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date: 20 May 2018

(p. 852) (p. 853) Index

(p. 852) (p. 853) Index

Note: Page numbers in italic refer to figures. Entries and sub-entries are arranged alphabetically, except for archaeological periods, which are arranged chronologically.

Abdashtart I: 117
Abu Hamid, Jordan 240, 242, 242, 244, 245, 247
Abu Hureyra, Syria 135–7
Abu Salem, Cisjordan 160
Abydos Ware 51, 320
Aceramic Neolithic (Khirokitia Culture) 50
Adad-nirari III: 101
adult burials 241, 427, 441, 618, 709–10
Aegean Late Minoan I: 57
Aetokremnos, Cyprus 186–7
Aharoni, Miriam and Yohanan 48, 60
Ahmose 562
‘Ain Dara, Syria 615–16
‘Ain Ghazal, Transjordan 172–4, 175, 176, 176–7, 178
Ain Samiya goblet 396
Akanthou, Cyprus 189
Akkadian Empire
Akkadian languages 25–6, 27, 504
Intermediate Bronze Age 371–4
Akkar Valley, Lebanon 607
Akkermans, Peter M. M. G. 214
Akko, Phoenicia 117, 712
Akrotiri Peninsula 15
Alalah, Syria 512–13
Alambra, Cyprus 483–4, 485, 488, 489
Alashiya, see Cyprus
Alassa, Cyprus 580–1
Albright, William F. xxv, 37, 38, 39, 44–5, 223, 396–7, 745
Aleppo, Syria 12, 91, 426, 616
Alexander Sarcophagus, Sidon 37–8
Alexander the Great 118–19
Amanic Gates (Bahçe Pass) 11
Amarna letters 14, 27, 76
and Cyprus 583
and Lebanon 533, 534, 537, 544–5
and Transjordan 572–3
El Amarna period 57–8
Amathous, Cyprus 810
Amenophis III: 572
American Center of Oriental Research, Jordan 41
American Schools of Oriental Research, USA 35
Amiran, Ruth 48, 396
Amman, Jordan 469, 477, 571
Amman Citadel Inscription 763–4, 764
Ammon 118
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Iron Age II: 757–67
Iron IIA–B: 760–4
Iron IIC: 764–6
Persian period 766–7
Babylonian period 832–3
TOPICS
architecture 758, 762, 762
biblical references 757, 760, 764–5, 766–7, 832
chronology 758
figurines 763, 765–6
geography 757–8
inscriptions 763–4, 764
material culture 758, 763, 763, 765–6
pottery 760–1, 765
research 758
seals 765
settlements 758, 761, 761–2, 765, 766
sites map 759
Ammonite language 30, 763–4, 764
Amorite Hypothesis 405, 452
(p. 854) Amorite kingdoms 404–7
Amorite language 26
Amorite peoples 25, 419, 428–9
‘Amuq Plain, Turkey 143, 173, 279–80, 281, 376, 420, 613, 695
Anatolia 90–6
breakdown of economic/political systems 95–6
Hittite military intervention in Syria 91–2
and Ugarit 92–3
Ura and Mediterranean trade 92, 93–5
Anderson, William P. 610
animal remains, see faunal remains
Annals of Sargon II: 83
Annals of Tuthmosis III: 583
anthropomorphic figurines
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Neolithic 154, 158, 163, 193
Chalcolithic 244
Bronze Age 320, 363, 516, 518
Iron Age 636–7, 637, 668, 669
MODERN COUNTRIES, GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS and ANCIENT TERRITORIES
Cisjordan 154, 158, 161, 320, 636–7, 637
Cyprus 193, 363, 668, 669
Jordan 244
Syria 516, 518
Transjordan 176, 176–7
TOPICS
metal 518
plaster 176, 176–7
Anti-Lebanon 13, 137, 144, 303
Antioch 38
antiquities laws 37, 39
apiaries 735, 735, 736
‘apiru (refugees and outlaws) 25, 76, 545, 644
Arabah 17, 19
Arabic language 31–2
Arad, Judah 272, 752, 753
Arahattu, Lebanese ruler 537–8
Aramaic languages 25, 30–1
Aramean states 683–99
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Iron Age I/II transition 685–7
Iron Age II–III: 687–8
Iron Age IIA: 688–92
Iron Age IIB: 692–4
Iron Age III: 697–9
TOPICS
burial practices 686, 690–1
ivory objects 691–2, 693
literacy 694
pottery 694–7, 696, 698
Arcado-Cypriot language 667
ARCANE research programme/project 47, 51 n. 20, 52 n. 21
Archaic Attic pottery 63
Archi, Alfonso 53
architecture
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Neolithic 127–8, 139, 143–4, 156, 160
PPNB 174–5
Late Neolithic 178
northern Levant 135, 136, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140–1
Chalcolithic 227, 254, 255–7, 257, 262
Early Bronze Age 271–2, 273, 310, 310–11, 334, 339, 344
Early Bronze Age I: 293, 296
Early Bronze Age II–III: 297–300
Early Bronze Age III: 281
Early Bronze Age IV: 285
Intermediate Bronze Age 372–3, 392–3, 393
Middle Bronze Age 409–10, 438–40, 439, 454–5, 459–60, 467, 473–5, 484, 484, 485
Late Bronze Age 503–4, 512–15, 514, 580, 587
Iron Age 610–11, 615–16
Iron Age I: 630–2, 632, 637–8, 638, 640–2, 642, 651, 653, 654, 656
Iron Age II: 710, 713, 737–40, 748, 748, 751, 762, 762, 773, 788, 788, 789
Iron Age IIA: 689–91
Persian period 844–5
Babylonian period 828
MODERN COUNTRIES, GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS and ANCIENT TERRITORIES
Akkadian Empire 372–3
Ammon 758, 762, 762
Aramean states 689–91
Cisjordan 79, 162, 318
Neolithic 154, 157
Chalcolithic 227
(p. 855) Early Bronze Age 310, 310–11
Middle Bronze Age 454–5, 459–60
Iron Age I: 630–2, 632, 637–8, 638, 640–2, 642
Iron Age II: 739, 739
Cyprus
Neolithic 189–90, 192, 193
Chalcolithic 254, 255–7, 257, 262
Early Bronze Age 357–8, 359
Middle Bronze Age 484, 484, 485
Late Bronze Age 580, 587
Edom 788, 788, 789
Israel 828
Moab 773
Phoenicia 710, 713
Transjordan 174–5, 178, 467, 473–5, 652, 653, 654, 654, 656–7
TOPICS
Egyptian-style 71, 77
forts 77, 78
town walls 271, 272, 273
see also palaces; temples
Arjoune, Syria 143–4
Arqa, Lebanon
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Early Bronze Age 294, 295, 298
Intermediate Bronze Age 376, 393
Middle Bronze Age 419–20, 437, 438, 439, 442, 443, 444
Late Bronze Age 526, 527, 534
Iron Age 608, 711
TOPICS
architecture 298, 393, 438, 439
burial practices 442, 527
foreign contacts 534
fortifications 526
pottery 443, 444
settlements 419–20
arrowheads
Neolithic 155, 158, 173
Chalcolithic 212, 219, 228–9, 243
Middle Bronze Age 428 n. 7, 442
Iron Age 28, 616, 634, 749
Persian period 847–8
Arslan Tash 102, 691, 692, 694
art 243
and birth of religion 128–9
figurative arts 846–7
fresco paintings 244, 245, 246, 439, 462
funerary art 693
statues 129, 176–7, 176, 808
wall paintings 244
see also figurines
Artaxerxes III: 117
Ashdod, Philistia 18, 718, 720–1, 722, 725–6, 726
Ashdod Ware (Late Philistine Decorated Ware) 721, 724, 724, 725
Ashkelon, Philistia 38, 104, 408, 409, 410, 458, 460, 598, 637–8, 721–2, 725, 727, 750, 831, 837
Ashshur-bel-kala obelisk 685 n. 4
Ashtarte-on the-Ingot 668
Asprokremnos, Cyprus 187–8
Assur Prism 83
Assurbanipal 103
Assurnasirpal II: 100
Assyria 98–9
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Iron Age II: 677–80, 688–9, 714, 749–50, 779
TOPICS
biblical references 102, 103
inscriptions 83, 99, 101, 102, 103
and Mesopotamia, expansion in 99–101
and Moab 779
palaces 100
royal annals 99
Assyrian Monolith Inscription 83
Atlit Yam, Cisjordan 153, 156
aurochs 153–5, 158
Avi-Yonah, Michael 47, 48
Ayia Irini, Cyprus 713, 808, 808
Ayios Iakovos, Cyprus 487, 584
Bab edh-Dhraʿ, Jordan 243, 334, 343, 344
Babylonia 55, 98, 99, 104–5
Babylonian Chronicle 104, 827, 831, 833
(p. 856) Babylonian period 61–3, 825–38
MODERN COUNTRIES, GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS and ANCIENT TERRITORIES
Ammon 832–3
Cisjordan 830
Edom 833–4
Egypt 829
Israel 827–9
Jordan 832–4
Judah 828–9
Lebanon 834–5
Moab 833
Philistia 829–32, 831
Sinai 829
Syria 834–5, 836
Turkey 834–5
TOPICS
biblical references 826, 829–31, 832, 833
burial sites 829
destruction 831
Greek imports 835–7
pottery 836
sites map 826
Badre, Leila 608–10
Ba’ja, Transjordan 174, 175, 176
bakeries 564
Balaam Inscription 764
Barbarian Ware 586
basalt objects
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Chalcolithic 229, 231, 232, 233, 234, 243–4
Bronze Age 311, 336, 438–9, 470, 476, 515
Iron Age 617
MODERN COUNTRIES, GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS and ANCIENT TERRITORIES
Cisjordan 229, 231, 232, 233, 234, 311
Jordan 243–4, 336, 470, 476
Lebanon 438–9
Syria 515
Base Ring Ware 578, 578, 579, 582
Bashan plateau (Golan Heights) 20
basketry 155, 158, 244
Basta, Transjordan 174
