192–3
Charney, Michael 239
Charter 77 179, 594
Chauprade, Aymeric 68
Chavez, Hugo 611
Chechnya 609
Chelyabinsk 574–5, 579
Cheney, Dick 426, 619
Chernenko, Konstantin 115, 180
Chernobyl 575
Chernyaev, Anatoly 314
Chiang Ching-kuo 134
Chiang Kai-shek 72, 98, 125, 128, 133, 137
Chicherin, Georgi 542
Chile 77
and erosion of female domesticity 332
and United States 331
aid from 202
covert action by 202–3, 419
China:
and Africa 272, 276, 278
appeal of Maoism 268–9
rivalry with Soviet Union 269
and Angola 276
and Anti-Rightist Campaign 130
and Bandung Conference (1955) 129, 234–5
and Burma 591
and Cambodia 136–7
and changes in attitudes to recent history 137
and civil war (1946-49) 72, 124–6
and Congo crisis 272
as counter-hegemonic power 99–100
and Cultural Revolution 132, 133
and culture of cold war China 134–6
and democracy 135
and economic modernization 23, 24
and establishment of People's Republic of China 72, 124, 126, 221, 472
and foreign policy objectives 221
and globalization 24
and the Great Leap Forward 135
and Hundred Flowers Movement 130
and India 79, 222, 224
and Indonesia 237
and Japan 136, 137
and Korean War 6, 73, 127–8, 472
and Laos 236
(p. 627) and May Fourth Movement 135
and militarization 126
and modernization 135
and nuclear weapons 135–6
and Pakistan 221
and race 518
and religion 99
and sinocentric attitude to neighbors 132
and Sino-Japanese War (1937–45) 125, 137
and Sino-Vietnamese War (1979) 137
and socialist world economy 126–7
and Southeast Asia 233–4
and South Korea 445
and Soviet Union
assistance from 310
border clashes 79
conflicts over foreign policy 269
deterioration of relations between 129, 130, 131
economic relations 127
fears of war between 132–3
Sino-Soviet split 7–8, 78–9, 129–31
Sino-Soviet treaty (1950) 72
trade relations 396
and strategic embargo against 58
and student protests 607
and Taiwan 473
confrontations with 128–9
and technological weakness 133
and Tiananmen Square protests (1989) 138
and trade with the West 398, 399
integration into world economy402, 591
opening to the West 400
and United Nations 136
and United States, rapprochement with 79–80, 133–4, 591
and Vietnam War 131–2, 477–8
and Zimbabwe 278
China, Republic of (Nationalist China) 125–7
China Committee (CHINCOM) 58, 405
Chinese Communist Party (CCP) 124, 125, 126
Christianity 40, 457–8; see also Catholicism; religion
Church, Frank 202
Churchill, Winston 4, 141, 370
and attempts to organize summit meeting 146–7
and division of Eastern Europe 174
and European Coal and Steel Community 146
and “iron curtain” speech 144, 160, 435, 504
and liberalization of East-West trade 58
civil rights movement 480, 481
and decolonization 470, 481
and influence of decolonization movement 3
and repression of 507
Clausewitz, Carl von 343, 353
Clergy and Laymen Concerned About Vietnam (CALCAV) 554
Clifford, Clark 507
Clinton, Bill 610, 611, 612
Clive, Robert 213
Cohen, Saul 68
cold war:
and alternative perspectives on 607
globalization 8–9
human rights 8
Ostpolitik 8
Sino-Soviet split 7–8
Third World 6–7
United Nations 5–6
and contextualization of 1–2, 4
and diversity of literature on 1
and end of 80–1, 115–17, 158, 171, 187, 605
acceleration of globalization 610–13
American responses to 607–10
conflicting explanations of 606
dating of 605
economic factors 59–62, 63
‘end of history’ 605, 607
new world order 608
organized crime 615
proliferation of non-state actors 615
search for international and cooperation 613–14
superiority of Western model 117
superiority of Western resources 117
superiority of Western strategy 117–18
terrorism 615–17
(p. 628) and expansion into Third World 6–7, 310–12, 367–8
and global dimensions of 3
and historical context of 87–8
and historical significance of 86
as ideological struggle 33, 67
and meaning of 28
and nostalgia for 452
and origins of 4, 69, 159–60, 362–3
and peace 433
and relationships between aspects of 3
as religious war 540
and synergy between domestic and international developments 3–4
transnationalism and the cold war
cold war culture (Western):
and anti-Americanism 327
and cultural diplomacy 458–9, 513
and culture's role in cold war 324
and definition of culture 324
and definition of the West 324–5
and images of 323
and progressive and inclusive reform 323, 329–32
cosmopolitanism 330
erosion of female domesticity 332
film culture 330
mass consumption 331
social market economies 330–1
United States 329–30
and resistance to cold war mobilization 323–4, 332–6
Catholicism 333
communist decline 335–6
counterculture 334
Hollywood 333–4, 335
nuclear protest movements 335
popular indifference 332–3
private interests 333
rejection of binary views 334
representation of nuclear weapons 334 see also anti-communism
Colombia 198
Comber, Leon 235
Comecon (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance) 111, 176, 396, 593
and dissolution of 187
and formation of 71, 163
Comintern 456
Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy (SANE) 566, 571
Committee for Nuclear Information (CNI) 566
Committee of Correspondence 329, 532
Committee of European Economic Cooperation 396
Commoner, Barry 566
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 187
Communication Satellite Corporation (COMSAT) 588
Communist Information Bureau (Cominform) 175
Communist International 456
Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act (USA, 1986) 274
Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) 168–9, 171, 179, 494
Congo 76, 96
and American intervention 96
and Congo crisis 271–2
Lumumba's assassination 460–1
United Nations 271–2, 382
United States 513–14
Congress for Cultural Freedom (CCF) 328
Congress of Industrial Organizations 329
Conseil Supérieur de Santé de Constantinople 378
consumerism, and cold war culture 331
containment, and American strategy of 107–8, 160
convergence theory 112
Cook, James 32, 44 n.4
Cooper, John Sherman 215
Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls (COCOM) 57–8, 63, 405, 592–3
Corber, Robert 527
(p. 629) cosmopolitanism, and cold war culture 330
Council of Europe 161, 490
Cousins, Norman 566
Croatia 184
Crocker, Chester 273–4, 279, 517
cruise missiles 349–50
Cuba:
and Africa 77
independent policy in 269
intervention in 266, 514
and Angola 276, 277, 478
and Canada 591
and education 192
and Ethiopia 281
and living standards (1950) 192
and revolution in (1959) 199–200
and rural poverty 192
and United States:
covert action by 419
dictatorship supported by 197
policy of 200
Cuban Crisis (1962) 77, 360, 367, 475
culture:
and definition of 44 n.4
anthropological 32
as discursive system 32–3
and dominant ideologies 34 see also cold war culture (Western)
Cuordileone, Kyle 527
Czechoslovakia:
and challenges to cold war paradigm 440
and collapse of communist rule 81, 182
and communist seizure of power (1948) 160, 161, 175
and environmental movement 576–7
and Soviet Union 175
invasion by (1968) 178
and uprising in (1953) 176
Dalai Lama 222
Daniel, Yuli 493
Daniloff, Nicolas 418
da Silva, Luiz Inácio 611
Dean, Robert 527
Deane, Philip 460
decolonization:
and 1945–70 period 17–18
and Africa 265, 478–9, 481
and Bandung Conference (1955) 473–4
and citizenship 479–80
and civil rights movement 470, 481
and cold war's influence on 7
and drivers of 469
and European integration 476
and focus of scholarship on 469
and globalization of politics 469, 475
and globalization of the cold war 309–10
and impact on cold war 95
and integration of former subjects 479–80
and Korean War 472
and moral regeneration 471
as more significant development than the cold war 17–18
and NATO 470, 473
and Non-Aligned Movement 473–4
and political impact in imperial centers 470, 475–6
and post-colonial globalization 24
and post-war momentum of 472
and reinforcement of existing hierarchies 42
and replacement of North Atlantic hegemony 471–2
and rethinking of global order 482
and Soviet Union 310–12, 477
as surrogate battlefield 479
as transformative process 482
and transnational activism 459, 470
and United Nations 381, 475–6
and United States 475
attitude of 508, 511–12
colonial reform 480, 481
expansion of influence 477
implications for 74
and Vietnam War 477–8
Deery, Phillip 235
de Gaulle, Charles 151, 331
and anti-Americanism 327
and decolonization 476
and détente 167
and Elysée treaty (1963) 165
on nuclear war 366
and vetoes British membership of EEC 149–50, 162
Dehio, Ludwig 69
(p. 630) Deighton, Anne 560 n.16
de Klerk, F.W. 518
Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), see North Korea
Deng Xiaoping 80
Derevianko, Rear Admiral K.I. 352
Derian, Patricia 497
détente 112–14, 167–9, 474
and Eastern Europe 178–9
and human rights 492
and Ostpolitik 166–7
and trade 399, 591
deterrence, and the cold war 120
deterritorialization 586
developing world, see Third World
development:
and ideology 40
and United Nations 383–4, 388
developmental state 97, 98
Devlin, Larry 464
Diego Garcia 477
Dien Bien Phu, battle of (1954) 164–5, 233, 473
Diggs, Charles C. 515–16
Dimitrov, Georgi 175
Dobson, Alan 408
Dole, Robert 517
domestic challenges to cold war paradigm 433–5, 446
in 1940s–50s 435–7
Eastern Europe 437
United States 436
Western Europe 436–7
in 1950s–60s 437–41
Eastern Europe 439–41
Japan 438
reform communism 439, 440
United Kingdom 438
United States 437–8
West Germany 438
in 1970s–80s 443–4
nuclear protest movement 444
and anti-imperialism/capitalism 442–3
and anti-Vietnam protests 442–3
and final years of cold war 444–6
consensus over 445
East Asia 445
Poland 445–6
Solidarity 445
Western Europe 444–5
and governmental challenges 434
and new left 441–2
and societal challenges 434
and terrorism 443
Dominican Republic 77, 89, 514
domino theory 76, 160, 235–6
Douglas-Home, Alec 150
Duara, Prasenjit 34
Dubček, Alexander 178, 182, 440, 441
Du Bois, W.E.B. 505, 507
Dudziak, Mary 480
