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date: 26 May 2018

(p. x) (p. xi) List of figures

(p. x) (p. xi) List of figures

  1. 1.1 Map of the northern Levant 10

  2. 1.2 Map of the island of Cyprus 14

  3. 1.3 Map of the southern Levant 16

  4. 1.4 Map of the Negeb and the Arabah 19

  5. 5.1 New Kingdom fort at Deir el-Balah 78

  6. 5.2 LB IIB House 1500 at Beth Shean 79

  7. 5.3 LB IIB Egyptian-style acropolis temple at Lachish Level VI 80

  8. 5.4 LB IIB terracotta anthropoid coffin from Deir el-Balah 80

  9. 5.5 Kurkar stele of Amunemwia before Osiris 81

  10. 5.6 Phoenician/Egyptianizing Persian-period shrine at ‘Amrit 85

  11. 8.1 Silver Persian shekel, Group IVb of Stronach 112

  12. 8.2 Marble bull protome of the Sidonian temple of Echmoun 113

  13. 8.3 Reverse of silver double shekel minted in Sidon 116

  14. 8.4 Obverse of silver double shekel minted in Sidon 119

  15. 10.1 Map of Neolithic sites in the northern Levant 135

  16. 10.2 Subterranean architecture at Jerf al-Ahmar 136

  17. 10.3 A group of four human skulls found at PPNB Tell Aswad 138

  18. 10.4 Early seventh-millennium pottery found at Tell Sabi Abyad 140

  19. 10.5 Tripartite architecture at Tell Sabi Abyad III 141

  20. 11.1 Map of Neolithic sites in the southern Levant (Cisjordan) 148

  21. 11.2 Public and ritual Neolithic architecture 153

  22. 11.3 Characteristic elements of PPNA material culture 154

  23. 11.4 Characteristic elements of PPNB material culture 157

  24. 11.5 Desert architecture (PPN) 160

  25. 12.1 Map of Neolithic sites in the southern Levant (Transjordan) 171

  26. 12.2 Stone projectile points 173

  27. 12.3 The LPPNB site of Ba’ja 175

  28. 12.4 ‘Ain Ghazal LPPNB cult building 175

  29. 12.5 ‘Ain Ghazal plaster statues 176

  30. 13.1 Map of Neolithic sites in Cyprus 184

  31. 13.2 Chronological chart showing concurrence of Cyprus and the Levant 186

  32. (p. xii) 13.3 Indices of colonization of Cyprus from the mainland during the PPNB 190

  33. 13.4 Fifth-millennium painted pottery from Cyprus 194

  34. 15.1 Map of Chalcolithic sites in the northern Levant 213

  35. 15.2 Rectangular habitation structure from Byblos, Lebanon 215

  36. 15.3 Plan of the Chalcolithic settlement at Sidon-Dakerman, Lebanon 216

  37. 15.4 Ellipsoidal habitation structure from Sidon-Dakerman, Lebanon 217

  38. 15.5 The funerary context in Byblos: jar burials 217

  39. 16.1 Map of Chalcolithic sites in the southern Levant (Cisjordan) 224

  40. 16.2 Bir es-Safadi site plan 225

  41. 16.3 Special vessels from Gilat 226

  42. 16.4 Copper and ivory artefacts from the ‘Cave of the Treasure’ 230

  43. 16.5 Chalcolithic clay ossuaries 232

  44. 17.1 Map of Chalcolithic sites in the southern Levant (Transjordan) 239

  45. 17.2 Excavated structures at Abu Hamid 240

  46. 17.3 Pottery vessels excavated at Abu Hamid 242

  47. 17.4 A clay vessel representing a ram or bull from Abu Hamid 245

  48. 17.5 Fresco painting from Teleilat el-Ghassul 245

  49. 18.1 Map of selected Chalcolithic sites in Cyprus 253

  50. 18.2 Kissonerga Period 3B plan 256

  51. 18.3 Mylouthkia burnt Building 200 257

  52. 18.4 Cruciform figurine from Souskiou-Vathyrkakas Tomb 85 259

  53. 18.5 Plan of Middle Chalcolithic Souskiou-Vathyrkakas cemetery 260

  54. 20.1 Map of Early Bronze Age sites in the northern Levant (Syria) 279

  55. 20.2 Diagnostic vessels of the Early Bronze Age of western Syria 282

  56. 21.1 Map of Early Bronze Age sites in the northern Levant (Lebanon) 293

  57. 21.2 Early Bronze Age I pottery from Lebanon 297

  58. 21.3 Architecture of the Early Bronze Age III (Phases III and IV) at Tell Fadous-Kfarabida 299