beads
Neolithic 159, 161, 162, 177, 186, 189
Chalcolithic 217–18, 231, 232, 263
Early Bronze Age 286, 311, 339, 342
Middle Bronze Age 428 n. 7, 429, 478
Intermediate Bronze Age 395, 396
Late Bronze Age 76, 580
Iron Age I: 611, 617, 634
Iron Age II: 774, 775, 787
Persian period 848
Beaulieu, Paul-Alain 100–1
Beer Sheva, Judah 746, 747–8, 753
Beidha, Transjordan 174
Beirut, Lebanon 13, 438, 439, 526–7, 534, 608, 710–11, 711
Beqa‘ Valley (Al-Biqā‘), Lebanon 13, 144, 571, 607
Besorian culture 49
‘Bet David’ Aramaic inscription 752
Beth Shean, Cisjordan 79–81, 79, 628–9, 629, 631
Beth Yerah, Cisjordan 318
Bezez, Lebanon 144
Biblical Archaeology model 39
biblical references
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Iron Age I: 649–50
Iron Age II: 82, 83, 84, 711–12, 726, 730–1, 746, 749, 753, 757, 760, 764–5, 766–7, 770
Babylonian period 827, 829–31, 832, 833
MODERN COUNTRIES, GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS and ANCIENT TERRITORIES
Assyria 102, 103
Babylonia 104
Edom 833
Egypt 82, 83, 84, 746
Israel 730–1
Judah 749, 753
Judea 115, 767
Moab 770
Philistia 726, 829–31
Phoenicia 711–12
Transjordan 20, 649–50
see also Hebrew Bible
Biga, Maria G. 53
Bikai, Patricia 804–5
Biqat Uvda, Cisjordan 153, 163
Bir es-Safadi, Cisjordan 224, 225
(p. 857) Bit Agushi, Aramean states 684, 688, 689
Bit Gabbari/Y’dy, Aramean states 684
Black Desert (Harrat ash-Shaba, Transjordan) 20
Black Desert (Khirbet al Umbashi, Syria) 376
Black Lustrous Wheel-Made Ware 477
Black Obelisk, Nimrud 101, 689
Black-on-Red Ware 61, 462, 804–5
Black Polished Ware 490, 491
Black Slip Ware 490
Blakely, Jeffrey A. 746
bone objects 158, 159, 217, 219, 234, 243, 300, 320, 342, 617, 637
Bouqras, Syria 139
Braemer, Frank 613
Braidwood, Robert 279–80
Braun, Eliot 51 n. 20
Brawer, Moshe 394–5
Bromage, T. 187
Bronze Age
hunting 303, 419, 489, 512, 518
languages 24–7, 520
written sources 26–7
Bronze Gate, Balawat 689
bullae 628, 752, 784, 784
burial practices
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Neolithic 152, 156–8, 159, 162, 176–7, 189, 190, 192, 193
Early Bronze Age 270, 285, 286, 296, 300–1, 312–13, 321–2, 336–8, 337, 339, 343, 363–4
Intermediate Bronze Age 393–4
Middle Bronze Age 407, 409, 426–8, 441–2, 443, 455, 456, 460, 476–7, 486–7, 487
Late Bronze Age 515, 527–8, 529, 550, 571–2, 580, 583–4, 587
Iron Age 612–13
Iron Age I: 618, 639, 667–8
Iron Age I/II transition 686
Iron Age II: 690–1, 709–10, 725–6, 748, 774, 779, 787
Iron Age through Persian period 800–1, 806, 815
Persian period 845–6
MODERN COUNTRIES, GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS and ANCIENT TERRITORIES
Aramean states 686, 690–1
Edom 787
Israel 156
Judah 748
Judea 270
Moab 774, 779
Philistia 725–6
Phoenicia 709
Sinai 159
southern Levant 273–4, 393–4
Syria 218, 285, 286, 407, 409, 426–8, 515
Transjordan 176–7, 571–2
TOPICS
adult burials 241, 427, 441, 618, 709
cave burials 156, 161, 209, 230, 232, 270, 296, 321, 571–2
chamber tombs 363, 409, 476–7, 486–7, 487, 583–4, 587, 800
charnel houses 336, 337, 339, 343
child burials 428, 455, 529, 618
cist tombs 845
cremation 441, 515, 618, 639, 686, 709–10, 725–6, 800
decapitated burials 152, 156, 176–7, 189, 190
infant burials 241, 296, 427, 428, 441, 584, 618
jar burials 213, 216–18, 217, 296, 441, 572
ossuaries 231, 232, 232–3
(p. 858) pit burials 193, 572
royal tombs 407, 442
shaft graves 285, 286, 336–8, 337, 339, 441, 584, 667–8
tumuli 321, 845
warrior tombs 442
burial sites
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Early Bronze Age 308–9, 334, 337, 343
Intermediate Bronze Age 396
Middle Bronze Age 486, 487
Late Bronze Age 571, 579, 580, 709–10, 711
Iron Age I: 629, 630
Iron Age II: 695, 709–10, 711
Babylonian period 829
MODERN COUNTRIES, GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS and ANCIENT TERRITORIES
Cisjordan 79–81, 161, 209, 230, 308–9, 628, 629, 630
Cyprus 487, 579, 580
Israel 829
Jordan 334, 337, 343, 396, 571
Judah 829
Lebanon 571, 709–10, 711
Transjordan 571
TOPICS
cemeteries 79–81, 163, 343, 618
necropoleis 709–10, 711
Burnished Grey Ware 311
Busayra, Edom
Iron Age II: 784–5, 788, 788, 789–90, 790, 791, 792
Babylonian period 833–4
Busayra Painted Ware 789
Bustan ash-Shaykh, Lebanon 844
Byblos, Lebanon 274
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Chalcolithic 215, 215, 216–19, 217
Early Bronze Age I: 293, 296
Early Bronze Age II–III: 297–8, 300, 303–4
Middle Bronze Age 407, 437, 438, 442, 443, 444–5
Late Bronze Age 527, 534
TOPICS
architecture 73, 139, 143, 215, 215, 216, 293, 296, 297–8, 300, 438
burial practices 216, 217, 218–19, 296, 407, 442, 444–5
Department of Antiquities (France) excavations 38
and Egypt 73, 303–4
foreign contacts 534
fortification system 298
grave goods 216–19, 444–5
inscriptions 28–9
material culture 443
projectile points 173
settlements 297–8
stone vessels 71, 72
Byblos syllabary 446
Campbell, Stuart 126, 127
Canaan, see Cisjordan
Canaanite Combed Ware 72
Canaanite languages 25, 29–30
Carchemish, see Karkemish
Carlsberg Foundation, Denmark 38
Carmel Range 18, 19
casemate system 468, 564, 568, 571, 600, 640, 652, 656, 711, 758, 762, 773, 788
Cave of the Treasure, Nahal Mishmar 230, 230
Cave of the Warrior, Judean Desert region 232
cave sites
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Neolithic 137, 144, 156
Chalcolithic 161, 209, 230, 230, 232
Early Bronze Age 270, 296
MODERN COUNTRIES, GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS and ANCIENT TERRITORIES
Cisjordan 156, 161, 209, 230, 230, 232
Israel 129, 156, 157, 158, 753
Jordan 241
Judea 232, 270
Lebanon 144, 296
Transjordan 161, 171, 209, 230
TOPICS
cave burials 161, 209, 230, 232, 270, 296
Cave of the Treasure, Nahal Mishmar 230, 230
Cave of the Warrior, Judean Desert region 232
(p. 859) dwellings 137
figurines 161
lithic industry 144
Nahal Hemar, Israel 129, 156, 157, 158
Nahal Qanah cave, Transjordan 161, 209, 230
ritual objects 156
cemeteries 79–81, 163, 343, 618
Cesnola, General Luigi Palma di 35
Chalcolithic period 49–50, 203–10
MODERN COUNTRIES, GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS and ANCIENT TERRITORIES
Cisjordan 227, 229, 230, 230, 231, 232, 232–3, 242
Cyprus 52, 55–6, 243, 254, 255–7, 257, 258, 262
Lebanese-Syrian coast 212–20
TOPICS
basalt objects 231, 243–4
basketry 244
beads 217–18, 231, 232, 263
birthing symbolism 258
bone objects 219, 243
burial practices 214, 216–19, 217, 232
cave sites 161, 209, 230, 230, 232
chronological considerations 206–9, 207–8
faunal remains 226, 247
figurines 234, 244, 254
fresco paintings 244, 245, 246
grave goods 213, 216–19, 232
hunting 219–20, 226, 255, 261
ivory objects 230, 230, 231
ossuaries 231, 232, 232–3
pastoralism 238
politics and research 204–6
prestige goods 227, 229
social evolutionary trends 209–10
Chamaza, Vera 779
Chébab, Maurice 218
chemical provenience studies 41
Chesson, Meredith S. 334
child burials 428, 455, 529, 618
Chocolate-on-Cream Ware 56
Chocolate-on-White Ware 445, 462, 475, 477–8, 565, 567
chronology 44–63, 45, 62
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Neolithic 48–50
Chalcolithic 49–50
Bronze Age 50–2
Iron IIA: 45 n. 2
TOPICS
artefact seriation 45
Cypriot 46–7
ethnonyms 47
Jerusalem scheme 44–5
Levantine periods 70
naming debate 44–8
radiometry and 45
Cisjordan
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Neolithic 147–64
chrono-cultural framework 149
early Holocene environments 149–52
Late Neolithic I: 159–62
Late Neolithic II: 162–3
sites map 148, 150–1
Chalcolithic 161, 209, 223–34
sites map 224
Early Bronze Age 307–22, 343
collapse of civilization 322
Early Bronze Age I: 307–13
Early Bronze Age II–III: 313–22
sites map 309
Middle Bronze Age 454–5, 459–60
Late Bronze Age 541, 542, 545, 546, 547–8, 550–2, 551
Iron Age 629, 630, 631, 634, 637–8, 640–2, 642, 739, 739
