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date: 21 February 2019

(p. x) Abbreviations

(p. x) Abbreviations

*

ungrammatical

Ø

zero marker

1(sg/pl)

1st person (singular/plural)

2(sg/pl)

2nd person (singular/plural)

3(sg/pl)

3rd person (singular/plural)

A

Agent, Actor, transitive subject

abl

ablative

abs

absolutive

acc

accusative

accin

indefinite accusative

adel

adelative case

adess

adessive

ADJ

adjective

adjzr

adjectivizer

adv

adverbial

AF

A(ctor)-Focus (verb form)

aff

affirmative

AFH

Active Filler Hypothesis

agen

agentive

alien

alienable

all

allative

AN

action nominal

an

Animate

and

andative

anr

action nominalizer

ant

anticipatory mood

ante

localization in front of the landmark

aor

aorist

apass

antipassive

appl

applicative

apud

localization near the landmark

art

article

asp

aspect

ass

associative marker

assertive

at

attributive form

aug

augment

AUH

actor-undergoer hierarchy

aux

auxiliary

av

S(ubject)/A(actor)-voice

AVM

Attribute-Value Matrix

ay

the ‘inversion’ marker ay

b

bare

ben

beneficiary

C

abstract Case

caus

causative

cl

clitic

clm

clause-linkage marker

com

comitative

comp

complementizer

compl

completive

con

construct state

cont

localization indicating contact with the landmark, normally with the object being somehow fixed on it

coor

Coordination marker

cop

copula(tive)

CP

Complementizer Phrase

ct

class term

cvb

converb

dat

dative

DCT

Differential Case Theory

decl

declarative

def

definite(ness marker)

dem

demonstrative

dem.pron

demonstrative pronoun

desd

desiderative

desg

designative (case)

det

nominal determiner

di

the case marker di

dir

direct case/form

DIR

directional (marker)

dirs

directional suffix

dis

discourse marker

dist

distal

distpast

distant past

DO

direct object

Differential Object Marking

DP

Determiner Phrase

ds

different subject marker

DSM

Differential Subject Marking

du

dual

dur

durative

dyn

dynamic

ECM

Exceptional Case Marking

ela

elative

emph

emphatic

enc

enclitic

EPP

Extended Projection Principle

erg

ergative

evid

evidential

excl

exclusive

ezafe

ezafe (NP modifier connector)

f

feminine

F

Focus

f|p

Focus or P (nominal marker)

fac

factive

fam

familiar

fin

finite(ness) marker

foc

focus

fut

future

g

given

G

goal (function/marker)

GB

Government-Binding

gen

genitive

ger

gerund

GF

Grammatical Function

hab

habitual

HSPM

Human Sentence Processing Mechanism

hum

human

ill

illative

imp

imperative

impf

imperfect

imps

impersonal

in

localization inside the landmark (normally, hollow container)

inal

inalienable

inch

inchoative

incl

inclusive

ind

indicative

Indefinite

iness

inessive

inf

infinitive

ingr

ingressive

ins

instrument(al)

int

interrogative

intent

intentive

intr

intransitive

ipfv

imperfective

ips

impersonal

irr

irrealis

iter

iterative

kin

kinship term

KP

Case Phrase

l

ligature (marker)

lat

lative

ld

Locative-Directive marker

LFG

Lexical-Functional Grammar

loc

locative

locut

locuter (1,2 p.)

m

masculine

mabl

‘modal’ ablative

mat

Material (function/marker)

mea

Means (function/marker)

mnom

marked nominative

mobl

modal oblique

MP

Minimalist Program

mprop

‘modal’ proprietive

MR

macrorole

n

neuter

N

nominal/noun

n.pred

nominal predicate

narr

narrative

neg

negative

nfut

non-future

nhum

non-human

nm

noun class marker

NMR

non-macrorole

nom

nominative

NP

noun phrase

nprs

Non-present

npst

Nonpast

nucleus

O

transitive object

obj

Objec(tive) case or marker

obl

oblique (case)

ori

orientative

OS

Object-Subject

OT

Optimality Theory

P

transitive object-patient

PAIP

Primary Actant Immunity Principle

pam

Person Agreement Marker

part

partitive

pass

passive

past

past tense

pat

patient(ive) case

pcl

particle

pee

possessee

peg

Pegative (case)

perfrel

perfective relative

pers

person marker

pf

P(atient)-Focus (verb form)

pfv

perfective

phr:term

phrase terminal marker

pl;pl

plural

PN

proper noun

pol

Polite

por

possessor

poss

possessive (marker/pronoun)

post

localization behind the landmark

pot

potential (mood)

PP

prepositional phrase

pred

predicate/ predicative

prep

preposition

pres

present tense/ ‘presentative’ case

pret

preterit

prev

preverb

prf

perfect

priv

privative

prog

progressive

prol

prolative

prop

proper

propr

proprietive

PSA

privileged syntactic argument

participle

purp

purposive

pv

P(atient)-voice (?)

q

question particle

R

recipient

ra

ra (accusative/oblique marker)

rdp

reduplication

rec

recent past

recip

reciprocal

ref

referential

refl

reflexive

rel

relative pronoun, marker

RG

Relational Grammar

rm

remote (tense marker)

rn

relational noun

RRG

Role and Reference Grammar

S

(intransitive) Subject (marker)

S

sentence

SAP

speech-act participant

sbjv

subjunctive

sf

S-Focus

sg;sg

sg singular

sh

subject honorific

smp

subject-marking particle

SO

Subject-Object

spc

Specific(ity) marker

spon

spontaneous voice

src

source (function)

sress

superessive

ss

same-subject marker

stat

Stative

sub

localization under the landmark

subj

subject

T

ditransitive object-theme

TAM

tense-aspect-mood formant

tc

topic-contrast particle

temp

temporal

tlnk

topic linker

tns

tense

top

topic

TP

Tense Phrase

tr

transitive

transformative

U

undergoer

UG

Universal Grammar

usit

usitative

V

verb

vdat

verbal dative

ven

venitive

voc

vocative

VP

verb phrase

WALS

Haspelmath et al. The World Atlas of Language Structures