  59. 21.4 Cylinder seal impression on a sherd from Tell Fadous-Kfarabida 301

  60. 21.5 Early Bronze Age II–III pottery from Lebanon 302

  61. 22.1 Map of Early Bronze Age sites in the southern Levant 309

  62. 22.2 Examples of domestic and public buildings 310

  63. 22.3 Examples of EB II–III fortifications 315

  64. 22.4 Examples of urban layouts 316

  65. 22.5 Tel Yarmuth: plan of Palace B1 and adjacent domestic quarters 318

  66. 23.1 Map of Early Bronze Age sites in the southern Levant (Transjordan) 335

  67. 23.2 Bab adh-Dhra‘ EB I and II tombs plus EB III charnel house 337

  68. 23.3 Tall as-Sa‘adiya plan of the palace 340

  69. (p. xiii) 23.4 Khirbat az-Zeraqun general plan 342

  70. 23.5 Khirbat Hamrat Ifdan, Jordan 343

  71. 24.1 Map of Early Bronze Age sites in Cyprus and plan of excavated areas at Marki Alonia 354

  72. 24.2 View of excavations at Sotira Kaminoudhia 356

  73. 24.3 Philia and EC I–III pottery 360

  74. 24.4 Stone casting moulds from Marki Alonia 362

  75. 24.5 Terracotta ‘shrine model’ from the Marki region 363

  76. 25.1 Multi-proxy stack Mediterranean westerlies and Kilimanjaro 369

  77. 25.2 Map of Intermediate Bronze Age sites in the northern Levant 371

  78. 25.3 Leilan Region Survey histogram 375

  79. 25.4 Stratigraphic profile from Tell Leilan 377

  80. 25.5 A reconstruction of the settlement at Qatna 378

  81. 26.1 Map of Intermediate Bronze Age sites in the southern Levant 390

  82. 26.2 Red slipped and burnished cup, Phase 1, Iktanu 391

  83. 26.3 Saddle quern from Iktanu 392

  84. 26.4 Room, Phase 2, Iktanu, Area A14 393

  85. 26.5 Pits and silos above the food processing Area E, Iktanu 394

  86. 28.1 Map of Middle Bronze Age sites in the northern Levant (Syria) 417

  87. 28.2 Ebla during the Middle Bronze Age 421

  88. 28.3 Aerial view of Qatna’s ramparts 423

  89. 28.4 Schematic plan of Qatna’s Royal Palace 425

  90. 28.5 ‘Temples of the Rock’, Ebla 426

  91. 29.1 Map of Middle Bronze Age sites in the northern Levant (Lebanon) 435

  92. 29.2 Monumental building/‘Palace’ 4 at Tell el-Burak 439

  93. 29.3 Temple of the Obelisks at Byblos 440

  94. 29.4 Firing pit from Tell Arqa, Level 14 444

  95. 29.5 Sidon, grave of a young individual 445

  96. 30.1 Map of Middle Bronze Age sites in the southern Levant (Cisjordan) 454

  97. 30.2 Gesher cemetery burial and associated grave goods 456

  98. 30.3 Selected MB I pottery 457

  99. 30.4 Selected MB II/III pottery 461

  100. 31.1 Map of Middle Bronze Age sites in the southern Levant (Transjordan) 466

  101. 31.2 Middle Bronze Age Jordan architecture 467

  102. 31.3 Middle Bronze Age Jordan non-ceramic artefacts 470

  103. 31.4 Middle Bronze Age Jordan Common Ware ceramic artefacts 472

  104. 31.5 Middle Bronze Age Jordan non-standard ceramic artefacts 474

  105. 32.1 Map of Middle Bronze Age sites in Cyprus 483

  106. (p. xiv) 32.2 Looking northeast across the main excavated area at Marki, 1999 484