Babylonian period 830
TOPICS
basalt objects 231, 311
basketry 155
burial practices 78, 80, 152, 156–8, 159, 161, 162, 209, 227, 230, 231–3, 272, 312–13, 321–2, 455, 456, 460, 550, 639
burial sites 79–81, 161, 163, 343, 209, 230, 308–9, 629–30
(p. 860) cave sites 156, 161, 230, 230, 232
city-states 319, 545, 546
craft production 228–30, 550–2, 551
cult/religion 234, 313, 322
economy 319
and Egypt 312, 458–9, 541, 542, 545, 547–8, 628–9, 629
farming 152–3, 163
figurines 154, 158, 161, 234, 320
foreign contacts 312, 320–1
fortified cities 314, 315
fresco paintings 462
geography 17–20
grave goods 158, 232, 455, 456, 460
hunting 153–4, 155, 156, 158, 159, 162, 219–20, 226, 255, 261
interregional/intraregional exchange 231
ivory objects 230, 230, 231
literacy 634
material culture 154, 157, 242, 311–12, 319–20
ossuaries 231, 232, 232–3
palaces 317
pastoralism 161–2
plastered skulls 128–9
pottery 311, 319–20
prestige goods 158–9, 227, 229, 634
public buildings 317–18
ritual practices 153, 233–4
settlements 152–9, 227–8, 308–11, 314
subsistence economy 225–7, 308
temples 317, 322
urbanization 314, 315–17, 316
wells 153, 156
city-state system 319, 545, 546, 573
Classical Attic pottery 63
climate change 367–70, 369
coinage
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Iron Age through Persian period 810–12, 811, 815
Persian period 848–9
MODERN COUNTRIES, GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS and ANCIENT TERRITORIES
Cyprus 810–12, 811, 815
Israel 849
Persia 112
Phoenicia 115, 117–18, 116, 119, 810, 848
Common Orange Ware 695
copper production 71, 229–30, 242, 247, 578, 581, 582
craft production
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Chalcolithic 219, 228–30, 247
Bronze Age 361–2, 430, 550–2, 551
MODERN COUNTRIES, GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS and ANCIENT TERRITORIES
Cisjordan 228–30, 550–2, 551
Cyprus 361–2
Jordan 247
Lebanese-Syrian coast 219
TOPICS
and prestige items 164
Crete 714, 802, 804, 805, 813
CRM (Cultural Resource Management), Jordan 41
Cross-Combed Ware 282, 283
cult objects 322
cult practices 176–7, 426, 668, 722, 735, 736, 752, 753, 753–4
cult sites 126, 129, 174, 175, 344, 643
cultural hybridity xxvi–xxvii
Cultural Resource Management (CRM), Jordan 41
Curse of Akkade, The 372, 376
Curvers, Hans 610
cylinder seals 300, 301, 312, 320, 322, 694
Cypriot Base Ring Ware 56
Cypriot Bichrome Ware 56, 802–3
Cypriot Ceramic Neolithic 50
Cypro-Archaic period 60
Cypro-Classical period 61
Cypro-DFBW (Dark-Faced Burnished Ware) 194
Cyprus 14, 41, 276
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Epipaleolithic 186–7
Neolithic 50, 183–95
11th millennium BC: 186–7
10th millennium BC: 187–8
8th/9th millennia BC: 188–91
7th/6th millennia BC: 191–2
5th millennium BC: 193–5
(p. 861) indexes of colonization 189–91, 190
periodization 185–6, 186
sites map 184
Chalcolithic 52, 55–6, 252–63
early Chalcolithic 253–5
middle Chalcolithic 255–61
late Chalcolithic 261–3
periodization 252–3
politics and research 206
sites map 253
Early Bronze Age 357–8, 359, 361–2, 363
archaeological record 356
chronology/terminology 353–5, 355
origins 355
regional demography 356–7
regional interaction 359–61
sites map 354
Middle Bronze Age 407, 483–4, 484, 485–7, 485, 487, 488, 489
up to Late Bronze Age 55–6
Late Bronze Age 578, 580–1, 583–4, 587
Iron Age 59, 664, 665, 668
Iron Age through Persian period 795–816
Cypro-Archaic period 805–6
Cypro-Classical period 814–15
Kyprioi 816
Persian rule 812–13
research problems 796–7
sites map 796
territorial fragmentation 799–801
TOPICS
Amarna letters and 583
antiquities laws 39
architecture 189, 254, 255–7, 257, 262, 357–9, 484, 484, 485, 580, 587
and Assyria 805–6
birthing symbolism 258
burial sites 486, 487, 579, 580, 807
Ceramic Neolithic 50
chronology 61–3
coinage 810–12, 811, 815
copper production 578, 581
Cyprus Expedition chronological scheme 46
economy 489
and Egypt 73
farming 361
faunal remains 186–8, 192
figurines 193, 254, 363, 587, 807
foreign/intra-island contacts 263
foreign influences 355, 364
geography of 14–5
glass objects 580, 583, 584, 585
grave goods 258–9, 580, 584, 800, 801, 802
hunting 184, 186–7, 191, 489
inscriptions 799
ivory objects 583
kinship 359, 361
Kyrenia ship 41
languages 667, 797–8, 813
material culture 361–2
metal technology 799, 801, 801–2
palaces 810
and Persians 115, 117, 812
personal ornaments 359
and Phoenicia 713, 813–14
post-Makarios era excavations 41
prestige goods 583
and Ptolemy 815–16
religion 799, 810
sculptures 807–10, 808, 814
stone tool technology 189
settlements 253–5, 483–4, 485, 488, 798–9
syllabary 813–14
UNESCO condemnation of 41
written documents 581
Cyprus Expedition, Sweden 39
chronological scheme for Cyprus 46
Cyprus Exploration Fund 35
Cyrus II: 111, 114
Damascus, Syria 38, 144, 536, 683–4, 688–9
Dan, Israel 737
Darius III: 118–19
Dark-Faced Burnished Ware (Cypro-DFBW) 194
Daviau, P. M. Michèle 758, 760, 762, 763, 765, 771–2
Dayr ‘Alla/Deir Alla, Transjordan 465, 467, 468, 470, 652, 654, 655, 656, 657, 764
(p. 862) Dead Sea Scrolls 39
Deir el-Balah, Cisjordan 78, 78, 80
dendrochronology 55, 58
Deneia, Cyprus 486, 487, 487
Dever, William G. xxv, 397, 398
Dhali, Cyprus 194
Dhiban, Moab 772, 773, 776–7
Dhraʿ, Transjordan 171–2, 178
Dhuweila, Transjordan 173, 175–6
digital photography 41
Dikaios, Porphyrios 38, 183, 185, 252, 254, 353
Diodorus 117
Dion, Paul-Eugène 758, 763
Dja’de al-Mughara, Syria 135–6
dolmen sites 301, 303, 313, 321, 338, 339
Dor, Cisjordan 18, 632–3, 633, 635, 712, 738, 803, 844
Drab Polished Ware 490, 491
Dunand, Maurice 213–14, 438
Dur-Katlimmu, Syria 835
Dura-Europos, Syria 38
Early Bronze Age 50–2
Early Bronze Age 50–2, 269–76
early urbanism 270–3
middle urbanism 273–5
late urbanism 275–6
social stratification 273–4
Early Bronze Age I: 293–7, 307–13, 334–8
Early Bronze Age II: 338–9
Early Bronze Age II–III: 297–304, 313–22
Early Bronze Age III: 280–3, 339–43
Early Bronze Age IV: 283–9, 344
MODERN COUNTRIES, GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS and ANCIENT TERRITORIES
Cisjordan 307–22
Early Bronze Age I: 307–13
Early Bronze Age II–III: 313–22
collapse of Early Bronze Age civilization 322
Cyprus 353–64
archaeological record 356
chronology/terminology 353–5
foreign influences 364
household and community 357–9
origins 355
regional demography 356–7
regional interaction 359–61
religious organization, ritual and burial practices 362–4
resource acquisition, production and distribution 361–2
Jordan 330–48
Early Bronze Age I: 334–8
Early Bronze Age II: 338–9
Early Bronze Age III: 339–43
post-Early Bronze Age III collapse 343–4
Early Bronze Age IV: 344
Judah 272
Lebanon 292–304
Early Bronze Age I: 293–7
Early Bronze Age II–III: 297–304
Syria 274, 278–89, 781
chronology 278–80
Early Bronze Age I–II: 280
Early Bronze Age III: 280–3
Early Bronze Age IV: 283–9
geography 278
sites map 279
TOPICS
architecture 281, 310, 310–11, 318, 334, 339, 357–8, 359, 781
basalt objects 311, 336
beads 286, 311, 339, 342
burial practices 270, 312–13, 321, 363
burial sites 308–9, 334, 337, 343
cave sites 270, 296
craft specialization 361–2
farming 361
faunal remains 303
figurines 320, 363
foreign influences 364
grave goods 285, 296, 339
kinship 333–4, 346–7, 359, 361
material culture 243, 273
metal technology 344
palaces 317
pottery 281–2, 282, 311
seals 300, 301, 312, 320, 322
social stratification 273–4
urbanism 270–6, 314, 315–17, 316
Early Cypriot period 55–6, 56
(p. 863) Early Transcaucasian Ware, see Khirbet Kerak Ware
Ebla (Tell Mardikh), Syria 40, 54, 275–6, 281, 284–5
Middle Bronze Age 407, 416, 420–1, 421, 427
palaces 52–3, 284, 288, 375, 427
Ebla tablets 284–5
Echmoun, see Eshmun
Edom
Iron Age II: 782–92
architecture 788, 788, 789
bullae 784, 784
burial practices 787
casemate system 788
chronology 784–5
and foreign imperial powers 791–2
