Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

Subscriber: null; date: 21 November 2018

(p. 921) Language Index

(p. 921) Language Index

Abkhaz-Adyghe 447
Abun 514
Acehnese 294, 328
Adyghe 564–5, 687, 690
Afroasiatic 537, 542–4, 546–7, 687, 693, 801
Aghul see Agul
Akhvakh 610, 617, 621, 624, 669, 671, 673
Alaaba 544, 546
Albanian 455–6, 465, 470, 501, 607, 630, 717, 720
Aleut 687, 689–90, 694
Alutor 189
Alviri 703
Alyawarra 149, 515
Amharic 9, 153, 334–5, 346, 554, 690, 692, 742–55
Andi 669, 672–3, 677, 685
Andic languages 669, 673, 675, 679, 684–5
Anindilyakwa 491
Anywa 466, 546–7
Apalai 583
Arabic 16, 465, 471, 553, 682
Arabic, Classical 17, 76, 611
Arabic, Maltese 558
Arabic, Middle 471
Arabic, Modern Standard 286, 553, 630
Arabic, Spanish 501
Arabic, Egyptian 583
Araona 224, 251
Arawak 495, 497
Armenian 7, 240, 252, 446–7, 452, 455, 500, 607, 612, 618, 622, 640, 712
Armenian, Classical 189, 220, 240
Armenian, Modern 500
Armenian, Old 500
Armenian, West 582
Aromanian 720, 726
Arrernte 605
Athpare 568–9
Austronesian 316, 337–8, 529, 532–3, 564, 570, 590, 596, 644, 687, 770–8, 801
Auyana 605
Avar-Andic 668–9, 671, 678, 684
Avestan 446, 700
Awa Pit 310–11, 551–2, 558
Awakatek, Mayan 563
Awngi 583
Awtuw 347–8, 352
Azerbaijani 618–19, 669, 712
Baale 544, 546–7
Bactrian 708
Bahasa Indonesia 326
Baka 608
Balinese 334–5
Balkan languages 456, 470, 501, 655, 687, 717, 719–22, 728
Baltic languages 220, 375, 380, 382, 444, 452, 455–6, 500, 608, 614
Balto-Finnic 177, 459
Bambara 603
Bangla 317, 319
Bantu languages 194, 543–4, 546, 613, 635, 665
Bartang 459, 463
Bats 203, 208, 325, 565, 668
Batsbi see Bats
Bayso 544
Belhare 108, 313, 515
Belorussian see Byelorussian
Bengali 42, 254, 324, 460–1, 578
Berber 544, 546, 548, 560, 635, 687, 689–90, 693, 695, 801
Berber, Middle Atlas 492
Bidjara 550
Bonan 225–6
Bora 495
Bosnian 716
Botlikh 669
Breton 606
Brokskat 567
Budukh 587, 591, 669, 678, 683–4
Bunuba 491
Burji 544
Burmese 525, 584, 787
Burunge 509
Burushaski 302, 331–2, 590, 615–17
Bworo 544, 546
Byelorussian 627
Bzhedug 564
Camling 641
Carib languages 468, 564, 569
Caspian languages 707, 711
Cassubian see Kashubian
Catalan 465
Caucasian languages 23–4, 122, 209, 268, 447, 456, 467, 499–500, 512, 563, 565, 567–70, 590, 687
Cavineña 509, 515
Celtic 455, 470, 474, 630, 655
Central Plateau Languages/CPD 9, 707–8, 710–1, 714–5
Chai 544, 546–7
Chali 708, 712
Chamalal 669, 671, 673, 677, 685
Chantyal 511, 515
Chechen 203, 208, 668
Chiapas Zoque 568
Chibchan 194, 564, 687
Chinantec, Sochiapan 801
Chinese, Mandarin 81, 153, 168, 307, 336, 559, 580, 594, 603, 788, 809, 811, 817
Chittagong Bengali 254
Choktaw 687
Chukchee see Chukchi
Chukchi 57, 186, 189, 195, 225, 327, 515, 554, 589, 602, 628–9, 631–2
Chukotko-Kamchatkan 225, 563, 632
Circassian 564, 570, 590
Circum-Pacific languages 480–1, 488, 491–2
Comanche 513, 597
Cree, East 153
Creole 465, 604, 606
Croatian 108, 112–14, 375, 501, 628, 716
Czech 142–4, 284, 627