Dulles, Allen 551
Dulles, John Foster 510
and American exceptionalism 40
and Bandung Conference (1955) 460
and decolonization 511
and Guatemala 195
and human rights 489–90
and Latin America 194, 198
and Pakistan 211, 218
and racial attitudes 511
and religion 540
on Soviet strategy 194–5
Dupuy, Alex 42
Dupuy, General William 354
Dutschke, Rudi 334
Earth Day (1970) 23, 25, 568
Earth Island Institute 578
Easter March Movement 438
Eastern Europe:
and Brezhnev Doctrine 67, 170, 178
renounced by Gorbachev 170, 180
and challenges to cold war paradigm 437, 439–41
and collapse of communist rule 80, 81, 116–17, 181–6
and détente 178–9
as drain on Soviet resources 115, 397
and East-West trade 399
and ethno-nationalism 93
and formation of Eastern Bloc 175–6
and Helsinki Accords 179
(p. 631) and Marshall Plan, prohibited from participating 175–6
and persecution of dissidents 178
and political unrest 179–80, 439
and post-war division of 174
and post-war Soviet expansion 70, 174–5
and race 518
and reactions to Gorbachev's reforms 180–1
and reform communism 439, 440
and religion, policy towards 548
and show trials 178
and Sovietization of 175
and uprisings in (1953–6) 176–7
and “velvet revolutions” 117
and Yalta Declaration (1945) 174 see also individual countries
East Germany:
and Berlin Wall 166
and collapse of communist rule 81, 184–5
and Comecon 163
and creation of 70
and environmental movement 576
and political unrest 179–80
and trade with the West 399
and uprising in (1953) 176–7
and Warsaw Pact 163
and West Germany, negotiations between 168
East India Company 213
East Timor 231
Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) 572
economic development, and developing world 97
economics and the cold war 50–1
and academic neglect of 50
and American-Soviet trade 58–9
trade treaty (1972) 59
and competing global economic orders 53–7
Bretton Woods system 53–5
developing world 56–7
Soviet command economy 55–6
Soviet economic policy 55
and end of the cold war 59–62, 63
Reagan's economic defense policies 59–60
Soviet economic decline 60–2, 80–1
and future research 62–3
and historiographical debates on role of 51–3
corporatist approach 51–2
orthodox school 51
revisionist approach 51
world systems perspective 52–3 see also economic warfare; trade and the cold war
economic warfare 394–5, 405–9
and Soviet Union 406–7
industrial espionage 406–7
trade with Third World 406
undermining Western cooperation 406
and strategic embargo of communist countries 57–60, 63, 405, 592–3
China 58
concessions in 408–9
European-American disagreements over 57–8, 407–8
impact of 58, 405–6
impact on Western economies 407
ineffectiveness of 406
lessons of 409
as political tool 406
Eddy, William A. 551
Eden, Anthony 147, 475
Egypt:
and arms agreement with Czechoslovakia (1955) 75
and Aswan Dam 7, 250, 270
and downfall of Mubarak 618
and Israel 252, 256, 257
and Non-Aligned Movement 220, 249–50
and playing superpowers against each other 7
and Six Day War (1967) 252–3
and Soviet Union 75, 250, 474
military aid from 253
tensions between 251
and Suez crisis (1956) 91, 147–8, 165, 250, 270–1
and United States 257, 270
and Yom Kippur War (1973) 255–6
Einstein, Albert 436
(p. 632) Eisenhower, Dwight D 146–7, 331
and covert operations 419
and Cuba 200
and domino theory 76, 235–6
and economic warfare 405
and Laos 236
and Latin America 197, 198
and liberalization of East-West trade 58
and Little Rock crisis 512
and New Look policy 348, 419
and Pakistan 211
and racial policy 511
and religious policy 549, 551
and Suez crisis (1956) 147, 165, 250
Eisenhower, Milton 198, 199
Eisenhower Doctrine 251
Ekbladh, David 34
electricity generation, and globalization 587
Ellender, Allen 200
Ellington, Duke 458
El Salvador 77, 201–2, 204
Elysée treaty (1963) 150, 165
Engel, Jeffrey 407
Engels, Friedrich 543
Enlightenment, and modernity 35, 36
environmental movement 565–6
and early anti-nuclear movement 566–7
in Eastern Europe 576–7
and emergence of international movement 567–8
and environmental controversies in Soviet Union 574–5
Chelyabinsk nuclear accident 574–5
Chernobyl 575
and green movement in Western Europe 572–3
campaign against nuclear energy573–4
and growth of:
1945–70 period 21–2
1970–90 period 25–6
and Helsinki Convention on the Baltic (1974) 570
and non-governmental organizations25–6
and nuclear protest movement 570–2
and post-Soviet era 579–80
in Soviet Union (1985–90) 575–6
and Stockholm Conference (1972) 25, 568–9, 594
and United Nations 385–6
Erhard, Ludwig 331
Eritrea 280
Estonia 81, 186
Estrada, Pedro 198–9
Ethiopia:
and American intervention 280
and American radio intercept station 415
and Soviet intervention 76–7, 281
ethno-nationalism 93, 455
European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) 146
European Coal and Steel Community 146, 161, 396
European Commission 494
European Community (EC) 24
European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms 490, 494
European Court of Human Rights 490
European Defense Community (EDC) 162, 348
European Economic Community (EEC) 396, 593
and establishment of 146, 161
and United Kingdom
becomes member of 151–2
membership vetoed by France 149–50, 162 see also European Union (EU)
European Human Rights Commission 490
European integration 161–2, 476, 614
and British policy 164
and the cold war 119–20
and French policy 164
and human rights 490
European Nuclear Disarmament (END) 444, 572
European Payments Union 396
European Recovery Program (ERP), see Marshall Plan
European Union (EU) 153
and Eurozone debt crisis 614
and expansion into former communist bloc 82
and objective of 16
and Yugoslavia 614
(p. 633) Fanon, Frantz 42
Farah Aideed, Mohamed 281
Faringdon, Hugh 74
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) 326
Federal Civil Defense Administration (FCDA) 525
Federal Republic of Germany, see West Germany
feminist movement, and United States 533
Figueres, José 199
film industry, and cold war culture 330, 333–4, 335
Finland 174, 437
Fleming, Ian, and James Bond novels 435, 447 n.7
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) 192, 379
Ford, Gerald 495
Ford Foundation 526
foreign aid, see aid and the cold war
Foreign Assistance Act (USA, 1961) 201
foreign direct investment (FDI) 593–4
Forrestal, James 69, 346, 503
Foucault, Michel 33
France:
and Algeria 251–2
and anti-communism 327
and decolonization 470, 476, 481
and development of nuclear weapons 167
and European integration 164
and Germany, Elysée treaty (1963) 150, 165
and Indochina War (1945–54) 75–6, 164–5, 472
and military history and policy 344
and NATO, withdrawal from command structure 167
and Suez crisis (1956) 147–8, 165, 270–1
and United States 165
and vetoes British membership of EEC 149–50, 162
Frank, Andre Gunder 29
free trade, and ideology 40
Friedan, Betty 533
Frieden, Jerry 56
Friedman, Thomas 556, 611
Friends of the Earth 26, 568, 569
Frondizi, Arturo 198, 199
Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO) 269
Fukuda Takeo 296
Fukuyama, Francis 605, 607, 609, 612, 619
Gaddafi, Muammar 153, 618
Gaddis, John Lewis 112, 557 n.1, 606, 619
Galbraith, John Kenneth 224
Gandhi, Indira 222, 224–5
Gandhi, Mahatma 97, 214, 220, 470
Gandhi, Rajiv 225
Garthoff, Raymond 68
Gasperi, Alcide de 436–7
gender:
and disempowerment 37
and Khrushchev-Nixon kitchen debate 523–4
as malleable ideology 37
and masculinity, United States 526–7
and narratives of national progress 524
and readiness for self-rule 37–8
and status and role of women:
American criticism of Soviet claims 531–2
Soviet Union 528–31
United States 524–8, 533–4
and women's rights:
challenge to cold war paradigms 535–6
impact of cold war rivalry 532–3
Non-Aligned Movement 534
non-governmental organizations 534–5
United States 533–4
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 20, 396, 402, 591–2
Geneva Accords (1954) 131–2
Geneva Conference (1954) 165, 233
Geneva summit (July, 1955) 147
Geneva summit (November, 1985) 170
geopolitics of the cold war 67–8
and Afghanistan 78
and Africa 76–7
and American-Chinese rapprochement 79–80
and Berlin 70
and Central America 77–8
and decolonization 74
and definition of geopolitics 68
(p. 634) and domino theory 76
and East Asia 72–3
and end of the cold war 80–1
and Germany, post-war division of 70
and Indochina War (1945–54) 75–6
and Korean War 73
and Middle East 71–2, 75
and nuclear arsenals of superpowers73–4
and origins of term 68
and origins of the cold war 69
and post-war balance of power 68–9
and post-war Soviet expansion 69–70
and Realpolitik 68
and Sino-Soviet split 79
and Southeast Asia 75–6
and Soviet naval expansion 74
and Vietnam War 76
Georgia 186
Gerasimov, Gennady 605
German Democratic Republic (GDR), see East Germany
Germany:
and containment of 161
as crucial issue of cold war 158
and post-war division of 70
and reunification of 81, 158, 171, 185–6
British attitudes towards 152–3 see also East Germany; West Germany
Ghana 89
Gierek, Edward 179
Gillespie, Dizzy 458
Gilman, Nils 34
Giscard d’Estaing, Valéry 444
glasnost 61, 180, 317
Gleijeses, Piero 461
Glickman, Lawrence 32, 44 n.4
global financial crisis 612–13
globalization 8–9, 584–5, 595
and 1945–70 period 19–20
and 1970–90 period 22, 23–4
and the cold war 9
and cold war economic competition 409–10
and defining 585–7
and effects of the end of the cold war 610–13
and financial transactions 586–7, 593
and information and communications technology (ICT) 585, 587–8
and international agreements 585, 590–5
bilateral investment agreements 594
bilateral relations 590–1
environmental issues 594
financial activity 593
foreign direct investment 593–4
human rights 594–5
regional organizations 593
trade 591–3
and international non-governmental organizations (INGOs) 595
as more significant development than the cold war 20, 29–30
and nation-state 99