mountain sites 789
ostraca 784
Petra region 788, 789
political structure 785–7
radiocarbon dating 785
religion 791
settlements 787–9
sites map 783
sources 782–4
Babylonian period 833–4
Edomite language 30
Egypt
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age I: 69–71
Early Bronze Age 71–2, 271, 296–7, 303–4, 312, 321, 336, 338, 341
Intermediate Bronze Age 72–3, 395
Middle Bronze Age 73–4, 407, 458–9
Late Bronze Age 74–5, 532–8, 541, 542, 545, 547–8, 572–4
Iron Age IA: 78–84
Persian period 84–5
Babylonian period 84, 829
MODERN COUNTRIES, GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS and ANCIENT TERRITORIES
and Cisjordan 312, 458–9, 541, 542, 545, 547–8, 627, 628–30, 629
and Cyprus 73
and Jordan 336, 338, 341
and Lebanon 73, 296–7, 303–4, 532–8
and Levant 69–85
and Palestine 321
and southern Levant 271, 395, 407
and Syria 284
and Transjordan 572–4
TOPICS
biblical references 82, 83, 84, 746
bullae 628
Canaanite Combed Ware 72
18th Dynasty 57
Execration Texts 73, 403, 405, 404, 459, 477
New Kingdom 57, 74–81
Red Polished pottery 69–71
seals 71
ship-building 71
Egypt Exploration Fund, UK 35
Egyptian Medium Ware 72
8,200 yr. event 149, 159
‘Ein Gedi, Cisjordan 233
Ekron, Philistia 18, 83–4, 681, 719, 720, 721, 722, 723, 727
electrum objects 230
Elephantine, Egypt material 31
Enkomi, Cyprus 580, 581, 582, 584, 665, 666, 668, 669
Ephraim, Israel 733
Epipaleolithic period 186–7
Eretz Israel 40
Erimi, Cyprus 185
Esarhaddon 103, 697, 806
Eshmun Temple 113, 844, 847
Eteocypriot language 797, 798, 813–14, 815
Evagoras of Salamis 117
excavation methodology
area approach 38
Hazor method 40
trench approach 37
Wheeler–Kenyon 40
Execration Texts 73, 403, 404, 405, 459, 477
Faegersten, Fanni 809
faience 517, 583, 655, 848
Falconer, Steven E. 333
Famagusta, Cyprus 38
farming
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Neolithic 123–4, 136–7, 152–3, 161, 163
(p. 864) Bronze Age 361, 375
MODERN COUNTRIES, GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS and ANCIENT TERRITORIES
Akkadian Empire 371–2
Cisjordan 152–3, 163
Cyprus 361
Judah 19
northern Levant 12, 13, 135
Syria 136–7
TOPICS
cereal production 371–2
cultivation 152–3
dry-farming 12, 371, 375–6, 419, 430
Mediterranean zone sites 161
milking 163
faunal remains
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Neolithic 129, 175–6, 177, 178, 186–8, 192
Chalcolithic 226, 227, 247
Bronze Age 303, 442
Iron Age II: 753
MODERN COUNTRIES, GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS and ANCIENT TERRITORIES
Cisjordan 226, 227
Cyprus 186–8, 192
Israel 753
Jordan 247
Lebanon 303, 442
Transjordan 175–6, 177, 178
Faust, Avraham 733, 745, 746
Faynan/Feinan (Punon), Transjordan 338, 341, 344, 345, 787
figurative arts: Persian period 846–7
figurines
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Neolithic 154, 158, 163, 193
Chalcolithic 234, 244, 254
Early Bronze Age 320, 363
Late Bronze Age 516, 518, 568, 569, 573, 587
Iron Age 753
Iron Age II: 725, 763, 765–6
Iron Age through Persian period 807
Persian period 847
MODERN COUNTRIES, GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS and ANCIENT TERRITORIES
Ammon 763, 765–6
Cisjordan 154, 158, 161, 234, 320
Cyprus 193, 254, 363, 587, 807
Jordan 244, 245
Judah 753
Philistia 725
Syria 516, 518
Transjordan 176, 176–7, 568, 569, 573
TOPICS
deities 568, 569, 573, 587
metal 518
pillar figurines 753
plaster 176, 176–7
Fine Ware 712
Finkbeiner, Uwe 610
Finkelstein, Israel 47, 59, 745
Fisher, Clarence S. 38
‘Flame and Frond’ group 691
flint tools 124, 126
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Neolithic 176, 142
Chalcolithic 218, 219, 224, 231, 238, 247
Early Bronze Age 71, 270, 281, 296, 302, 303, 304, 311, 336, 339
MODERN COUNTRIES, GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS and ANCIENT TERRITORIES
Cisjordan 224, 231, 311
Egypt 71
Judea 270
Lebanon 302, 296, 303, 304
northern Levant 218, 219
Syria 142, 281
Transjordan 243, 176, 238, 247, 336, 339
fortifications 38, 314, 315, 341, 344, 844–5: see also casemate system
fresco paintings 38, 244, 245, 246, 439, 462
funerary art 693
funerary equipment 54, 80
Gal, Zvi 733
Galilee 17, 733, 739, 828
Garstang, John 37
(p. 865) Gath (Tell es-Safi, Philistia) 18, 545, 598, 718, 719, 721, 722, 724, 726
Gaza (Palestine) 18, 75, 85, 102, 114, 118, 538, 598, 719, 831, 848–9
geographic information systems 41
Ghassulian culture 49–50 & n. 17, 69–71
Gilat, Cisjordan 227
Gilat Lady 226, 233
Ram with Cornets 226, 233
Gilboa, Ayelet 48
Gilead, Isaac 226
Gjerstad, Einar 39
glass objects
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Bronze Age 75, 429, 502, 517, 529, 580, 583, 584, 585
Iron Age 679, 691
Persian period 848
MODERN COUNTRIES, GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS and ANCIENT TERRITORIES
Cyprus 580, 583, 584, 585
Lebanon 529
Palestine 679
Syria 517
global positioning systems 41
Glueck, Nelson 39, 393, 788
Gobekli Tepe, Turkey 129
gold objects 230, 519, 583
Gonen, Rivka 543
grave goods
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Neolithic 158, 163
Chalcolithic 213, 216–19, 232
Early Bronze Age 285, 296, 339
Middle Bronze Age 428, 441–2, 443–5, 445, 455, 456, 460
Late Bronze Age 515, 528, 529, 571–2, 580, 584
Iron Age II: 709–10
Iron Age through Persian period 800, 802
MODERN COUNTRIES, GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS and ANCIENT TERRITORIES
Cisjordan 158, 232, 455, 456, 460
Cyprus 258–9, 580, 584, 800, 801, 802
Israel 163
Jordan 339
Syria 285, 428, 515
Transjordan 571–2
TOPICS
Souskiou complex 258–9
Tyre necropolis 709–10
Great Harris Papyrus 78–9
Great Revolt of Satraps 116
Greece 115, 835–7
Grigson, Caroline 226
Gubla, see Byblos
Guilaine, Jean 191
Guzana, see Tell Halaf
gypsum industry 470, 476
Hadad-ezer 686
Hagdud truncations 154
Hala Sultan Tekke, Cyprus 15, 502, 579, 584, 598, 663, 664, 667
Iron Age I: 664
Halab, see Aleppo
Halaf painted pottery 142
Halula, Syria 135–7
Hama/Hamath, Syria 218, 279, 281–2, 287, 618, 684, 685, 687, 689, 689–90, 697
Handmade Burnished Ware 586–7, 597 n. 2
Harran Inscription 833
Harrison, Timothy J. 334
Hatti, see Hittites
Haza’el, King 691–2
Hazor (Tell el-Qadeh), Israel 15, 59, 828
Hebrew Bible 29, 30, 31, 39: see also biblical references
Hebrew language 29–30
Hennessy, J. B. 240, 246
Hermary, Antoine 808, 814
Herodotus 709, 720, 809, 812
Herr, Larry G. 766
heterarchy, see kinship
Hezekiah, king of Judah 102–3, 749, 753
Hiram I, king of Tyre 709, 711–12
Hittite Annals 76
Hongo, Hitomi 191
Horbat Rosh Zayit 713
(p. 866) Horwitz, Liora K. 191
Hübner, Ulrich 789
hunting
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Chalcolithic 219–20, 226, 255, 261
Bronze Age 303, 419, 489, 512, 518
MODERN COUNTRIES, GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS and ANCIENT TERRITORIES
Cisjordan 153–4, 155, 156, 158, 159, 162, 219–20, 226, 255, 261
Cyprus 184, 186–7, 191, 489
Lebanon 303
Mesopotamia 98
Sinai 159
Syria 419, 512, 518
Transjordan 174, 175–6, 177, 178
TOPICS
hunter-fishers 184
hunter-gatherer societies 123, 127–8, 129, 137–8, 159
hunting scenes 518–19, 690, 693
Hurrian language 26, 504, 513, 520
Hurrians 26, 404, 411, 430
el-Husn, Jordan 469, 477, 571
Hyksos 69, 74
Middle Bronze Age 405, 410, 411, 462
Late Bronze Age 562–3
scarabs 410, 469, 478
Idalion, Cyprus 664, 810, 811, 812–13
Idumaea 118
Iktanu, Jordan 389, 391, 391, 392, 393, 394, 395–6
Illahun Papyrus 51 n. 18
infant burials 241, 296, 427, 428, 441, 584, 618
Ingholt, Harald 39
inscriptions
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Middle Bronze Age 446, 459
Late Bronze Age 76
Iron Age 30, 31, 616, 618, 634, 685 n. 4, 719, 720, 763–4, 764
Iron Age through Persian period 799, 807
Persian period 107
MODERN COUNTRIES, GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS and ANCIENT TERRITORIES
Ammon 763–4, 764