  107. 32.3 Isometric reconstruction of a house at Marki 485

  108. 32.4 Middle Cypriot Bronze Age chamber tombs 487

  109. 32.5 Middle Cypriot Bronze Age pottery 490

  110. 34.1 Map of Late Bronze Age sites in the northern Levant (Syria) 511

  111. 34.2 Plan of the Lower City Palace in Tell Mishrifeh/Qatna 514

  112. 34.3 Painted pottery from Area K in Tell Mishrifeh/Qatna 516

  113. 34.4 Imported pottery from Area K in Tell Mishrifeh/Qatna 517

  114. 34.5 Elephant ivory face from the Lower City Palace in Tell Mishrifeh/Qatna 519

  115. 35.1 Map of Late Bronze Age sites in the northern Levant (Lebanon) 526

  116. 35.2 Kamid el-Loz, palace of Building Stage 4a 530

  117. 35.3 Kamid el-Loz, Treasure House of Building Stage 4c 531

  118. 35.4 Kamid el-Loz, temple of Building Stage T2c 532

  119. 35.5 Kamid el-Loz, stone vessel with inscription (‘Prince Rawoser’) 533

  120. 36.1 Map of Late Bronze Age sites in the southern Levant (Cisjordan) 544

  121. 36.2 Different proposals for the division of Canaanite city-states 546

  122. 36.3 Representative Canaanite pottery types 551

  123. 37.1 Map of Late Bronze Age sites in the southern Levant (Transjordan) 562

  124. 37.2 Late Middle Bronze and Late Bronze Age ceramics from Tell Abu al-Kharaz and Tell Deir ‘Alla (LB II) 566

  125. 37.3 The Lion Box of wood with inlaid ivory from Pella 567

  126. 37.4 Stamp-seal of calcite from Tell Abu al-Kharaz LB IC 569

  127. 37.5 Male deity of bronze from Tell Abu al-Kharaz LB IC 569

  128. 38.1 Map of Late Bronze Age sites in Cyprus 577

  129. 38.2 White Slip and Base Ring pottery 578

  130. 38.3 Plan of Building X, Kalavasos Ayios Dhimitrios 581

  131. 38.4 Imported Mycenaean stirrup jar from Aredhiou Vouppes 583

  132. 38.5 Plan of Myrtou Pigadhes 585

  133. 40.1 Map of Iron Age I sites in the northern Levant 608

  134. 40.2 Summary of archaeological evidence related to Iron Age I in Lebanon and Syria 609

  135. 40.3 Iron Age I pottery from Kamid el-Lōz 612

  136. 40.4 Iron Age I common and painted pottery from Syria 617

  137. 40.5 Iron Age I small finds from Hama 619

  138. 41.1 Map of Iron Age I sites in the southern Levant (Cisjordan) 625

  139. 41.2 Plan of the Egyptian centre of Beth Shean (LB/Ir, Stratum Lower VI) 629

  140. 41.3 Plan of Megiddo VIA (Ir1b) 631

  141. 41.4 View of Tel Kinrot VI/V (Ir1b) 632

  142. 41.5 View of storage building overlooking the southern lagoon at Dor (Ir1b) 633

  143. (p. xv) 41.6 Phoenician Bichrome containers from Yoqne‘am and Tel Kinrot (Ir1b) 634