and origins of 19
and reduced role of nations 16
and transportation 585, 588–90
Gluck, Carol 454
Golystin, Anatoli 421
Gomulka, Władysław 177, 439
Gorbachev, Mikhail 59, 80, 152, 186
and arms control 180
and common European home 317–18
and détente 170
and environmental issues 575
and exit from the cold war 317–19
and foreign policy objectives 61
and German unification 171, 318
and glasnost 61, 180, 317
and human rights 497–8
and internal reforms 61
and “new thinking” of 115–16, 180
and perestroika 61, 180
and renounces Brezhnev Doctrine170, 180
and renunciation of use of force 318
and resignation of 186, 187
and role of reforms in Soviet collapse 606
and self-image of 317
and Westernism of 317–18
Gorbachev, Raisa 316
(p. 635) Gordievskiy, Oleg 423
Gorshkov, Admiral Sergei 74, 352–3
Gould-Davies, Nigel 307
Graham, Billy 329
Graham, Martha 458
Gramsci, Antonio 34
Gray, Colin 68
Greece 145–6, 494
Green, Marshall 237
Greenpeace 26, 567, 571
Greenpeace Germany 573
Greenwood, Sean 151
Grenada 77, 204
Gromyko, Andrey 112, 114
Grosz, Károly 181
Guatemala 77, 195–6, 202, 331, 416, 419
Guevara, Che 311, 461
Guinea-Bissau 478
Gulf of Tonkin incident (1964) 417
Gulf War 607–8
Guomindang 125, 287, 591
Habermas, Jürgen 35
Hack, Karl 232, 233, 235
Hager, Kurt 185
Hague Peace Conference 378
Hahn, Lorena 531
Haig, Alexander 60, 200, 274
Haile Selassie 280
Hailsham, Lord 148
Haiti 42
Halle, Louis 193–4, 195, 202
Hamas 552, 616
Hammarskjöld, Dag 382
Hansen, Robert 421
Hanson, Philip 397
Harmel, Pierre 167
Harmel Report (1967) 167–8
Hasegawa, Tsyuoshi 306
Haushofer, Karl 68
Havel, Vaclav 178, 182, 440, 441
Hawaii 480
Heath, Edward 151–2
Hegel, G.W.F. 45 n.22
Helms, Jesse 517
Helms, Richard 202
Helsinki Accords (1975) 23, 27, 112, 179, 494–5, 594
Helsinki Convention on the Baltic (1974) 570
Helsinki Watch Group 495, 594
Herring, Hubert 199
Herter, Christian 200
Hindu nationalism 99
historicizing the cold war:
and 1945–70 period 17–22
decolonization 17–18
environmentalism 21–2
globalization 19–20
human rights 19
internationalism 18–19
nuclear weapon development 21
and 1970-90 period 22–7
cold war-centric chronology 22
environmentalism 25–6
globalization 22, 23–4
human rights 27
non-geopolitical developments 23
non-national identities 26–7
and 1990-present 28–30
historiographical developments28–9
and broader perspective on 15–17
decolonization 17
international cooperation 15–16
transnational themes 16
and chronology 15
and post-1945 world history 15
Ho Chi Minh 132
Hogan, Michael J 51
Holloway, David 371
Hollywood, and cold war culture 333–4, 335
Honduras 416
Honecker, Erich 179, 184–5, 576
Hong Kong 24, 89
Hoover, J. Edgar 326
Hopkins, A.G. 24, 29, 476
Horn of Africa 76–7, 114, 280–1
Hot Spring Conference (1943) 379
House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) 325–6
Howard, Katherine 525, 528
Hoxha, Enver 175, 183
(p. 636) human rights 486–7
and American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man 490
and ban-the-bomb movement 21
and the cold war 8
and Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe 494
and defensive state campaign against 487
and détente 492
and European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms 490, 494
and European Court of Human Rights 490
and European Human Rights Commission 490
and European integration 490
of greater significance than cold war 19, 27, 486
and Helsinki Accords 23, 27, 179, 494–5, 594
and human rights movement 492, 495
and impact of Second World War 488
and Inter-American Court of Human Rights 490
and international agreements 594–5
and International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) 489
and International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) 489
and non-governmental organizations 487, 492, 495
as organizing principle of international action 498
and Soviet Union:
attitude of 489
dissident movement 493–4, 497
Gorbachev's reforms 497–8
Helsinki Accords (1975) 495
and Third World 490–1
and United Nations 384–5
Charter of 488
enforcement by 498
ignores violations 490
individual petitions 491
Third World 490–2
World Conference on (1968) 491–2
and United States:
attitude of 489–90
Carter administration 496
Congressional action on 495–6
Helsinki Accords (1975) 495
petitions by black Americans to UN 505
Reagan administration 496–7
and Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) 384, 488–9
Human Rights Watch 594–5
human security, and concept of 25
Humphrey, George 197, 198
Hungary:
and collapse of communist rule 81, 181
and reform communism 439
and Sovietization of 175
and trade with the West 399
and uprising in (1956) 176, 177
Hunt, Michael H. 32, 39, 81
Hunter, Edward 239
Huntington, Samuel 612, 617
Hurd, Elizabeth Shakman 541
Husák, Gustáv 182
Hussein, Saddam 608
Huxley, Julian 572
ideology:
and American exceptionalism 40–1, 43, 556
undermining of self-determination 41
and binary worldview 35, 39
and Christianity 40
and the cold war as struggle over 33, 67, 361
and cultural hegemony 34
and definition of 34
and development 40
and dominant ideologies 34
and economic liberalism 42
and free trade 40
and hegemonic ideologies 34
and Marxism 41
and modernity 40
origins of 35–6
and modernization 34, 40, 41–2
and race 36
and readiness for self-rule 37–9
and religion 541
(p. 637) and Soviet Union, impact of nuclear weapons 370–3
and United States, reluctance to recognize 33–4
and western civilization 40
Ikeda Hayato 291, 296
Iliescu, Ion 183
immigration policy, and United States 329–30
imperialism:
and the cold war 88–90
Soviet Union 89
ultraimperialism 90
United States 89–90, 94
and inter-war period 87–8
and the nation-state 87–8
import-substitution development 56–7
India
and avoidance of great power alliances 211, 212, 219
and British withdrawal from 145
and China 79, 222, 224
and Community Development Program (CDP) 526
and development of nuclear weapons 225
and economic development 220
and legacy of colonialism 213–15
and “masterly inactivity” 220
and Non-Aligned Movement 212, 219–21
and Pakistan 213–16, 223, 383
and Soviet Union 96, 211–12, 222–3
and United States 224–5
and Western views of 221
Indian National Congress 215
indigenous people, and United Nations 385
Indochina War (1945–54) 75–6, 164–5, 472
Indonesia:
and American intervention 96
and independence of 231, 473
and Indonesian-Malaysian Confrontation (1963–66) 233, 236–7
industrial espionage 406–7
Indus Waters Treaty (1960) 383
information technology:
and globalization 585, 587–8
and human rights 27
Initiative Group for the Defense of Human Rights 493
Inozemtsev, Nikolai 314
intelligence:
and assessing impact of 423
and centrality of 427
and covert operations 202–3, 414, 418–21
foreign bases and alliances 415–16
and foreign espionage activities 414
impact on diplomatic relations 417–18
and foreign policy implications 414, 415
direct influence on diplomacy 416–17
espionage activities 417–18
foreign bases and alliances 414–16
intelligence cooperation 416
international agreements 417
liaison relationships 416
radio interception 414–15
and industrial espionage 406–7
and intelligence analysis 423–4
disputes over 425–6
failures in 425
political pressures on 424–6
and intelligence collection 414
impact of 421–3
and intelligence history 427–8
and Soviet espionage program in United States 364
and value of 423
Inter-American Conference for the Maintenance of Continental Peace and Security (1947) 193
Inter-American Court of Human Rights 490
Inter-American Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) 193
Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (1947) 193
Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty (1987) 62, 152, 170, 180
international agreements, and globalization 585, 590–5
bilateral investment agreements 594
bilateral relations 590–1
environmental issues 594
financial activity 593
foreign direct investment 593–4
human rights 594–5
(p. 638) regional organizations 593
trade 591–3
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) 53, 379
International Civilian Aviation Organization 384
international cooperation:
and international relations 15–16
and regional communities 16
International Court of Justice 279
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) 489
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) 489
International Criminal Court (ICC) 498, 585
International Fellowship of Reconciliation (IFR) 438
International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) 384
International Health Conference (1948) 380
International Institute of Agriculture 378
international institutions:
and pre-UN development of 377–9
and role of 377
internationalism 18–19
International Labour Organization (ILO) 378, 379
International League for the Rights of Man 495
International Maritime Organization 384
International Meteorological Organization 378
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 593, 610
and establishment of 20, 53, 379
and neoliberalism 611
international non-governmental organizations (INGOs):
and globalization 595
and growth of 25–6
and human rights 27 see also non-governmental organizations (NGOs)
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 592
international relations:
and conflict 15
and international cooperation 15–16
International Telecommunication Satellite Organization (INTELSAT) 588
International Telecommunications Union (ITU) 378, 384
International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) 567, 578
International Whaling Commission 386
Internet:
and development of 588
and human rights 27
Intersputnik 588
Iran:
and Iranian Revolution (1979) 78, 257, 258
and Iraq:
Iran-Iraq War (1980–8) 259–60
treaty between (1975) 256
and Soviet Union 248
and United States:
intelligence facilities of 415
strategic interests of 71
support for military coup (1953) 72, 95, 164, 248