Cyprus 799, 807
Egypt 76, 618
Israel 752
Jordan 763–4, 764
Lebanon 28–9, 446
Philistia 719, 720
Syria 616
TOPICS
Amman Citadel Inscription 763–4, 764
Aramaic 31, 752
Assyrian 83, 99, 101, 102, 103
Babylonian 99
‘Bet David’ Aramaic inscription 752
Esarhaddon inscription 806
Harran Inscription of Nabonidus 833
hieroglyphic 446, 616
Hittite 616, 618
Khu-Sobek inscription 459
Mesha Inscription 30, 752, 770, 774, 775
Mit Rahina 73
Moabite Stone 36
Onasicharis inscription 799
Phoenician 28–9
Proto-Canaanite 634
royal 30, 31, 719, 720
Samian 115
Siloam Inscription 36
Simbar-Shihu inscription 685 n. 10
see also bullae; ostraca; stelae
Intermediate Bronze Age 52–3, 276
MODERN COUNTRIES, GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS and ANCIENT TERRITORIES
Mesopotamia 371–4
northern Levant 367–79
southern Levant 388–98
Syria 375–6
TOPICS
9.15 kya BP 377–8
10.8–9.15 kya BP abrupt climate change 367–70, 369
Akkadian Empire 371–4
architecture 392–3, 393
beads 395, 396
(p. 867) burial practices 393–4
burial sites 396
economy 394–5
Euphrates River 374
farming 375
kinship 395
Khabur Plains post-Akkadian settlements 373–4
material culture 390–3, 395
Orontes River 376–7
pastoralism 376, 395
regionalism 370–7, 389
religion 396
sites maps 371, 390
society 395–6
standing stones 396
trade 395
transformation models 396–8
‘Iraq ed-Dubb, Transjordan 171
Irbid, Jordan 468–9
Iron Age 58–61
MODERN COUNTRIES, GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS and ANCIENT TERRITORIES
Judah 19
Lebanon 607–13, 608, 609
Philistia 18
Syria 609, 613–19, 617
Transjordan 30
TOPICS
architecture 610–11, 615–16
burial practices 612–13
economy 610–11
epigraphic corpora 30
excavations 607–10
farming 19
figurines 725, 753, 763, 765–6
Kingdom of Aram-Damascus 13
languages 28–32
letters 29–30
ostraca 29–30, 31
plaster/wall texts 30
pottery 611–12, 803
royal inscriptions 30, 31
seals 30
society 610–11
surveys 607–10
temples 615–16
Iron Age I: 59
MODERN COUNTRIES, GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS and ANCIENT TERRITORIES
Cisjordan 624–44
central hill country/foothills 641–4
chronology 626–8
foreign contacts 624–6, 628–30, 633–5, 636–7, 639
Galilee region 640–1
northern valleys and coast 630–5
population 643–4
sites map 625
southern coast/northern Negev 635–9
Cyprus 660–71
13th-century crisis 661
chronology 661–2
migration to 667–8, 670–1
polities 662–3
sites map 662
urban states 664–5
Transjordan 649–58
biblical sources and 649–50
Late Bronze Age/Iron Age transition 650–4
sites map 651
TOPICS
architecture 631, 632, 632–3, 633, 637–8, 640, 641–3, 642, 652, 653, 654, 655, 657
beads 611, 617, 634
biblical references 649–50
burial practices 618, 639, 667–8
burial sites 629, 640
cult practices 668
cult sites 643
metal technology 626, 657, 670
religion 637–8, 640–1
sanctuaries 666
standing stones 640
stelae 618
temples 631, 632
(p. 868) Iron Age II: 60–1, 77–81, 660
MODERN COUNTRIES, GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS and ANCIENT TERRITORIES
Ammon 757–67
and biblical narrative 757, 760, 764–5, 766–7, 832
chronology 758
geography 757–8
Iron Age IIA–B: 760–4
Iron Age IIC: 764–6
language 763–4, 764
Persian period 766–7
research 758
sites map 759
Aramean states 690–1, 692, 693, 694–7, 696, 698
Cisjordan 739, 739
Edom 782–92
chronology 784–5
and foreign imperial powers 791–2
mountain sites 789
Petra region 788, 789
political structure 785–7
sites map 783
sources 782–4
Israel 730–40, 753
in biblical narrative 730
chronology 731–2
cultural/commercial interconnections 738
Iron Age IIC: 738–40
as political entity 730–1
regional kingdoms 734–6
sites map 732
territorial definition 731
Judah 743–54
biblical narrative 749, 753
geography 743
Iron Age IIA: 745–7
Iron Age IIB: 747–9
Iron Age IIC: 749–50
political structure 747
population 748–9
post-Sennacherib 750–1
sites map 744
Lebanon 713–14
Moab 770–9
and biblical narrative 770
geography 770–2
political structure 777–9
sites map 771
Philistia 681, 717–27
chronology 719
destruction 722
historical sources 717–20
Iron Age IIA: 720–1
Iron Age IIB: 721–2
Iron Age IIC: 722
sites map 718
Phoenicia 706–14
colonialism 713–14
and Cyprus 713
sites map 707
territorial expansion 711–13
Syria 689, 689–90
TOPICS
architecture 689–91, 737–40, 748, 748, 751, 758, 762, 762, 773, 788, 788, 789
Assyrians 677–80, 688, 714, 749, 779
beads 774, 775, 787
biblical references 82, 83, 84, 711–12, 726, 730–1, 746, 749, 753, 757, 760, 764–5, 766–7, 770
bullae 752, 784, 784
burial practices 725–6, 748, 774, 779, 787
burial sites 695, 709–10, 711
casemate system 773, 788
chronology debate 45 n. 2
cult practices 735, 736, 752, 753, 753–4
economy 680–1, 722, 752
faunal remains 753
glass objects 679
grave goods 709–10
inscriptions 763–4, 764
ivory objects 691–2, 693, 738
literacy 752
material culture 723–6, 739, 752–4, 758, 763, 763, 765–6
ostraca 738, 752, 784
radiocarbon dating 785
religion 725, 774–6, 791
sanctuaries 775, 776
Sela relief 792
temples 679, 753, 773, 775, 775
water systems 747–8
writing 752
Iron Age II–III:
MODERN COUNTRIES, GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS and ANCIENT TERRITORIES
Aramean states 683–99
chronology 684–5, 687–8
deculturation 697–9
Iron Age I/II transition 685–7
Iron Age IIA: 688–92
Iron Age IIB: 692–4
sites map 684
Syria 685, 687
TOPICS
glass objects 691
Hittites 683–4
pottery 686, 687, 694–7, 696, 698
Iron Age III: 61–3
Persian/Phoenician kings 108–10
irrigation systems, see water systems
isotope studies 129–30
Israel
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Chalcolithic 204–5
Iron Age II: 730–40, 753
chronology 731–2
Iron Age IIC: 738–40
sites map 732
Babylonian period 827–9
TOPICS
architecture 828
Assyrian Empire and 737–40
biblical references 730–1
burial practices 156
burial sites 829
cave sites 129, 156, 157, 158, 230, 230, 753
coinage 849
cult practices 735, 736
cultural/commercial interconnections 738
Eretz Israel 40
faunal remains 753
grave goods 163
ivory objects 738
material culture 734–5, 739
ostraca 738
as political entity 730–1
politics and research 204–5
pottery 735, 736
regional kingdoms 734–6
settlements 733–4, 735, 828
territorial definition 731
Israel Stele 96
ivory objects
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Chalcolithic 230, 230, 231
Late Bronze Age 518, 519, 534, 583
Iron Age II: 691–2, 693, 738
MODERN COUNTRIES, GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS and ANCIENT TERRITORIES
Aramean states 691–2, 693
Cisjordan 230, 230, 231
Cyprus 583
Israel 738
Lebanon 534
Syria 518, 519
TOPICS
elephant 518, 519
hippopotamus 502
‘Izbet Sartah, Cisjordan 642–3
Jamous, Lebanon 437
Jbail, see Byblos
Jebel Abu Thawwab, Transjordan 178
Jebel Bishri, northern Levant 371, 376
Jerf al-Ahmar, northern Levant 135, 136
Jericho, Cisjordan 49, 127, 128–9, 152, 153, 316, 343
Jerusalem, Israel 18, 748–9, 752
Jerusalem scheme 44–5
Jezreel Valley 17
Joffe, Alexander H. 271
Jordan
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Neolithic 144–5, 155–6, 172–4, 177
Chalcolithic 237–47
politics and research 204–5
sites 238–9, 239
Early Bronze Age 330–48
sites map 335
Persian period 845
Babylonian period 832–4
TOPICS
architecture 238, 239–41, 240, 244–6, 334, 339, 344
art 243
basalt objects 243–4, 336
basketry 244
burial practices 241, 336–8, 337, 339, 343, 476–7
burial sites 334, 337, 343, 396, 571
cave sites 241
Central Jordan Uplands 469–71
craft specialization 247
CRM (Cultural Resource Management) 41
cult sites 129
faunal remains 247
figurines 244, 245
fresco paintings 244, 245, 246
foreign influences 336, 338–9, 341
fortifications 341
grave goods 339
gypsum industry 470, 476
Jordan Valley 16–7, 18, 466–8, 567, 567
kinship 346–7
Lion Box 567, 567
material culture 336, 339, 342–3
metal technology 343, 344
North Jordan Uplands 468–9
pastoralism 238
pottery 241–2, 242