Daghestanian languages 8, 201, 210, 214–15, 218, 342, 349, 353, 514, 516, 610, 615–16, 618, 640–1, 651, 661, 668–85
Dakota 30
Dani 509, 566, 569
Dardic 687, 694
Dargwa, Icari 640, 680, 685
Datooga 537, 541–4
Desano 292–3
Dhaasanac 544, 546–7
Dhangu 223
Dhivehi 514
Didinga 544
Diegueño 544
Digoron 446
Dimli see Zazaki
Dinka 186, 206–7, 209, 491, 537, 544, 546, 615
Diyari 324, 335
Djaru see Jaru
Djingili 564, 567
Dogon 795
Dravidian 196, 456, 494, 501, 560, 578, 654
Dutch, Middle 279–80, 283
Duungidjawu 238
Dyirbal 108, 112–14, 262
English, Old 142, 279–80, 283, 477
Esfarvarini 702
Eshtehardi 712
Eskimo, Tunumiisut 511
Eskimo-Aleut 314
Ethiopian-Semitic 695
Even 237, 341, 498, 553, 555, 560, 605, 640, 645, 647, 659
Evenki 501, 555–6, 646
Faroese 465, 606
Finnic 201, 244, 446, 460–2, 495, 500, 659
Finno-Ugric 23, 201, 215, 380, 445, 456, 506, 559
Finno-Volgaic 244
Folopa 566
Fongbe 559
Fore 352–3, 664
French, Colloquial 590
French, Medieval see also French, Old 142, 698
French, Modern 125, 140–1, 153, 165, 316, 327, 472, 475, 498, 509, 528, 529, 575, 588, 603, 605, 613, 622
French, Old 286, 475–6, 655, 687–91, 693–5, 699
Frisian 465
Gaelic 186, 630
Gaelic, Scots see Gaelic, Scottish
Gaelic, Scottish 174, 465, 630–1
Gamo 544, 546
Gapapaiwa 294
Garo 654
Gastarbeiterdeutsch/guest-worker German 501
Gazi 9, 555, 560, 711, 714
Gedeo 544
Ge'ez 553
Georgian, Old 24, 197, 447, 615, 633
German, Colloquial High 584
German, Middle High 229
German, Old High 229, 283
Germanic 7, 48, 53, 243, 281, 285–6, 380, 400, 455, 470, 476–8, 550, 584, 590, 655–6
Gilaki 700, 707, 711, 713
Ginukh 669
Godoberi 514, 578, 615, 669, 671–2, 677, 685
Gooniyandi 515
Gorani 701, 704–5, 711
Greek, Ancient/Classical 13, 23, 74–5, 80, 137, 142–3, 144–7, 149–50, 240, 276, 553, 622, 630, 632, 634, 642, 655
Greek, Homeric 149–50, 474
Greek, Medieval 150
Greek, Modern 150, 631, 726
Greek, Mycenaean 147, 655
Greenlandic (West) 20–1, 174, 314, 515, 522, 532, 573, 623
Guaraní 269, 272, 346, 604, 640
Guernésiais 496, 501
Guernsey English 501
Gujarati 697–8
Gumawana 293–6
Gurarani 269, 272, 346, 604, 640
Gyarong 307
Haida 251
Halkomelem 692
Haro 542–4, 546
Hawrâmî, modern see Gorani
Hdi 513
Hebrew 125, 426, 429, 432
Hezarrudi 702, 713
Hittite 147–8, 464, 613, 622
Hokan 597
Hua 294
Hualapai 632
Huichol 577
Hunzib 615, 669, 673, 676–7, 685
Iau 491
Igbo 492
Ika 515
Indic 137, 220, 230, 456, 494
Indo-Aryan 7, 71, 198, 320, 353, 440–1, 443, 445, 455–6, 460, 529, 558, 566–7, 578, 627, 637, 687, 697
Indo-Aryan, Middle/MIA 440
Indo-Aryan, New 442–3, 455–6
Indo-Aryan, Old/OIA 440, 442, 456
Indo-Iranian 9, 148, 268, 444–5, 452, 501, 563, 569–70, 690–6, 699
Indonesian see Bahasa Indonesian
Indo-Pacific 594
Inuit 57, 314
Iranian, Eastern/EI 500, 696, 701, 703, 706, 709, 711, 713
Iranian, Middle 227, 701, 708,
Iranian, Modern 702
Iranian, Northwestern/NW 495
Iranian, Old 700, 704, 713
Iranian, Southwestern/SW 495
Iranian, Western/WI 700–4, 706
Irish 465, 653
Iron 446