support for Shah's regime 249, 254–5
Iran-Contra scandal 204, 259
Iraq:
and Gulf War 607–8
and Iran:
Iran-Iraq War (1980–8) 259–60
treaty between (1975) 256
and military coup (1958) 251
and Soviet Union 75, 254
and women in 47 n.37
Iriye, Akira 32, 34, 232
Islam 550–3
and American attempts to construct common front with 551–2
and globalization of 99, 100
and political Islam 552–3, 616
terrorism 616–17
and Soviet Union 550–1
Islamic Salvation Front 611, 616, 617
Israel 75, 145
and Egypt 252, 256, 257
and establishment of 249
and Lebanon 259
and Six Day War (1967) 252–3
and Suez crisis (1956) 165, 270–1
(p. 639) and United States 253
and Yom Kippur War (1973) 255–6
Italy 327, 546
Jackson, Henry 59, 113, 401, 496
Jain, Davaki 534
Jakes, Milos 182
Jalal Al-i Ahmad, Jalal 100
Japan and the cold war 286–7, 298–9
and Bandung Conference (1955) 295
and Burma 591
and China 136, 137, 295–6
and cold war strategy 287–8
and diplomatic principles 295
and domestic politics 289–91
and economic emergence of 24
and integration into world system 52
and low-security posture 289–91
and nationality policy 93
and nuclear protest movement 438, 444
and Overseas Development Aid 293
and pacifism 290
and rise and impact of omnidirectional diplomacy 294–7
and role in cold war alliance system 291–4
and South Korea 293–4
and Soviet Union 72, 289, 296, 590
and Third World 294–5
and United States:
aid from 91, 288
‘Nixon shocks’ 296
policy of 287, 288
popular dissatisfaction with 92
post-war occupation by 288
Jaruzelski, General Wojciech 179, 181
jazz, and cultural diplomacy 458–9
Jefferson, Thomas 159
Jenkins, Roy 150–1
Jervis, Robert 369
Jiang Jieshi 366
Jimenéz, Pérez 198
Jinmen 129
Jinnah, Mohammed Ali 214, 215, 217
John Paul II, Pope 445, 555, 556
Johnson, Louis A. 346
Johnson, Lyndon Baines 150, 166–7, 253
Johnson, Mordecai 506
Johnson, Robert Lee 422
John XXIII, Pope 333, 554
Jordan 148
Judt, Tony 440
Kabila, Laurent-Désiré 461
Kádár, János 181
KAL-007, Flight 115, 427, 445
Karpinsky, Len 314
Kashmir 223
Katzenbach, Edward 351–2
Kazakhstan 577
Kendall, Henry 567
Kennan, George 5, 73, 548
and containment 107
and dynamics of Soviet collapse 119
and factors affecting Soviet policy 306
and the “Long Telegram” 160
and racial attitudes 503
and religion in Soviet Union 544, 547–8
Kennedy, John F.:
and Berlin Crisis (1961) 166, 366
and Cuban Crisis (1962) 367
and India 224
and masculinity 527
and Missile Gap 425
and visit to Europe (1963) 165, 166
Kennedy, Paul 286
Kenyon, Dorothy 532
Kerr, Malcolm 252
Keynes, John Maynard 145
Khmer Rouge 136–7
Khoman, Thanat 238
Khomeini, Ayatollah 78
Khrushchev, Nikita 371
and Berlin Crisis (1961) 166
and China 129, 131, 310
and condemns Stalin 176
and Cuba 311–12
and Cuban Crisis (1962) 367
and de-Stalinization 493
and détente by intimidation 111
and expansion of cold war into Third World 310–12
and globalization of Soviet ambitions 110
(p. 640) and India 212
and kitchen debate with Nixon 523–4
and nuclear weapons 350
and peaceful coexistence 371
and repudiation of Stalinism 439
and trade with the West 398
and United Nations 380
and “We will bury you” speech 197
Kilby, Jack 588
Kim Il Sung 73, 127, 439
King, Martin Luther, Jr 480, 481, 515
Kipling, Rudyard 217
Kirkpatrick, Jeane 201–2, 203, 496–7
Kishi Nobusuke 291, 293, 295
Kissinger, Henry:
and Africa 77, 515, 516
and détente 112, 169
and Jackson-Vanik Amendment 496
and Latin America 191, 202
and rapprochement with China 79, 133
and Sinai II Agreement (1975) 256
Kjellen, Rudolf 68
Klein, Christina 94
Kohl, Helmut 117, 152, 171, 444
Kohler, Fay 404
Kohout, Pavel 178
Kołakowski, Leszek 440
Korea, and post-war division of 73
Korean War 18, 73, 472
and China 6, 73, 127–8
as limited war 360
and Soviet Union 127–8
and United Kingdom 146
and United Nations 6, 380
and United States 6, 73, 162
impact on military expansion 347
Kosovo 184
Krauthammer, Charles 609
Krenz, Egon 185
Kubitschek, Juselino 199
Kuklinski, Colonel Ryzard 422–3
Kundera, Milan 433
Kuril Islands 289, 590
Kuroń, Jacek 440, 441, 445
Kux, Dennis 212, 225
Kwa Chong Guan 230
Lacoste, Yves 68
Lamming, George 460
Lancaster, Carol 403
Lane, Franklin 90
Laos 76, 231, 236, 419
Latham, Michael 34
Latin America:
and American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man 490
and anti-communism 327–8
and cold war culture 334–5
and education 192
and fall of military governments 197–8
and Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (1947) 193
and post-war living standards 192
and revolution of rising expectations 191–2
and Second World War 190
and United States:
anti-American demonstrations 198–9
attitude of 508–9
Carter's change in policy 203
on causes of instability 204
covert action by 202–3
development assistance 200–1
dictators supported by 191, 195–6, 197, 201–3
economic assistance 192–3, 196, 198, 202
military aid from 194, 201
Nixon's 1958 tour 198–9
Reagan's policy 204
strategic significance for 190–1
viewed as authoritarian by 193–4, 197, 202 see also individual countries
Latin America Free Trade Association (LAFTA) 593
Latvia 81, 186, 577
Lauren, Paul Gordon 459–60
League of Nations 23, 247, 378–9, 387
League of the Militant Godless (LMG) 542
Lebanon 148, 251, 256, 259
Lebrun, Albert 88
Lee, Bruce 451, 452, 464, 465
Lee Kuan Yew 230, 232, 233–4, 498
Leffler, Melvin 306, 557 n.1, 606
(p. 641) Leifer, Michael 234
LeMay, General Curtis 348
Lenin, Vladimir 117, 455, 544
Leonov, Nickolai 114
liberation theology 333, 554, 555
Libya 153, 259, 618
Limon, Jose 458
Lin Biao 131, 133, 136
Lippmann, Walter 160, 218
Lithuania 81, 186, 577
Liu Shaoqi 127, 130
Locke, John 36
Lomé Convention 592
Long, Joey 241
Los Angeles Olympics (1984) 133
Louis, Roger 91
Lubumba, Patrice 96
Luce, Henry R. 159
Lumumba, Patrice 271, 272
and assasination of 460–1, 513
and commemoration of 451, 452, 454, 463–4, 465
Lundestad, Geir 116, 163
Luukkanen, Arto 542
Lyotard, Jean-François 33
McAlister, Melani 457
MacArthur, General Douglas 6, 380
Macaulay, Thomas Babington 214
McCarthy, Joseph 323, 326, 364, 508
McCloskey, Michael 578
McCormick, Thomas 51, 52
McFarlane, Robert 200
McGlade, Jacqueline 407
McHale, Shawn 233
Machcewicz, Paweł 439
McKenzie, Francine 396
Mackinder, Sir Halford 68
McKinley, William 37
McLean, Malcolm 589
McMahon, Robert J 232
Macmillan, Harold 58, 148–50, 167, 475
McNamara, Robert 76, 353, 425, 426
McTaggart, David 571
Mahathir bin Mohamed 498
Maier, Charles 397
Maisky, Ivan 310
Malayan Emergency (1948–60) 233, 235, 473
Malaysia:
and independence of 231
and Indonesian-Malaysian Confrontation (1963–66) 233, 236–7
Malenkov, Georgi 371
Malik, Adam 238
Manchukuo 87–8, 93
Mandela, Nelson 518
Manela, Erez 456
Manning, Patrick 29
Mao Zedong 72
and Anti-Rightist Campaign 130
and Cultural Revolution 132, 133
and death of 136, 137
and development model 268
and the Great Leap Forward 135
and Hundred Flowers Movement 130
and ideological radicalism 128, 136
and Korean War 127, 128
and nuclear weapons 136
and peaceful coexistence 235
and political supremacy of 124
and pragmatism of 128
and rapprochement with United States 133–4
and sinocentric attitude to neighbors 132
and Soviet Union 127, 129–31
and Taiwan 128–9
and victory in civil war 126
Marshall, George C. 73, 125, 160
Marshall Plan 71, 160
and Committee of European Economic Cooperation 396
and Stalin's refusal to participate 55, 175–6, 396
and Western Europe 160, 161
Martin, Kingsley 572
Martin, Terry 454, 455
Marx, Karl 410, 543
Marxism:
and religion 543–4
and universalist nature of 41
masculinity, and gender roles 526–7
Mason, Richard 233
Masowiecki, Tadeusz 181
(p. 642) mass consumption, and cold war culture 331
May, Elaine Tyler 525
Mazlish, Bruce 29
Mazower, Mark 318
Mazowiecki, Tadeusz 446
Menchú, Rigoberta 333
Menon, Krishna 224, 459
Mexico 190
Mexico City conference on women (1975) 532–3
Michener, James 94
Michnik, Adam 440, 441, 445
Middle East and the cold war:
and accentuation of existing developments 260–1
and Arab Cold War 252
and Arab nationalism 246, 249, 252–3
Soviet support 250
and Arab Spring 618
and Camp David process (1978–9) 257
and great power rivalry in 71, 246
and Gulf War 607–8
and intensification of American-Soviet rivalry 251
and interwar European domination 247
and Iranian Revolution (1979) 257, 258
and Iran-Iraq War (1980–8) 259–60
and Non-Aligned Movement 249–50
and oil resources 71–2, 246, 247
and Pakistan's role in struggle for 217
and Palestinian nationalism 253–4
and political Islam 253, 258, 552–3, 616–17
and Second World War 247
and Six Day War (1967) 252–3
and Soviet Union 71–2, 75, 252
aid from 250
attempts to secure buffer zones 248
impact of invasion of Afghanistan 258
loss of cold war by 258–9
reduced influence of 256,257–8, 260
support for PLO 254
weakness in 247
Yom Kippur War (1973) 256
and strategic importance of 246, 247–8
and Suez crisis (1956) 91, 147–8, 165, 250, 270–1
and United Nations 381–2
and United States:
Carter Doctrine 258
Eisenhower Doctrine 251
Nixon Doctrine 254–5
post-cold war policy 616, 618
racial preconceptions 509
Sinai II Agreement (1975) 256
strategic interests of 71, 165
strengthened position of 259–60
twin pillars strategy 255
Yom Kippur War (1973) 256
and Western advantages in 246–7
and Yom Kippur War (1973) 255–6
and Zionism 249 see also individual countries
Middle East Defense Organization 223
Mignolo, Walter D. 36
Miki Takeo 291, 297
military history and policy:
and academic neglect of 341–2
and archival sources:
Soviet Union 342–3
United Kingdom 342
United States 342
and counter-insurgency 353–4
and end of the cold war 355–6
and fighting limited wars 342, 353
and France 344
and German rearmament 348
and NATO:
early nuclear strategy 345
post-Korea development of 347–8
strategic deterrence 348
and nuclear weapons:
adapting to 342, 345
cultural impact of 342
impact of 345–6