shrines/cult objects 243–6
statues 129, 176–7, 176
subsistence economy 246–7
temples 473–5
tools/objects of daily life 241–3
tumuli graves 845
Josephus, Flavius 104, 709, 765, 773, 779, 826, 832, 833
Judah 18
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Early Bronze Age 272
Iron Age II: 743–54
Iron Age IIA: 745–7
Iron Age IIB: 747–9
Iron Age IIC: 749–50
political structure 747
sites map 744
Babylonian period 828–9, 831, 837
TOPICS
architecture 748, 748, 751
and Assyria 749
biblical narrative 749, 753
bullae 752
burial practices 748
burial sites 829
cult practices 752, 753, 753–4
economy 752
farming 19
figurines 753
geography 743
literacy 752
material culture 752–4
ostraca 752
population 748–9
post-Sennacherib 750–1
pottery 745 n. 1, 750
settlements 745–6
temples 753
water systems 747–8
writing 752
Judea 114, 115, 118, 158, 232, 270, 767, 834
Kafafi, Zeidan 205
Kafer Garra 218
Kalavasos, Cyprus 580–1, 581
Kamed/Kamid el-Loz, Lebanon
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Middle Bronze Age 437, 438
Late Bronze Age 527–35, 537–8
Iron Age 612
TOPICS
architecture 438
burial practices 527–8
foreign contacts 532–5
fortifications 527
palaces 527, 529, 530, 533
pottery 612
settlements 528–9
temples 530–1, 532, 533
Treasure House 527–8, 529, 531, 532–3, 533
(p. 871) Kamose Stelae 74
Karatepe (Aramean state) 28, 692, 693
Karkemish (Aramean state) 37, 683–4, 685, 686, 687, 692, 693, 698–9
Karnak, Egypt 74, 76, 83, 746
Katzev, Michael and Susan 41
Kazel, Lebanon 437
Kenyon, Dame Kathleen 40, 47, 49, 50, 396, 405
Kerner, Susanne 242
Keswani, Priscilla 486–7
Kfar HaHoresh, Cisjordan 129, 153, 156
Kfar Menahem, Philistia 721
Kfar Samir, Cisjordan 225
Khabur Plains 372, 373–4
Khalde, Lebanon 215, 711
Khiamian culture 49, 154
Khirbat al-Lahun, Transjordan 652, 653, 656
ath-Thamad, Moab 772, 773, 774, 775–6, 775, 777, 778, 833
Khirbat ‘Ataruz, Moab 775
Khirbat az-Zaraqun/Zeraqun, Jordan 341, 342
Khirbat Hamrat Ifdan, Jordan 343, 344
Khirbat Iskandar, Jordan 336, 341, 342–3, 344, 393
Khirbet al-Mudayna al-Mu‘arraja (Mu‘arraja), Transjordan 657
Khirbet al-Umbashi, Syria 285, 376
Khirbet ed Dabab, Syria 280
Khirbet Fahl, Jordan Valley 466–8
Khirbet Kerak/Khirbat Karak Ware 51, 274, 281–3, 320, 321, 341
Khirbet Radanna, Cisjordan 641, 642
Khirokitia, Cyprus 185, 191, 192
Khirokitia Culture 50
Khu-Sobek inscription 459
Kingdom of Aram-Damascus 13
Kinneret (Sea of Galilee) 15–6
kinship (heterarchy) 333–4, 346–7, 359, 361, 395
Kissonerga, see Mylouthkia
Kissufim, Cisjordan 231, 232, 232–3
Kitchen, Kenneth A. 82
Kition, Cyprus 664, 665, 666, 713, 805–6, 812, 813–14
Kition horizon 708–9
Knapp, A. Bernard 47, 56
Knossos, Crete 800, 802
Kohlmeyer, Kay 616
Kommos, Crete 714
Kouklia horizon 708
Kourion, Cyprus 38–9
Krac des Chevaliers, Syria 38
Kumidi, Lebanon 529, 537–8
Kurkh Monolith 100
Kvish Harif, Cisjordan 160
Kyle, Melvin Grove 38
LaBianca, Øystein S. 334
Lachish, Judah 59, 60, 79–81, 103, 629–30, 749–50, 752, 753, 844
Lachish Letters 39
Lachish Ostracon III: 84
Landes, George M. 765
languages
Bronze Age 24–7, 39, 504, 513, 520
Iron Age 28–32, 667
Iron Age through Persian period 797–8, 813–14, 815
Lankester, Gerald 37
Lapithos, Cyprus 486, 487
Larnaca Lowlands 15
Late Bronze Age 56–8, 497–505
MODERN COUNTRIES, GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS and ANCIENT TERRITORIES
Cisjordan 541–52
chronology 541–3
city-states 319, 545, 546
population 545–7
sites map 544
Cyprus 501–2, 503, 504, 505, 577–87
chronology 578–9, 579
sites map 577
Jordan 567, 567
Lebanon 524–39
sites map 526
Syria 509–20
chronology 509–10
population 510
sites map 511
Transjordan 561–74
chronology 561–70, 563
Egyptian influence 570
(p. 872) sites map 562
textual evidence 572–3
TOPICS
Akkadian languages 504
architecture 512–15, 514, 580, 587
bakeries 64
beads 76, 580
burial practices 515, 527–8, 529, 550, 571–2, 580, 583–4, 587
burial sites 571, 579, 580, 709–10, 711
casemate system 564, 568
cave sites 144, 296
chronology/terminology 497–500, 499
cuneiform texts 12
destructions 586, 595
Egypt and 547–8
figurines 516, 518, 568, 569, 573, 587
foreign contacts 532–6, 549–50, 578, 582–3
fortifications 526–7
glass objects 75, 502, 517, 529, 580, 583, 584, 585
grave goods 515, 528, 529, 571–2, 580, 584
Hittites 536–7
ivory objects 518, 519, 534, 583
material culture 503–4, 550–2, 569, 596–600
metal technology 578, 581, 582, 587
palaces 510, 512–14, 514, 527, 529, 530
periodization 542
political structures 500–2, 509, 510, 600–1
prestige goods 504, 518–19, 519, 583
religion 584–6, 585
sanctuaries 573, 584–5
seals 517–18
social structures 600–1
temples 74, 76, 514, 568, 570, 573–4
transition to Iron Age 595–601, 626–7
written documents 581
Late Cypriot period 55, 56
Late Philistine Decorated Ware (Ashdod Ware) 721, 724, 724, 725
Lauffray, Jean 298
Le Brun, Alain 192
Lebanese Civil War 40–1
Lebanese-Syrian coast 212–20
architectural structures 215, 215–16
chronological/archaeological data 212–14
craft specialization 219
economic development 219–20
funerary practices 214, 216–19, 217, 232
sites, spatial organization of 214
sites map 213
social organization 218–19
Lebanon 13
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Neolithic 137–9, 143, 144, 303
Chalcolithic 213, 215–19
politics and research 205–6
Early Bronze Age 292–304
chronology 292, 294
Early Bronze Age I: 293–7
Early Bronze Age II–III: 297–304
sites map 293
Middle Bronze Age 407, 437–40, 441, 442, 444–5
Late Bronze Age 527–36
Persian period 844
Babylonian period 834–5
TOPICS
Amarna letters and 533, 534, 537, 544–5
architecture 139, 143, 215, 215, 216, 293, 296, 297–300, 438–40, 439, 610–11
burial sites 571, 709–10, 711
cave sites 144, 296
economy 301–3
and Egypt 73, 296–7, 303–4, 532–8
faunal remains 303, 442
foreign contacts 532–5
fortifications 527
fresco paintings 439
glass objects 529
hunting 303
inscriptions 28–9
ivory objects 534
(p. 873) lithic industry 144
material culture 443
palaces 527, 529, 530, 533
pottery 297, 301–2, 302
projectile points 173
radiocarbon dates 295
settlements 297–300, 528–9
Shepherd Neolithic 303
society 301–3
stone vessels 71
temples 530–1, 532, 533, 844
tool assemblages 302–3
treasure house 527–8, 529, 531, 532–3, 533
Lebeau, Marc 53
Leilan Region Survey 372, 375, 377
Levant
definition of xxvi–xxvii
geography of 9–13
Levantine Painted Ware 54
Levy, Thomas E. 226
libraries, Syria 40
Lion Box 567, 567
literacy 634, 694, 752
lithic assemblages 158, 161, 162, 179
lithic technologies 144, 178
Lodian culture 49
loom weights 162, 599, 615, 617, 636, 773
lost wax casting 229
Lu‘ash, Aramean states 684, 692
Lu‘ash School 692
Maa-Palaeokastro, Cyprus 664–5
McFadden, George 38–9
magnetometry 41
Mahadu (Minet el-Beida) 12
Mallowan, Sir Max 37
Manning, Sturt W. 258
Marash, Gurgum 693
Marfoe, Leon 528–9
Mari, Syria 285, 427
Mari archives, Syria 403–4, 405, 406, 407, 408, 429–30
Marki Alonia, Cyprus
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Early Bronze Age 353–5, 354, 356, 357–8, 359, 361, 362, 363, 363
Middle Bronze Age 483, 484, 484, 485, 485, 488, 489
TOPICS
architecture 357–8, 359, 484, 484, 485
economy 489
figurines 363
metal technologies 361, 362
settlements 483, 484, 484, 485, 488
shrine model 363
Masada, Israel 40
matting 158
Mazar, Amihai 745
Mazar, Transjordan 657
Mazzoni, Stefania 616
Megaw, Peter 37
Megiddo, Cisjordan 828
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Early Bronze Age 317
Iron Age 630–1, 631, 635, 678
TOPICS
architecture 739, 739
Oriental Institute excavations 38
palaces 317
temples 310, 311, 317
University of Chicago excavations 38
Mengez, Lebanon 213, 218, 301
Merenptah 570
Merenptah Stele 644, 730
Meṣad Hashavyahu, Judah 831, 837
Mesha Inscription 30, 752, 770, 774, 775
Mesopotamia 71, 98–105
Mesopotamian Chronicles 99
metal technologies 203