  144. 41.7 ‘Philistine Monochrome’ skyphos from Tel Miqne-Ekron, Stratum VII 636

  145. 41.8 ‘Ashdoda’ figurine from Ashdod, Stratum XII 637

  146. 41.9 Temple 350 at Tel Miqne-Ekron, Stratum V 638

  147. 41.10 Plan of three-room pillared houses at Khirbet Radanna 642

  148. 41.11 Iron I ceramic assemblage from Shiloh 643

  149. 42.1 Map of Iron Age I sites in the southern Levant (Transjordan) 651

  150. 42.2 Plan of Lehun 653

  151. 42.3 Painting of the four-room house at Tall al-‘Umayri 654

  152. 42.4 Faience vase mentioning Pharaoh Taousert from Deir ‘Alla 655

  153. 42.5 Model shrine found in an open-air sanctuary at Tall al-‘Umayri 656

  154. 43.1 Map of Iron Age I sites in Cyprus 662

  155. 43.2 Palaepaphos: megaliths at the sanctuary of the Cypriot Aphrodite 666

  156. 43.3 Department of Antiquities excavations at Kition Area II 666

  157. 43.4 Proto-White Painted zoomorphic double-headed centaur 669

  158. 43.5 Two female terracotta figurines from the Komissariato Sanctuary 670

  159. 45.1 Map of Iron Age II sites in the Aramean states 684

  160. 45.2 Plan of the citadel of Hama 689

  161. 45.3 Reliefs at the Royal Buttress, Karkemish 693

  162. 45.4 Iron II–III pottery 696

  163. 45.5 Iron II storage jars 698

  164. 46.1 Map of Iron Age II sites in Phoenicia 707

  165. 46.2 Juglets from Al-Bass (Tyre) 708

  166. 46.3 Reconstruction of Tyre in Iron Age II 710

  167. 46.4 The glacis of Beirut 711

  168. 47.1 Map of Iron Age II sites in Philistia 718

  169. 47.2 The royal dedicatory inscription from Ekron 720

  170. 47.3 Temple-Palace Complex 650, Ekron 723

  171. 47.4 Main forms of Late Philistine Decorated Ware (‘Ashdod Ware’) 724

  172. 47.5 The musician’s stand from Ashdod 726

  173. 48.1 Map of Iron Age II sites in Israel 732

  174. 48.2 General view of the Iron IIA apiary, Tel Rehov (Stratum V) 735

  175. 48.3 Iron IIA altar, Tel Rehov (Stratum V) 736

  176. 48.4 Iron IIA ceramic assemblage,Tel Rehov (Stratum V) 736

  177. 48.5 General view of the Iron II high place at Tel Dan 737

  178. 48.6 Assyrian-style administrative building at Megiddo (Stratum III) 739

  179. 49.1 Map of Iron Age II sites in Judah 744

  180. 49.2 Plan of typical three- and four-room houses 748

  181. (p. xvi) 49.3 Large storage jars typical of the late 8th century bce 750

  182. 49.4 Plan of domestic areas from Tell Beit Mirsim’s Stratum A 751

  183. 49.5 Cultic remains from Tell Halif 753

  184. 50.1 Map of Iron Age II sites in Ammon 759

  185. 50.2 Ammonite fortified tower or farmstead 761

  186. 50.3 Proto-Ionic capital found on the Amman Citadel 762

  187. 50.4 Atef-crowned figurine found at Jalul 763

  188. 50.5 Amman Citadel Inscription 764

  189. 51.1 Map of Iron Age II sites in Moab 771

  190. 51.2 Plan of the temple of Khirbat al-Mudayna ath-Thamad 775

  191. 51.3 Pottery from Khirbat al-Mudayna ath-Thamad 777

  192. 51.4 ‘Cypro-Phoenician’ juglet (P135) from Khirbat al-Mudayna 778

  193. 52.1 Map of Iron Age II sites in Edom 783

  194. 52.2 Bulla from Umm al-Biyara 784

  195. 52.3 Plan of Busayra Area A ‘temple’ 788

  196. 52.4 Decorated pottery from Busayra 790

  197. 52.5 Neo-Babylonian relief at Sela 792

  198. 53.1 Map of Iron Age II sites in Cyprus 796

  199. 53.2 Greek Cypro-Syllabic inscription 799

  200. 53.3 Bronze tripod stand from Kaloriziki T. 40 801

  201. 53.4 Proto-White Painted kalathos from Kouklia 803

  202. 53.5 Salamis, ‘Royal’ Tomb No. 79 807

  203. 53.6 Terracotta statues from the sanctuary of Ayia Irene 808

  204. 53.7A Idalion silver siglos (obverse) 811

  205. 53.7B Paphos silver siglos (reverse) 811

  206. 53.8 Limestone statue of Herakles-Milqar from Kition-Bamboula 814

  207. 54.1 Map of Babylonian-period sites in the Levant 826

  208. 54.2 Tell en-Naṣbeh Stratum 2 830

  209. 54.3 Babylonian-era destruction at Ashkelon 831

  210. 54.4 Assemblage 5 from Syria, c.580–540 bc 836

  211. 54.5 Wild Goat Ware from Ashkelon 837

  212. 55.1 Map of Persian-period sites in the Levant 842