and preparation for total war 342,353
and Soviet Union:
attitude to use of nuclear weapons 351–2
control of East European militaries 346–7
counter-insurgency 354
doctrinal changes 351
formation of Warsaw Pact 348
(p. 643) impact of nuclear weapons 347
incorporation of nuclear weapons 350–2
post-war demobilization 344–5, 346
post-war doctrine 347
structural change 344
and United Kingdom:
counter-insurgency 353–4
early nuclear strategy 345
structural change 344
and United States:
AirLand Battle doctrine 354–5
counter-insurgency 354
cruise missiles 349–50
early nuclear strategy 345
end of conscription 354
flexible response 353
impact of nuclear weapons 345–6, 348–9
Marine Corps 346
New Look policy 348
perception of Soviet threat 345
post-Korea conventional expansion 347
post-war demobilization 344, 345
revolt of the admirals 346
strategic deterrence 348
structural change 343
US Air Force 348
US Army 346, 349
US Navy 346, 348–9
military-industrial complex:
and response to nuclear revolution369–70
and Soviet Union 112, 309,351, 352
and United States 91, 112, 351
Milosevic, Slobodan 184, 611
Missile Gap 425
Mitrokhin, Vasili 76–7
Mitterand, François 152, 171
Mladenov, Petar 182
Mlynar, Zdenek 315
Mobutu, Joseph 77, 271, 272, 275, 461
Mobutu Sese Seko 517
modernity:
and ideology 35–6, 40
and imperialism 36
and origins of 35–6
and postcolonial theory 37
and racialization 36
modernization 135
as cold war variant of development 34
and compatibility with authoritarianism 41
and competing models of 541
and failure to acknowledge exploitation 41–2
as ideology 34
and secularism 541
and universalist nature of 41
and western civilization 40
Modzelewski, Karol 440
Moldavia 186
Molotov, Vyacheslav 175, 311, 371
Monnet, Jean 161
Monroe Doctrine 77, 89, 159
Montenegro 184
Montreal protocol for the protection of the ozone layer (1987) 25
Morrow, John H. 512
Moscow Committee for Human Rights 493
Moscow Olympic Games (1980) 114
Moscow Treaty (1970) 168
Mossadegh, Mohammed 72, 95, 164, 248
Mountbatten, Lord Louis 217
Mozambique 272, 273, 275
and China 269
and nationalist movements 478
Mubarak, Hosni 618
Mueller, John 361
multiculturalism 93, 615
multinational corporations 24, 594, 615
Munich Conference on Transboundary Air Pollution (1984) 573
Munich Olympics (1972) 23
music, and cultural diplomacy 458–9
Muslim Brotherhood 461, 551
Muslim League 215
Muste, A.J. 436
mutual assured destruction (MAD) 21, 167, 360, 365–6
and impact on crisis decision-making 366–7
and policy impact of 366
and threat to military-industrial complex 369–70
(p. 644) Mutual Security Act (USA, 1951) 194, 201
Myrdal, Gunnar 480
Nagai, Yonosuke 232
Nagy, Imre 177, 439
Nakasone Yasuhiro 292, 296, 297
Namibia 272, 273, 277, 278–80, 478
Nasser, Gamal Abdel 147, 165
and Israel 252
and Non-Aligned Movement 220, 249–50, 459
and Six Day War (1967) 252–3
and successful political maneuvering 7
and Suez crisis (1956) 250, 270, 271
and United States 251
National Association of Colored People (NAACP) 505, 506, 507, 509, 512
National Committee for a Free Europe 420
National Freeze Campaign 444
National Front for the Liberation of Angola (FNLA) 269, 275, 276, 277
nationalism 89
and ethno-nationalism 93
and Soviet nationality policy 92–4
National Negro Congress (NNC) 505
national rights, and Soviet ideology 92–4
National Security Council (NSC, USA), and containment 108
National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) 269, 275, 276, 277
National Urban League 509
nation-state:
and erosion of 610
and globalization 99
and imperialism 87–8
and legal status of 96
and state form in new nations 97–8
Nazi Germany 471
Nehru, Jawaharlal 129, 214
on American-Pakistan military alliance 211
and apartheid 215
and China 222
and economic development 220
and ideological preferences 219–20
and Kashmir 217
and Non-Aligned Movement 212, 219–21, 380, 459
and racism 215
and Soviet Union 211–12
and United States 224
Németh, Miklós 181
neoconservatism 26
neoliberalism 26, 610–12
Nepal 226n3
Neruda, Pablo 328
New International Economic Order 492, 592
Nicaragua 77, 114, 197–8, 203, 204, 415–16, 419
Niebuhr, Reinhold 553–4
Nixon, Richard M. 512
and de-coupling of dollar from gold 23
and de-coupling of dollar from gold (1971) 54–5
and détente 112
and environmental issues 569
and kitchen debate with Khrushchev 523–4
and Latin America 194, 198–9
and rapprochement with China 79, 133
and review of Africa policy 273, 515
Nixon Doctrine 254
Nkrumah, Kwame 459, 460
Non-Aligned Movement 593
and Africa 270
and decolonization 381
and diffusion of cold war tensions 512
and economic development 97
and Egypt 249–50
and India 212, 219–21
and Lumumba's assassination 460–1
and playing superpowers against each other 7
and Soviet Union 270
and Third World 7
and transnationalism 459–60
and United Nations 380–1
and United States 459–60
and women's rights 534 see also Bandung Conference (1955)
non-governmental organizations (NGOs):
and environmental movement 25–6
and growth of 25–6
(p. 645) and human rights 487, 492, 495
and United Nations 377, 385, 386–7
and women's rights 534–5
Non-Proliferation Treaty (1968) 21, 225
non-state actors:
and increased significance of 26
and promotion of human rights 27
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) 614
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) 71
and decolonization 470, 473
and deployment of nuclear missiles in Europe 170, 444
and dual-track decision (1979) 443–4
and early nuclear strategy 345
and establishment of 146, 162
and flexible response 149
and French withdrawal from command structure 167
and German membership of 147, 162–3
and Harmel Report (1967) 167–8
and post-Korea development of 347–8
and strategic deterrence 348
North Korea 73, 439
Northrop, Douglas 94
Novotny, Antonín 178
Noyce, Robert 588
Nu, U. 239
nuclear protest movement 21, 170, 335, 433, 434, 444, 570–2
and campaign against nuclear energy 573–4
and early anti-nuclear movement 566–7
and Japan 438
and United Kingdom 438
and United States 437–8
and West Germany 438
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (1963) 148, 166, 567
nuclear weapons and technology:
and adapting to 342, 345
and China 135–6
and cold war culture 334
and cultural impact on military 342
and development of 21
and early nuclear strategy 345
and France 167
and geopolitics of the cold war 73–4
and India 225
and mutual assured destruction (MAD) 21, 167, 360, 365–6
impact on crisis decision-making 366–7
policy impact of 366
promotion of conflict in Third World 367–8
threat to military-industrial complex 369–70
and nuclear arsenals of superpowers 73–4
and onset of cold war 362–5
as block on international cooperation 364–5
Soviet development of 363–4
Soviet espionage 364
and post-war development of 21
and role in invalidating Soviet ideology 370–3
and role in the cold war 360–2
and Soviet Union 73–4
attitude toward use 351–2
development by 363
impact of 347
incorporation into military by 350–2
medium range missiles (SS-20s) 169–70
and United Kingdom:
development by 145, 149
early nuclear strategy 345
Polaris missiles 149, 167
and United States 73–4
deployment in Europe 167, 170, 444
early nuclear strategy 345
impact on military 345–6, 348–9
Nuclear Weapons Freeze Campaign 571
Nye, Sir Archibald 219
Nye, Joseph 45 n.15
Nyerere, Julius 592
Obama, Barack 518, 612, 618
and American exceptionalism 43, 48 n.60
oil, and Middle East 71–2, 246, 247
oil shock (1973) 23–4
Okinawa 415
(p. 646) Open Door policy 89
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 593
Organization for European Economic Cooperation (OECC) 593
Organization of African Unity (OAU) 593
Organization of American States (OAS) 191, 593
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) 23–4
organized crime, and end of the cold war 615
Orlov, Yuri 495
Orr, Sir John Boyd 382, 387
Orthodox Church 547
Orwell, George 327, 328
Osborne, Milton 231
Oslo Accords (1993) 381
Ostpolitik 8, 151, 166–7, 476, 591
Ottoman Empire 247
Pahlavi, Shah Mohammed Reza 164, 248, 249
Pakistan:
and Baghdad Pact 211
and China 221
and cultural identity 218–19
and establishment of 215–6, 145
and India 213–16, 223, 383
and instability of 216, 225–6
and Kashmir 217
and legacy of colonialism 213–15
and Middle East, role in struggle for control of 217
and myth of Muslim loyalty and toughness 218
and Pashtuns 216–17
and post-independence weakness 216
and Soviet Union 223
and United States 95–6
admired by 218
intelligence cooperation 415
military aid from 211, 218
Mutual Defense Assistance Pact (1954) 211
relations between 223–4, 226
seeks alignment with 212
and western admiration of 218
Palestine, and British withdrawal from 145
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) 253–4, 381, 608, 615
Palestinian nationalism 253–4
Palme, Olaf 569
Panama 77, 514, 608
Pan American Sanitary Bureau 378
Pan American Union 191
Pandit, Vijay Lakshmi 540
Paris, Treaty of (1951) 161
Paris Peace Conference (1919) 456
Paris summit conference (1960) 150–1
Park Chung Hee 92, 98
Parker, Jason 235
Parrini, Carl 90
Pavlov, Alexei 531
peaceful coexistence 110, 222, 235, 371, 433
Pearson, Drew 364
Peck, Raoul 464
Penkovskiy, Oleg 422, 425
perestroika 61, 180
Perlman, Philip 506
Permanent Court of International Justice 378, 379
Perón, Juan 191
Persaud, Randolph B. 45 n.15
Philippines 231, 473
Pinilla, Rojas 198
Pinochet, General Augusto 202, 332
Pius XII, Pope 333, 545–6, 551, 553
planet earth, and concept of 25, 26
Plaza accord (1985) 24
Pleshakov, Constantine 544
Poland:
and Catholicism 555
and challenges to cold war paradigm 437
and collapse of communist rule 80, 81, 181–2, 445–6
and environmental movement 576
and introduction of martial law (1981) 115, 179
and reform communism 439, 440
and Solidarity 80, 179, 181, 445
and Soviet Union 174
and trade with the West 399