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Chalcolithic 219–20, 229, 242–3
Early Bronze Age 311, 320, 336, 341, 343, 344, 345, 361
Intermediate Bronze Age 392, 395
Middle Bronze Age 429, 443, 476, 489
Late Bronze Age 515–16, 578, 581, 582, 587
Late Bronze Age/Iron Age transition 601
Iron Age 616–17, 619
Iron Age I: 626, 657, 670
Iron Age II: 691
Iron Age through Persian period 799
Persian period 848
(p. 874) MODERN COUNTRIES, GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS and ANCIENT TERRITORIES
Aramean states 691
Cisjordan 229, 311, 320, 626
Cyprus 361, 489, 578, 581, 582, 587, 670, 799, 801, 801–2
Jordan 242–3, 336, 341, 343, 344, 345
Lebanese-Syrian coast 219–20
Lebanon 443
southern Levant 392, 395
Transjordan 341, 476, 657
TOPICS
bowls 54
bronze objects 691
copper 71, 229–30, 247, 578, 581, 582
fish hooks 220
Metallic Ware 283
Middle Bronze Age 53–5
MODERN COUNTRIES, GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS and ANCIENT TERRITORIES
Ammonite kingdoms 404–7, 419, 428–9
Cisjordan 451–62
Middle Bronze Age I: 453–9
Middle Bronze Age II–III: 459–62
sites map 454
terminology 453
theoretical approaches 451–3
Cyprus 482–92
sites map 483
Lebanon 434–46
chronology 434–7, 436
sites map 435
textual sources 445–6
Levant 403–11
Middle Bronze Age I: rise of Amorite kingdoms 404–7
Middle Bronze Age II: Amorite rule and Amorite koiné 407–10
Middle Bronze Age III: pax Amoritica 410–11
Philistia 408
southern Levant 407
Syria 409, 414–31
chronology 414–15, 415
destructions 430
sites map 417
urban layout 420–5, 421, 423, 425, 428–9
Transjordan 465–79
chronology 465
TOPICS
beads 428 n. 7, 429, 478
burial practices 407, 409, 426–8, 441–2, 443, 455, 456, 460, 476–7, 486–7, 487
burial sites 486, 487
craft specialization 430
cult practices 426
economy 429, 488–9
faunal remains 442
foreign contact 443–5, 458–9, 462, 477–8
fresco paintings 439, 462
glass objects 429
grave goods 428, 441–2, 443–5, 445, 455, 456, 460
gypsum industry 470, 476
material culture 424, 442–3, 470, 472, 473–6, 474
metal technology 429, 443, 476, 489
society 478–9, 489–91
temples 418, 421, 422, 426, 440, 440–1, 460, 473–5
Middle Cypriot period 55–6, 56
migration 274–5
Mishrifeh, see Qatna
Mittani Common Style 518
Mittani Elaborate Style 518
Mittani people 520
Moab 20, 104, 118
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Iron Age I: 657
Iron Age II: 770–9
sites map 771
(p. 875) Babylonian period 833
TOPICS
architecture 773
Assyria and 779
biblical narrative 770
burial practices 774, 779
casemate system 773
destruction of 833
geography 770–2
political structure 777–9
pottery 776–7, 777, 778
religion 774–6
sanctuaries 775, 776
seals 770–1
settlements 772–4
standing stones 776
temples 773, 775, 775
Moabite language 30
Moabite Stone 36
Morphou, Cyprus 580, 583–4, 587
mosaics 38
Mount Gerizim 844
Mu‘arraja (Khirbet al-Mudayna al-Mu‘arraja), Transjordan 657
Mudaybi, Moab 774
Muhly, James 795, 806
Mureybet, Syria 135
Myc III Ware, see Philistine Monochrome Ware
Mycenaean pottery 56, 597 n. 2, 598, 627
MODERN COUNTRIES, GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS and ANCIENT TERRITORIES
Cyprus 579, 583, 583, 584
Egypt 36
Lebanon 529, 533, 534, 535
Syria 517
Transjordan 571, 572
TOPICS
as prestige goods 535, 570, 584
in Uluburun shipwreck 58
Mylouthkia (Kissonerga), Cyprus
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Neolithic 188–9, 190
Chalcolithic 254, 255–6, 256, 257–8, 257, 261, 262, 263
TOPICS
architecture 255–6
burial practices 189, 190
burnt Building 206: 257, 257
Pithos House 262
pottery 193
ritual deposit 256, 257–8
social inequalities 261
wall-and-ditch 254
wells 188–9
Myrtou, Cyprus 584, 585
Nabatean kingdom 40
Nabonidus 105, 792, 832, 833, 834
Nabonidus Chronicle 105
Nabopolassar 104
Nahal Hemar, Israel 129, 156, 157, 158
Nahal Issaron, Cisjordan 160
Nahal Mishmar, Cisjordan 230, 230, 242
Nahal Qanah cave, Cisjordan 161, 209, 230
Najjar, Muhammad 766
National Museum, Damascus 38
nautical archaeology 41
Nebuchadnezzar II: 104, 765, 779, 831
necropoleis 709–10, 711
Neo-Assyrian period 100
Neolithic period 48–50, 123–31
Pre-Pottery Neolithic 49, 50, 124, 125–30, 135–7, 152, 154, 154, 157, 158–9, 160, 176–7, 178, 187–8, 189
Late Neolithic 137–44, 159–61
MODERN COUNTRIES, GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS and ANCIENT TERRITORIES
Cisjordan 152, 154, 156–7, 157, 159, 162
Lebanon 137–9, 143–4
Middle Euphrates 135–7
northern Levant 134–45
southern Levant 156
Transjordan 171, 172, 174–7, 178
TOPICS
beads 159, 161, 162, 177, 186, 189
burial practices 152, 156–8, 159, 162, 176–7, 190, 192, 193
(p. 876) cave sites 137, 144, 156
chronology 126–7
faunal remains 129, 175–6, 186–8, 192
figurines 154, 158, 163, 193
grave goods 158, 163
history of research 124–5
Khirotikia Culture 50
lithic industry 144
Lodian/Jericho IX culture 159
Mediterranean zone sites 159–61
pastoralism 161–2
prestige goods 158–9
wells 153, 156
Yarmukian culture 159, 161, 178
Nergal-erish, Assyrian governor 694
New Salamis, Cyprus 667
Nicosia, Cyprus 38
Nimrud Letter 18: 102
Nimrud Prism 83
nomadic pastoralism 128, 130, 315
North Canaanite Metallic Ware 272, 274
Northern Metallic Ware 319–20
obsidian objects 142, 155, 158, 161, 172, 188, 189, 231, 444–5
Old Salamis, Cyprus 667
Onomasticon of Amenope 635, 639
Oppenheim, Baron Max von 37
ossuaries 231, 232, 232–3
ostraca 29–30, 31, 39, 84, 118, 738, 752, 784
Oxford Egyptian Chronology Project 51 n. 19, 57
palaces
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Early Bronze Age 273, 281, 317, 340
Intermediate Bronze Age 372–3
Middle Bronze Age 408–9, 421, 422, 423–4, 425, 427
Late Bronze Age 510, 512–14, 514, 527, 529, 530, 533
Iron Age II: 689, 690–1, 692–3, 693
Iron Age through Persian period 810
MODERN COUNTRIES, GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS and ANCIENT TERRITORIES
Akkadian Empire 372–3
Aramean states 689, 690–1, 692–3
Assyria 100
Cisjordan 273, 317, 318
Cyprus 810
Jordan 340
Lebanon 527, 529, 530, 533
Palermo Stone 71, 72
Palestine 27, 72, 281, 287–8, 321, 679
Palestine Exploration Fund, UK 35, 36
Palestine Exploration Society, USA 35
Palestinian languages 27
Palestinian Territories 204–5
Palumbo, Gaetano 393, 397
Paphos, Cyprus 665, 666, 713, 810, 811
Papyrus Rylands IX: 84
pastoralism 128, 130, 161–2, 238, 376, 395
Pattern Combed Ware 282, 283
Pattina (Aramean state) 684
Pella, Jordan Valley
Middle Bronze Age 466–8, 467, 470, 472, 473–5, 474, 477
Late Bronze Age 567, 567, 570, 571, 572, 573–4, 565
Peltenburg, Edgar 188–90, 193, 362, 580, 810
Peripheral Akkadian 27
Perrot, Jean 224, 237
Persia, Achaemenid 107–19
conquest/organization of (545–492 bc) 111–14
5th-century Persian domination 114–16
disturbances/changes in (410–332 bc) 116–19
Persian period 61–3, 84–5, 841–9
Ammon 766–7
architecture 844–5
burial practices 845–6
chronology 841–2
excavations/surveys 842
inscriptions 107
material culture 846–8
(p. 877) Persian/Phoenician kings 108–10
settlements 843
sites map 842
temples 844
personal ornaments 142, 359, 392, 428, 443, 584
Petra, Jordan 40, 788, 789, 790
Petrie, Sir Flinders 36, 396
Philia, Cyprus 194
Philia culture 52, 55–6, 353–5, 356–7, 359, 360
Philip, Graham 333
Philistia 639
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Middle Bronze Age 408
Iron Age II: 681, 717–27
chronology 719
economy 722
historical sources 717–20
Iron Age IIA: 720–1
Iron Age IIB: 721–2
Iron Age IIC: 722
sites map 718
Babylonian period 829–32
TOPICS
biblical references 726, 829–31
burial practices 725–6
city-states 18
destruction 722, 831
figurines 725
musician’s stand 725, 726
pottery 59, 578, 582, 598, 610, 616, 624, 627, 633, 636–7, 636, 637, 721, 724, 724, 725, 837
religion 725
settlements 408
Philistine Bichrome Ware 633, 636–7, 637
Philistine Monochrome Ware 59, 578, 582, 598, 610, 616, 624, 627, 633, 636, 636