and uprising in (1956) 177
(p. 647) and West Germany, Treaty of Warsaw (1970) 168
Politi, Marco 555
Pol Pot 136
Pompidou, Georges 151–2
Popov, Pyotr 422
Popova, Nina 530–1
Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) 269, 275, 276, 277, 516
Portugal:
and Angola 274–5, 276
and decolonization 476, 478
postcolonial theory:
and colonial powers’ dominance through knowledge 33
and modernity 37
and postmodernism 33
and textual analyses 33
postmodernism, and criticism of progress 33
Potsdam conference (1945) 159
Poujade, Pierre 327
Powers, Francis Gary 415
Preobrazhensky, E.O. 542
propaganda, and anti-communism 328, 336, 420
Protestantism 329, 458
protest movements:
and anti-Vietnam protests 442–3
and deployment of nuclear missiles in Europe 170
Pueblo incident (1968) 417
Pugwash Movement 438
Quemoy-Matsu crisis (1958) 366
race:
and British Empire in India 214–15
and China 518
and Eastern Europe 518
and ideology 36
and United States 506, 518
black doubts over US policy 506
black troops 507
challenge to white supremacist beliefs 504
civil defense 510
colonialism 508
cultural diplomacy 513
decolonization 511–12
denial of citizenship 510
fears of subversion 505, 507
foreign news coverage 512–13
influence on policy 503–4
nuclear weapons and technology 509–10
petitions by black Americans to UN 505
protests against Africa policy 516
racial discrimination against diplomats 509
racial equality 506
racial reform 506
review of Africa policy (1969) 515
suppression of dissidents 507, 515
unrepresentative foreign service 510, 512
Vietnam War 514–15
Radio Free Europe (RFE) 420
Rainbow Warrior 571
Randolph, A. Philip 436, 508
Razsa, Maple 464
Reagan, Ronald 25, 62, 152, 169, 610–11
and arms control 445
and Central America 77–8, 190, 204
and Cuba 200
and economic policy toward Soviet Union 59–60
and end of the cold war 59, 606
and religion 555
and South Africa 517
on Soviet subversion 203
and Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) 169
Reagan revolution 26
Realpolitik, and geopolitics 68
Red Navy, and expansion of 74, 352–3
refugees 330, 383
regime change, and containment policy 108
regional communities 16
Reid, Anthony 241
Reid, Susan 528
(p. 648) religion 540, 556–7
and anti-communism 545
and British policy 546
and cold war culture 329, 333
and collapse of communism 555–6
and developing world 554
and Eastern Europe, policy towards 548
and ideology 541
and Islam 550–3
political Islam 552–3, 616
and liberation theology 333, 554, 555
and Marxism 543–4
and secularism 541
Judeo-Christian secularism 541–2
laicism 541
and Soviet Union 542–5
accommodation with 555
Bolshevik attitudes 542–3
Islam 550–1
persecution 548
policy problems presented by 548
policy under Stalin 543–5, 548
and transnationalism 99, 457–8, 461–2
and United States:
American exceptionalism 556
attempts to construct common front with Islam 551–2
evangelicals 550
policy under Eisenhower 549, 551
policy under Truman 545–8
political Islam 552
Reinhold Niebuhr 553–4
significance for 540
and Western Europe 549–50
religious policy, and national goals 98–9
Remón, Jose A. 197
Republic of Korea, see South Korea
Ressam, Ahmed 617
Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan (RAWA) 47 n.37
Reykjavik summit (1986) 152
Rhodesia 272, 277–8, 478, 514, 517
Rickover, Admiral Hyman 348
Rieber, Alfred J. 305
Riesman, David 528
Ritzer, George 586
Robeson, Paul 507
Robinson, Nicholas 578
Robinson, Ronald 91
Rockefeller, Nelson 197
Rogers, William 515
Roh Tae-Woo 607
Rokossovskii, Marshal Konstantin 347
Romania 81, 175, 182–3
Rome, Treaty of (1957) 146, 161
Roosevelt, Eleanor 488
Roosevelt, Franklin Delano 4, 125, 160, 174
Roosevelt, Theodore 40, 203
Rosenberg, Emily 524, 536
Rosenberg, Ethel 507–8
Rosenberg, Julius 507–8
Rostow, W.W. 41
Rothschild, Joseph 308
Rubin, Eli 453
Russell, Bertrand 438, 572
Russia 402, 609
Russian Federation 81
Russian Orthodox Church 543, 547
Rwanda 613
Sadat, Anwar 255, 256, 257
Said, Edward W. 33
Sakharov, Andrei 318, 438, 493, 494
Salazar, Antonio 516
sanctions, see economic warfare
Sandys, Duncan 551
San Francisco Conference on International Organization (1945) 379–80, 488
Sargent, Sir Orme 143
Sartre, Jean-Paul 327
Satô Eisaku 136, 291
Saudi Arabia 252, 255, 256, 416, 551, 552
Savimbi, Jonas 277
Schabowski, Günther 185
Schäfer, Axel R. 458
Schlesinger, Arthur, Jr 191, 200–1, 527
Schmidt, Helmut 170, 444
Schneider, General René 203
Schumacher, Kurt 436
Schuman, Robert 161
Schwartz, Vanessa 330
Scott, James 98
Scott, Joan 37
(p. 649) Scowcroft, Brent 613
secularism 541–2
Segundo, J.L. 541
self-rule, and readiness for 37–9
Sen, B.R. 382
Senghor, Leopold 460
Serbia 184
Shakhnazarov, Georgy 314
Shamsie, Kamila, and Burnt Shadows 453–4, 462–3
Shastri, Lal Bahadur 224
Shepilov, Dmitry 310
Shevardnadze, Eduard 117
Shevchenko, Arkady 422
Shivkov, Todor 182
Shultz, George 60, 62
Siad Barre, Mohammed 280
Sierra Club 567–8, 569, 571, 578
Sihanouk, Norodom 7
Singapore 24, 231
Sinyavsky, Andrei 493
Sisulu, Walter 456
Six Day War (1967) 252–3
Slovenia 184
Smail, John 231
smallpox eradication 23, 387
Smith, Ian 277, 517
Smith, Ralph B. 237
Smulyan, Susan 34
Smuts, Jan 453
social market economies, and cold war culture 330–1
social movements, and challenges to cold war paradigm 434
Socio-Ecological Union (SEU) 575–6
soft power 45 n.15
Sokolovskii, Marshal Vasilii 352
Solidarity 80, 179, 181, 445
Solzhenitsyn, Alexander 492–3, 494
Somalia 280–1, 608, 613
and Soviet intervention 76, 280–1
Somoza Debayle, Anastasio 203
Somoza Garcia, Anastasio 197
South Africa 273–4, 478, 518
and Angola 276–7, 478
and end of white rule 607
and Namibia 277, 278–80
and Suppression of Communism Act (1950) 504
and United States 511, 517
South African Defence Force (SADF) 276, 279
South Asia and the cold war 212–13
China 221–2
and composition of 226 n.3
and legacy of colonialism 213–15
Pakistan 215–19, 225–6
Soviet Union 222–3
United States 223–4 see also India; Pakistan
Southeast Asia and the cold war 230
and archival sources 239–41
and Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) 237–8
and benefits for 230–1
and China 233–4
and communist uprisings (1948) 232–3
and composition of 231
and covert operations in 420
and cultural dimensions of 239
and decolonization 231–2
and domino theory 235–6
and economic dimension of 238–9
and historiography of 231–3
and Indonesian-Malaysian Confrontation (1963–66) 236–7
and lack of comprehensive narrative of 239–40
and Laos 236
and Malayan Emergency (1948–60) 235
and origins in 232–3
and reasons for studying 230
and Vietnam War 235–6 see also individual countries
South East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) 76, 223, 459, 590–1
and comparison with Bandung Conference 234
South East Asia Youth and Student Conference (Calcutta Conference, 1948) 233
South Korea:
and China 445
and economic emergence of 24
(p. 650) and establishment of 73
and Japan 293–4
and transition to democracy 445, 607
and United States 91–2
South West Africa National Union (SWANU) 279
South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) 279, 280
Soviet Academy of Sciences 574
Soviet Afro-Asian Solidarity Committee 456
Soviet-American relations:
and the early cold war (1945–53) 107–9
American containment strategy 107–8
Soviet strategy 109
and competitive coexistence (mid-1950s–late 1960s) 107, 109–12
advantages of rivalry 111–12
growing Soviet dynamism 109–10
Khrushchev's policies 110–11
peaceful coexistence 110
Soviet economic competition 110
Soviet struggle for developing world 110, 111
and détente 107, 112–14
Soviet struggle for developing world 113–14
and late cold war (late 1970s–early 1980s) 107, 114–15
change in American policy 114–15
escalation of tensions 114
and the end of the cold war (mid-1980s–1991) 107, 115–17
collapse of Soviet empire in Eastern Europe 116–17
domestic Soviet crisis 116
Gorbachev's policies 115–16
Soviet disengagement from developing world 117
and positive effects of rivalry 119–20
deterrence 120
mobilizing effects 119
West European integration 119–20
and resource superiority of the West 117
and strategic codes of each side 107
and strategic superiority of the West 117–18
and superiority of Western model 117
and trade relations 399
Soviet Peace Committee (SPC) 571
Soviet Union:
and Afghanistan:
invasion of 78, 114, 169, 258
unsuitability for fighting in 354
withdrawal from 260
and Africa 76–7, 267–8, 272, 275–6, 278, 280–1
development model 268
intervention in 266
rivalry with China 269
support for liberation movements274, 420
and agricultural shortages 56, 80
and Angola 275–6
and assumptions behind Soviet behavior 312
and attempted coup (1991) 186
and Berlin Blockade (1948–9) 6, 70, 161
and Berlin Crisis (1961) 166
and Brezhnev Doctrine 67, 170, 178, 180
and China:
assistance to 310
assumption of Nationalist victory 125–6
border clashes 79
conflicts over foreign policy 269
deterioration of relations between 129, 130, 131
economic relations 127
fears of war between 132–3
length of border with 72
Sino-Soviet split 7–8, 78–9, 111, 129–31
Sino-Soviet treaty (1950) 72
trade relations 396
and collapse of 81, 117, 186–7, 606
dynamics of 119–20
and command economy 55–6
and Congo crisis 272
and Cuban Crisis (1962) 77, 475
and cultural diplomacy 458
and Czechoslovakia 178, 314
and decolonization 310–12, 477
and defence expenditure 81, 180, 352
and dissidents 314, 493–4, 497
and Eastern Europe:
(p. 651) collapse of empire in 80, 81, 116–17, 181–6
as drain on resources 115, 397
expansion into 70, 174–5
and economic growth 56
and economic warfare 406–7
industrial espionage 406–7
trade with Third World 406
undermining Western cooperation 406
and economic weakness of 60–2, 80–1, 315–16
and Egypt 75, 250, 251, 253, 474
and erosion of cold war consensus312–16
anti-militarism 314–15
cultural change 313
economic weakness 315–16