Phoenicia 571
Iron Age II: 706–14
architecture 710, 713
Assyrians and 714
biblical references 711–12
burial practices 709–10, 711
Cyprus and 713
economy 710, 712
foreign trade/colonialism 713–14
pottery 708, 708–9, 712
settlements 712
sites map 707
territorial expansion 711–13
and Persians 113, 115, 117
Phoenician Bichrome Ware 627, 633, 634, 708, 710
Phoenician language 28–9, 815
phytolith analysis 129–30
piracy 94
Plain White Wheelmade Ware 503
plant remains 129, 178, 296, 303
Poidebard, Antoine 38
population deportations 101, 102, 104
Porter, Benjamin W. 787
pottery
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Neolithic 161, 178, 193–5, 194
Chalcolithic 228, 242, 242
Early Bronze Age 272, 293–6, 301–2, 302, 311, 319–20, 336, 362
Intermediate Bronze Age 390–2, 391, 395–6
Middle Bronze Age 418, 429, 442–3, 445, 455–8, 457, 460–2, 461, 472, 474, 475, 489–91, 490
Iron Age 611–12, 612, 616, 617, 803
Iron Age I: 627–8, 633, 636, 640, 643, 643, 655–6, 668–70, 669
Iron Age II–III: 686, 687
Iron Age through Persian period 802–5
Persian period 846
Babylonian period 836
MODERN COUNTRIES, GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS and ANCIENT TERRITORIES
Ammon 760–1, 765
Aramean states 694–7, 696, 698
Egypt 69–71, 72
Israel 735, 736
Jordan 242, 242, 336
Judah 272, 745 n. 1, 750
Moab 776–7, 777, 778
northern Levant 142–3
Palestine 72, 445
Philistia 723–5, 724
Phoenicia 708, 708–9
southern Levant 390–2, 391, 395
Syria 418, 429, 515, 516, 516–17, 517, 616, 617, 836
Transjordan 178, 472, 474, 475, 563–4, 565, 655–6
TOPICS
caliciform 53, 72, 282, 287–8
chronology 36, 39, 45
coil-made 161
Uruk culture 280
prestige goods 158–9, 161, 164, 227, 229, 275, 504, 518–19, 519, 583, 634
Prism A: 83
projectile points 157, 161, 172, 173
Proto-Base Ring Ware 477
Proto-White Painted Ware 579, 587, 669–70, 669, 802–3, 803
Proto-White Slip Ware 477
Ptolemy 815–16
public archaeology 41–2
Puhurru, Egyptian administrator 538
Punic language 29
Pyla-Kokkinokremos, Cyprus 664–5
Pyrgos, Cyprus 485–6
Qatifian culture 49
Qatna, Syria
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Early Bronze Age 286
Intermediate Bronze Age 372, 375, 376, 377, 378
Middle Bronze Age 409, 422, 423, 424, 425, 427
Late Bronze Age 513–14, 514, 516, 516, 517, 536, 537
Iron Age 686
TOPICS
burial practices 286, 409, 427
Leilan Region Survey 372, 375, 377
palaces 409, 424, 425, 427, 513–14, 514
pottery 516, 516, 517
urban layout 422, 423
wall paintings 424, 513
Qedar 118
Qurayyat al-Mansur, Edom 789
Rabbah-Ammon 764
radiocarbon dating 41
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Neolithic 127
Chalcolithic 223–4, 252
Early Bronze Age 50–1, 52, 295, 296
Middle Bronze Age 54
Iron Age II: 60, 785
MODERN COUNTRIES, GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS and ANCIENT TERRITORIES
Cyprus 252
Edom 785
Lebanon 295, 296
radiometry 45
Ramesses II: 570
Ramesses III: 618
Ras el-Bassit, Aramean states 616, 685, 686, 687, 695
Ras en-Naqab survey 238
Ras Ibn Hani, Syria 513
Ras Shamra, see Ugarit
al-Rawda, Syria 275, 286–7, 375
Red and Black Stroke Burnished Ware 261, 263
Red-Black Burnished Ware, see Khirbet Kerak Ware
Red Lustrous Ware 582
Red-on-Black Ware 56, 490, 491, 585, 724
Red-on-Red Ware 491
(p. 879) Red-on-White Ware 194
Red Polished Wares, Cyprus 359, 360–1, 489–91, 490
Red Polished Ware, Egypt 69–71
Red Slip Ware 686, 687, 688, 694, 695, 708, 709, 712
Redford, Donald B. 74
Reisner, George 37
religion
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Chalcolithic 234
Bronze Age 27, 396, 584–6, 585
Iron Age through Persian period 799, 810
MODERN COUNTRIES, GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS and ANCIENT TERRITORIES
Cisjordan 234, 313, 322, 637–8, 640–1
Cyprus 584–6, 585, 799, 810
Edom 791
Moab 774–6
Philistia 725
southern Levant 396
Syria 141
TOPICS
art, and birth of 128–9
cult centres 129
ritual architecture 128: see also shrines; temples
subterranean buildings 136
research
under colonial domination 37–9
under nationalism 39–42
under Ottoman rule 35–7
Reyes, A. T. 809
Richard, Suzanne 397
ritual objects 154, 155, 156, 158, 230, 246
ritual practices 176, 233–4, 257–8: see also burial practices
ritual sites 154, 156, 161, 162–3, 241
ritual texts 27
Robinson, Edward 36
Rockefeller, John D. 38
Routledge, Bruce E. 650, 772, 774, 786–7
Rukais, Jordan Valley 467, 470, 471
Saaideh, Lebanon 139
Sa‘adiyya, Transjordan, see Sa‘idiyya/Sa‘idiyeh, Transjordan
Saghieh, Muntaha 298
Sahem, Transjordan 571–2
Sa‘idiyya/Sa‘idiyeh, Transjordan 340, 572, 654, 657
Sakçagözü, Turkey 693
Sakka, Syria 422
Salamis horizon 708
salvage archaeology 41
Sam‘al (Zincirli, Turkey) 684, 686, 689, 690, 692–3, 697
Sam‘alian language 31
Samaria 39, 118, 733, 738, 739, 828
Samaria Ostraca 39
Samarra painted pottery 142
Samos inscriptions 115
sanctuaries
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Neolithic 153
Bronze Age 310–11, 362, 573, 584–5
Iron Age 665, 666, 667, 775, 776
MODERN COUNTRIES, GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS and ANCIENT TERRITORIES
Cisjordan 153, 310–11
Cyprus 362, 584–5, 665, 666, 667, 668, 669
Moab 775, 776
Transjordan 573
TOPICS
Sanctuary of the Ingot God 668, 669
Sapin, Jean 613
Sarepta, Lebanon 83, 527, 710, 713
Sargon II: 102, 697, 718–19, 805–6
Satire of Trades 73
scarabs 54, 73, 75, 407, 445, 470, 532–3, 572, 573, 765
Hyksos design 74, 410, 469, 478
inscriptions on 84, 446
Schaeffer, Claude 39
Schreiber, Nicola 804–5
sculptures 113, 158, 518–19, 807–9, 808, 813, 847
Sea Peoples 95, 595, 618
seals 30, 71, 92, 517–18, 765, 770–1
cylinder seals 300, 301, 312, 320, 322, 694
stamp seals 296, 320, 518, 568, 569, 691, 694
see also bullae
Sela relief 792
Sennacherib 102–3, 749
Sethos I: 568–70
settlements 193
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Neolithic 140, 152–9
Chalcolithic 216, 227–8, 238–9, 253–5
Early Bronze Age 286–7, 297–300, 308–11, 314
Intermediate Bronze Age 373–4
Late Bronze Age 512, 543–7, 564, 577–8, 579, 580–2
Iron Age II: 524–7, 758, 761, 761–2, 765, 766
Iron Age through Persian period 733–4, 745–6, 772, 787–9, 798–9
Persian period 843
Babylonian period 828
MODERN COUNTRIES, GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS and ANCIENT TERRITORIES
Akkadian Empire 373–4
Ammon 758, 761, 761–2, 765, 766
Edom 787–9
Israel 733–4, 735, 828
Judah 745–6
Moab 772–4
Philistia 408
Phoenicia 712
Transjordan 465–71, 564, 650–2, 654–7
Seyrig, Henri Arnold 37
Sha‘ar Hagolan, Cisjordan 153, 161
Shalmaneser III: 13, 100, 101, 677–8, 688, 689
Shamash-shum-ukin 103
Shamshi-Adad V: 101
Shaqarat Mazyad, Transjordan 174
Sharon, Ilan 48
Shasu people 650
Shechem, Cisjordan 641
Shephelah, Cisjordan 18–9, 308, 314, 635, 636, 639, 743, 749, 753
Shepherd Neolithic 303
Sherratt, E. Susan 586
Shillourokambos, Cyprus 188–9, 191
Shiloh, Cisjordan 643
ship-building 71
Shiqmim, Cisjordan 227, 232
shrines 83, 85, 844
Sidon, Lebanon 13
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Chalcolithic 215, 216, 216, 217, 218
Early Bronze Age 293, 296, 303
Middle Bronze Age 439, 442, 443–4, 445, 445
Persian period 845
TOPICS
Alexander Sarcophagus 37–8
architecture 215, 216, 217, 293, 300, 439
burial practices 218, 296, 442, 443–4, 845
faunal remains 303
foreign contacts 445
grave goods 445, 445
settlements 216
temple of Eshmun 113, 844, 847
Siloam Inscription 36
silver objects
ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS
Chalcolithic 217, 220
Early Bronze Age 276, 296, 311
Intermediate Bronze Age 391, 392, 396
Middle Bronze Age 407, 424 n. 5, 443–4, 445, 470
Late Bronze Age 533, 571, 572, 582
Iron Age 633–4, 722, 752, 791
Iron Age through Persian period 807, 810, 811, 811, 815
Persian period 848, 849
MODERN COUNTRIES, GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS and ANCIENT TERRITORIES
Cisjordan 311, 633–4
Cyprus 580, 582, 584, 807,