educated elites 313–14
generational change 312–13
left/right polarization 314
mass emigration 316
poor living standards 315–16
and Ethiopia 76–7, 281
and ethno-nationalism 93, 455
and exit from the cold war 317–19
and factors supporting cold war behavior 307
experience of Second World War307–8
militarism 309
nationalism 308
and foreign policy making, weaknesses in 118
and glasnost 61, 180, 317
and human rights:
attitude towards 489
dissident movement 493–4, 497
Gorbachev's reforms 497–8
Helsinki Accords (1975) 495
and Hungarian uprising (1956) 177
and idealism of socialism 457
and imperialism 89
and India 96, 211–12, 222–3
and intelligence:
covert operations 420
espionage in United States 364
industrial espionage 406–7
intelligence analysis 423
liaison relationships 416
and internal resistance 92
and Iran 248
and Iraq 75, 254
and Israel 249
and Japan 72, 289,296, 590
and Korean War 73, 127–8
and Laos 236
and leadership crisis 180
and Marshall Plan 55,175–6, 396
and Middle East 71–2, 75, 252
aid to 250
attempts to secure buffer zones 248
impact of invasion of Afghanistan 258
loss of cold war in 258–9
reduced influence in 256, 257–8, 260
support for PLO 254
weakness in 247
Yom Kippur War (1973) 256
and military capabilities, post-war limitations 69
and military history and policy:
archival sources 342–3
attitude to use of nuclear weapons 351–2
control of East European militaries 346–7
counter-insurgency 354
doctrinal changes 351
formation of Warsaw Pact 348
impact of nuclear weapons 347
incorporation of nuclear weapons 350–2
military expansion 352–3
naval expansion 74, 352–3
post-war demobilization 344–5, 346
post-war doctrine 347
structural change 344
and military-industrial complex 112, 309, 351, 352
and motives behind struggle against the West 305–7
and multinational state 92–4
and nationality policy 92–4
and naval expansion 74
and Non-Aligned Movement 270
(p. 652) and nuclear weapons 73–4
development of 363
medium range missiles (SS-20s) 169–70
role in invalidating Soviet ideology 370–3
and opposition to Gorbachev's reforms 186
and origins of the cold war 4
and Pakistan 223
and perestroika 61, 180
and Poland 80, 174
and post-war boundaries 70
and post-war expansion 69–70
and pre-war borders 69
and regional nationalism 186
and religion 542–5
accommodation with 555
Bolshevik attitudes 542–3
Islam 550–1
persecution 548
policy problems presented by 548
policy under Stalin 543–5, 548
and revolutionary-imperial paradigm in foreign policy 306–7
and Somalia 76, 280–1
and status and role of women 528–31
American criticisms 531–2
Soviet bride debate 531
and strategic embargo against 57–8, 59–60, 63, 592–3
and Suez crisis (1956) 270–1
and Syria 75
and systemic crisis in 114, 115
and Third World:
change in attitude towards 250
disengagement from 117
expansion of cold war into 6–7, 310–12, 367–8
intervention in 75, 96, 110, 111, 113–14, 270
retreat from 260
and Turkey 248
and United Nations 380
use of veto 74–5
and West Germany, Moscow Treaty (1970) 168
and Zimbabwe 278 see also Soviet-American relations
space race 197, 588
Spear, Percival 213
Spivak, Gayatri 464
Sputnik satellite 119, 149, 197, 311, 425, 474, 533, 588
Spykman, Nicholas 68
Sri Lanka 226 n.3
Stalin, Joseph 4
and bitterness towards wartime allies 363
and China 72, 126, 130
and conduct of foreign policy 306–7
and correlation of forces 307
and death of 146
and division of Eastern Europe 174
and Hobbesian view of international relations 309
and Korean War 127–8
and Middle East 248
and nationalism 455
and nuclear weapons 350, 363–4
and rejection of Marshall Plan 175–6, 396
and religion 543–5, 548
and socialism in one country 306, 370
and suspicion of international cooperation 362
Starry, General Donn 354
Stepinac, Cardinal Aloysius 556–7
Stevenson, Adlai 380, 566
Stimson, Henry 365
Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment (1972) 25, 568–9, 594
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) 568
Stone, Oliver 335
Stone, Randall 397
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) agreement (1972) 58–9
Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) 115, 169
Strauß, Franz-Josef 444
Strong, Maurice 568
students, and anti-Vietnam protests 442
Suez crisis (1956) 91, 147–8, 165, 250, 270–1
Suharto 7, 237, 592
Suhrawardy, H S 221
Suny, Ronald 454, 455
(p. 653) Suri, Jeremi 313
Svoboda, Ludvik 178
Switzerland 169
Syria 75, 252, 255–6
Szulc, Tad 198
Taft, William Howard 38
Taft-Hartley Act (USA, 1947) 326
Taiwan:
and China 128–9, 473
and democracy 134
and economic emergence of 24, 134
and impact of Sino-American rapprochement 134
and United States 91–2, 134
Takeshita Noboru 297
Taliban 78
Tanaka Kakuei 136, 293, 590
Taraki, Noor Mohammad 78
Tarling, Nicholas 240
Taylor, Maxwell 236, 349
Taylor, Paul 458
Tehran conference (1943) 4, 174
television, and cold war culture 334
Tereshkova, Valentina Vladimirovna 533
terrorism 274, 443
and end of the cold war 615–17
and radical Islam 616–17
Thailand 231
Thatcher, Margaret 152–3, 171, 610–11
Thatcherism 26
Third Way 612–13
Third World:
and American intervention 95–6
and economic development 97
and expansion of cold war into 6–7, 310–12, 367–8
and human rights 490–2
and import-substitution development 56
failure of 56–7
and playing superpowers against each other 7
and religion 554
and Soviet intervention 96
and Soviet Union:
change in attitude of 250
disengagement by 117
intervention by 6–7, 75, 96, 110, 111, 113–14, 270, 310–12
retreat by 260
and state form 97–8
and Western support for undemocratic regimes 95 see also Bandung Conference (1955); Non-Aligned Movement
Thucydides 69
Tiananmen Square protests (1989) 138
Tibet 222
Tillum, Guy 463
Timor-Leste 231
Tito 175, 183, 460, 474, 556–7
Tocqueville, Alexis de 435
Tökes, László 182
Toynbee, Arnold 119
Trachtenberg, Marc 166
trade and the cold war 394–402
and China 398, 399
opening to the West 400
and consolidation of rival economic blocs 396, 398
and détente 399, 591
and East-West trade 397–8, 591–3
East-West economic gap 402
expansion of (late 1950s–1970s)398–9, 401
phases of 398–400
Soviet economic weakness 400
stagnation of (1980s) 399–400
trade manipulation by the West 401
and effects of 395
and enduring impact of 396, 402, 409–10
and Soviet economic bloc 396
Soviet subsidy to Eastern Europe 397
and subordination to political goals 401
and trade policies 400–1
and Western prosperity 396
Train, Russell 569
TransAfrica 516, 517
transnational advocacy groups 26
transnational corporations (TNCs) 24, 594, 615
transnationalism and the cold war 452–4
and anti-communism 325, 457
and archives 462
(p. 654) and Bruce Lee commemoration 451, 452, 464, 465
and competing universalism 455
and critical nostalgia 452
and decolonization 459, 470
and historical fiction 462–3
and human rights movement 492–3
and international women's movement 534–5
and Non-Aligned Movement 459–60
Lumumba's assassination 460–1
and Patrice Lumumba commemoration 451, 452, 454, 460–1, 463–4, 465
and religion 99, 457–8, 461–2
and Soviet Union 456–7
cultural diplomacy 458
ethno-nationalism 455
as specific political and ideological formation 452
and transforming transnational circuits 457–9
and United States, cultural diplomacy 458–9
and utopian visions 454–5
and Wilsonian internationalism 455–6
transportation, and globalization 585, 588–90
Trotsky, Leon 370
Trudeau, Robert 195
Truman, Harry S. 145, 160, 248
and anti-communism 326, 507
and desegregation of armed forces 504
and dropping of atomic bombs 360
and Latin America 191, 193
and lessons of Second World War 363
and McMahon Act (1946) 144–5
and racial reform 506, 507
and religious policy 545–8
and Truman Doctrine 67
Truman Doctrine 67, 145, 164, 248
Trumbo, Dalton 336
Tshombe, Moïse 271, 272, 514
Tsing, Anna 454
Tungku Abdul Rahman 237
Tunisia 618
Turkey 72, 91, 247, 248
Turner, Frederick Jackson 40
Tverdokhlebov, A.N. 493
U-2 incident (1960) 415, 416–17
Ubico, Jorge 195
Ukraine 187
Ulbricht, Walter 315
Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) 567
United African National Council 278
United Kingdom 141
and early cold war years (1945-56) 143–8
Conservative policy 146–8
Labour policy 143–6
and cold war in the 1960s 148–51
Conservative policy 148–50
Labour policy 150–1
and late 1960s to end of cold war 151–3
and advantages possessed by 141
and anti-communism 326–7
and Berlin crisis 150
and bipartisan foreign policy consensus 141
and Bretton Woods agreement 145
and China 144
and decline of 142–3, 150–1, 153
and decolonization 470, 475, 476, 481
and defence expenditure 149
and economic weakness 145, 150
and European Coal and Steel Community 146
and European Economic Community
becomes member of 151–2
membership vetoed by France149–50, 162
and European integration 164
and Germany:
attitudes toward reunification 152–3
post-war occupation of 144
and Iran 248
and Korean War 146
and military history and policy:
archival sources 342
counter-insurgency 353–4
early nuclear strategy 345
structural change 344
(p. 655) and nuclear protest movement 438, 444
and nuclear weapons:
development of 145, 149
Polaris missiles 149, 167
and perception of Soviet threat 147
and reduction of global commitments 145–6, 151
and religion 546
and Soviet Union 143–4, 146–7
and sterling zone 91
and strategic embargo of communist countries 58, 408
and structural influences on policy141–2
and Suez crisis (1956) 147–8, 165, 250, 270–1
and United States:
end of cooperation in atomic matters 144–5
nuclear cooperation 149
post-war loan from 145
relationship with 91, 142, 146, 148, 164
and Vietnam War 150
United Nations 5, 377
and agricultural development 382
and Arab-Israeli dispute 381–2
and Charter of 5, 388, 488
and China 136
and Congo crisis 271–2, 382
and Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women 385, 535
and Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination384, 491
and Convention on the Political Rights of Women 385
and Declaration on Colonialism 491
and decolonization 381, 475–6
and development 383–4, 388
and environmental issues 385–6
and establishment of 5, 379–80
and expanded membership of 74
and human rights 27, 384–5, 488, 490–2, 498
and independent agency of UN civil servants 382–3
and International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) 489
and International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) 489
and Mexico City conference on women (1975) 532–3
and Middle East 381–2
and Namibia 279
and non-geopolitical activities of 18–19
and non-governmental organizations 377, 385, 386–7
and objectives of 16, 388, 488
and political neutrality 382–3
and post-cold war challenges 388–9, 613–14
and precursors of 377–9
and principal organs of 377
and refugees 383
and Rhodesia/Zimbabwe 277
and Soviet Union 74–5, 380
and status of women 529–30
and Suez crisis (1956) 270–1
and superpower confrontation in 380
and United States 613
diluted influence of 74
disillusionment of 75, 380
petitions by black Americans 506
use of veto 74–5
and Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) 384, 488–9
United Nations Commission on Human Rights 529
United Nations Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) 385, 529, 530, 531, 532, 534, 535
United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, 1972)25, 568–9, 594
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) 384, 592
United Nations Development Program (UNDP) 25, 384
United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) 380, 529–30
United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) 25, 386
(p. 656) United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) 383
United Nations Human Rights Commission 380
United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) 384
United Nations Program for Technical Assistance 384
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) 383
United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNWRA) 381
United Nations Security Council 5
and Berlin Blockade (1948–9) 6
and Cuban Crisis (1962) 380
and Korean War 6, 380
and Soviet Union, use of veto 74–5
and United States, use of veto 75
United States:
and Afghanistan:
covert action in 420
Soviet invasion of 78, 114, 258
and Africa 77, 267, 271–5, 278, 279, 280, 508, 513–14, 608
Congressional action on 515–16
development model 267–8
intervention in 96, 266
protests against policy towards 516
review of policy in (1969) 273, 515
and Angola 274–5, 416, 419, 516
and anti-communism 457, 506
effects of 326
post-1945 Red Scare 325–6
private organizations 326, 328–9
propaganda 328, 336
Soviet espionage 364
and Berlin Blockade (1948-9) 6
and Berlin Crisis (1961) 166
and Brazil 202
and Bretton Woods system 53–5
and Central America 89–90, 190–1
and Chile 202–3, 331, 419
and China:
assumption of Nationalist victory 125–6
post-war policy towards 73
rapprochement with 79–80, 133–4, 591
and civil rights movement 470, 480, 481, 507
and colonial reform 480, 481
and Congo crisis 271–2, 513–14
and containment 107–8, 160
and Cuba:
covert action in 419
policy towards 200
revolution in (1959) 199–200
supports dictatorship in 197
and Cuban Crisis (1962) 77, 475
and cultural diplomacy 458–9, 513
and decolonization 74, 475, 477, 508, 511–12
and de-coupling of dollar from gold (1971) 23, 54–5
and defence expenditure 352
and détente 166–7
and domestic challenges to cold war paradigm 436, 437–8
and dominance among allies and clients 91
and Dominican Republic 514
and economic factors in cold war51–3
and economic warfare against Soviet Union 59–60
and Egypt 257, 270
and El Salvador 201–2
and end of isolationism 159
and end of the cold war, consequences of 607–10
and Ethiopia 280
as European power 163
and France 165
and globalization 19–20
and Guatemala 195–6, 202, 331, 416
and Gulf War 607–8
and human rights 489–90, 495–7, 505
and ideology:
American exceptionalism 40–1, 43, 556
promotion of economic liberalism 42
reluctance to recognize 33–4
undermining of self-determination 41
and immigration policy 329–30
and imperialism 89–90, 94
ultraimperialism 90
and India 224–5
(p. 657) and Indochina War (1945–54) 75–6, 164–5, 472
and Indonesia 237
and intelligence:
covert operations 202–3, 415–16, 418–21
failure to predict Soviet collapse 606
foreign policy implications 414–18
intelligence analysis 423–5
intelligence cooperation 416
liaison relationships 416
and Iran:
intelligence facilities in 415
Iranian Revolution (1979) 257
support for military coup (1953) 72, 95, 164, 248
support for Shah's regime 249, 254–5
and Israel 75, 249, 253
and Korean War 6, 73, 162, 347, 472
and Laos 236, 419
and Latin America:
anti-American demonstrations 198–9
attitude towards 508–9
authoritarian political culture 193–4, 197, 202
Carter's change in policy 203
on causes of instability 204
covert action in 202–3
development assistance 200–1
dictators supported in 191, 195–7, 201–3
economic assistance 192–3, 196, 198, 202
intervention in 77–8
military aid to 194, 201
Nixon's 1958 tour 198–9
Reagan's policy 204
strategic significance of 190–1
and Lebanon 251, 259
and liberal paternalism 39
and Marshall Plan 71, 160
and Middle East:
Carter Doctrine 258
Eisenhower Doctrine 251
post-cold war policy 616, 618
racial preconceptions 509
Sinai II Agreement (1975) 256
Six Day War (1967) 253
strategic interest in 71, 165
strengthened position in 259–60
twin pillars strategy 255
Yom Kippur War (1973) 256
and military bases 91
and military history and policy:
AirLand Battle doctrine 354–5
archival sources 342
counter-insurgency 354
cruise missiles 349–50
early nuclear strategy 345
end of conscription 354
flexible response 353
impact of nuclear weapons 345–6, 348–9
Marine Corps 346
New Look policy 348
perception of Soviet threat 345
post-Korea conventional expansion 347
post-war demobilization 344, 345
revolt of the admirals 346
strategic deterrence 348
structural change 343
US Air Force 348
US Army 346, 349
US Navy 346, 348–9
and military-industrial complex 91, 112, 351
and Namibia 279
and Nicaragua 77, 197–8, 203, 415–16, 419
and Nixon Doctrine 254
and Non-Aligned Movement 270, 380–1, 459–60
and nuclear protest movement 437–8, 444
and nuclear weapons 73–4
deployment in Europe 167, 170, 444
early nuclear strategy 345
impact on military 345–6, 348–9
and Open Door policy 89
and origins of the cold war 4
and Pakistan 95–6
admiration of 218
alignment sought by 212
intelligence cooperation 415
military aid to 211, 218
Mutual Defense Assistance Pact (1954) 211
relations between 223–4, 226
(p. 658) and Panama 514, 608
and race 506, 518
attitudes toward 94
black doubts over US policy 506
black troops 507
challenge to white supremacist beliefs 504
civil defense 510
colonialism 508
cultural diplomacy 513
decolonization 511–12
denial of citizenship 510
fears of subversion 505, 507
foreign news coverage 512–13
influence on policy 503–4
nuclear weapons and technology 509–10
petitions by black Americans to UN 505
protests against Africa policy 516
racial discrimination against diplomats 509
racial reform 506
review of Africa policy (1969) 515
suppression of dissidents 507, 515
unrepresentative foreign service 510, 512
Vietnam War 514–15
and racial equality 329, 480, 506
and refugee policy 330
and religion:
American exceptionalism 556
attempts to construct common front with Islam 551–2
evangelicals 550
policy under Eisenhower 549, 551
policy under Truman 545–8
political Islam 552
Reinhold Niebuhr 553–4
significance for 540
and Rhodesia/Zimbabwe 514, 517
and Saudi Arabia 255, 551
and Somalia 608
and South Africa 273–4, 511, 517
and status and role of women 524–8
challenges to 533–4
criticism of Soviet claims 531–2
erosion of domesticity 332
women's rights 533–4
and Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)115, 169
and strategic embargo of communist countries 57, 592–3
European-American disagreements over 57–8, 407–8
as political tool 406
under Reagan 59–60, 408–9
and Suez crisis (1956) 147, 165, 270–1
and Third World, expansion of cold war into 6
and Truman Doctrine 67, 145, 164, 248
and unilateralism 614
and United Kingdom:
end of cooperation in atomic matters 144–5
nuclear cooperation 149
post-war loan to 145
relationship between 91, 142, 146, 148
and United Nations 613
diluted influence in 74
disillusionment with 75, 380
use of veto 74–5
and Vietnam, relations between 234
and Vietnam War 76, 368
and Western Europe 163–4
and Zimbabwe 278 see also Soviet-American relations
Universal Copyright Convention (UCC) 592
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) 384
Universal Postal Union 378, 384
Uralova, Evdokia 530, 531
US Air Force 348
US Army 346, 349
and desegregation 504, 507
US Information Agency (USIA) 328, 513, 527
US Navy 72, 74, 346, 348–9
Ustinov, Dmitrii 352
U Thant 239, 494
Uzbekistan 93–4
Vance, Cyrus 516, 517
Vanik, Charles 59, 113, 401, 496
(p. 659) Velebit, Vladimir 556–7
Venezuela 198
Verdery, Katherine 93
Vietnam:
and partition of (1954) 76, 165
and unification as Socialist Republic of Vietnam 231
and United States, relations between 234
Vietnam War 76, 368
and anti-Vietnam protests 442–3
and China 131–2, 477–8
and covert operations 420
and historiography of 235–6
and race 514–15
Voice of Martyrs 458
Vojvodina 184
Vyshinksy, Andrei 489
Wade, Geoff 233
Wajda, Andrej 437
Walesa, Lech 179, 182
Wallace, Henry 436, 506
Wallerstein, Immanuel 52
Waltz, Kenneth 141, 361
Wang Gungwu 232, 239
Wang Jingwei 126
‘war on terror’ 266, 553, 617
War Resisters’ International (WRI) 438
Warsaw, Treaty of (1970) 168
Warsaw Pact:
and dissolution of 187
and divisions within 176
and formation of 71, 163, 176, 348
Washington, George 159
Washington Consensus 611
Weather Underground 443