Italian 50, 167, 276–7, 288, 410, 420, 472, 602
Jamul Tiipay/Jamul Tiipy 512, 544, 712
Jaqaru 591
Jaru 342, 591
Jiwarli 767
Ju|′hoan 316
Judaeo-Persian 349, 708
Jur-Luwo 494, 544, 546–7
K′abeena 544, 546
Kabardian 207–8, 447, 564–5, 569, 687, 690
Kabyle 544, 690
Kafteji 700, 702, 706, 708
Kairiru 294
Kajali 703
Kala Lagaw Ya 580
Kalenjin 544
Kalkatungu 577, 580
Kalmyk 604
Kambaata 544, 546
Kannada 196, 501
Kanuri 468, 615
Karachai-Balkar 590
Karelian 460
Karimojong 544
Kartvelian 447, 467, 512, 662
Kashmiri 71, 348
Kashubian 627
Kate 514, 516
Kati 630, 691–2, 694
Kayardild 8, 188–90, 193, 197, 239, 347, 483, 515, 580, 636, 642, 646–8, 763, 766
Kefa 544, 546
Khalaj 495
Kham 515, 558
Khanty/Khanti 514, 557, 558, 569, 630, 652
Khasi 311
Khinalug 564, 587, 669, 671, 673, 678, 683
Khoini 703
Khoisan 466, 606
Khowar 442, 694
Khvarshi 669, 671, 673, 685
Kinyarwanda 327
Koasati 197, 553, 576, 596, 637, 653–4, 665–6
Komi-Zyryan see also Zyryan 192
Konkani 567, 569
Koorete 544
Korku 514, 551–2
Koryak 225
Krongo 591
Kryz 615, 623, 669, 671, 673, 684
Kuliak 468, 730–1
Kullo 544, 546
Kuot 587, 590
Kurmanji 495, 500, 701, 703–5, 709, 711, 715
Kwaza 292, 354, 596
Lak-Dargwa 668
Lakhota 305
Lardil 190
Lari 700, 710
Latvian 220, 603, 608, 614
Lavukaleve 515
Laz 447, 499
Libido 544, 546
Limbu 568
Lithuanian 242, 252, 254, 374–5, 381, 440, 443–5, 455–6, 495, 500, 588, 607, 614
Livonian 459
Lower Sorbian 627
Lucazi 546
Luiseño 223–4, 227, 253
Lwimbi 546
Maale 543–4, 546, 560, 622, 654
Maasai 693
Maba 491
Macedonian 9, 195, 455, 465, 501, 716–17, 719–21, 728–9
Majang 544, 546
Malay 583
Malayalam 42, 59, 345, 348, 349
Maltese see Arabic, Maltese
Manange 292
Manchu 513, 589
Mangarayi 584, 628–31, 633, 638
Manipuri 350, 569, 593, 661
Mansi 630
Mapudunguyu 607
Marathi 71, 442, 567, 569
Mari 192, 495
Maricopa 492, 509, 514, 544
Martuthunira 64–5, 224, 230, 590
Matís 690
Maung 687
Maya, Yucatec 594
Mayan languages 326, 510, 563, 568, 595–6
Mbula 153
Megrelian see Mingrelian
Meithei 569
Mingrelian 447, 467, 500
Mochica 584
Mongolian/Mongolic 225, 501, 556, 662
Montenegrin 716
Mordvin 193
Mordvin, Erzja 227
Mordvin, Moksha 187
Movima 666, 687, 689–90, 693, 695
Muisca 194
Mundari 294
Munji 708–9
Murle 254–5, 492, 544, 546
Mursi 544
Muskogean 576, 596, 637, 687, 690
Nahuatl 611, 614
Nakh languages 203, 208, 668
Nakh-Dagestanian 312, 314, 573, 668, 670, 674–5, 679, 681–2
Nama 644
Nande 491
Nandi 491
Navajo 800
Nepali 40, 309, 324, 327, 333
Newari 468, 663
Ngangela 546
Ngangikurrunggur 564
Ngiti 629
Ngiyambaa 520, 640
Ngonzelo 546
Nias 635, 687, 690, 693, 801
Niger-Congo 465, 543–4, 580
Nilo-Saharan 254, 537–9, 541, 544, 546–7, 598, 635, 687, 731, 801
Nilotic 186, 466, 491, 539, 541, 543–4, 546–7, 687, 690, 693, 695, 697, 801
Niue 590
Nivkh 629, 633, 641–2
Noon 294
Norse-Icelandic, Old 478
Norwegian 288, 501, 697
Nubi 465
Nuer 186, 491
Nuristani 444, 687, 691, 694
Nyamal 9, 189, 520, 636, 756–65, 767–9
Nyangumarta 759
Nyemba 546
Nyulnyul 448, 491
(p. 926) Ob-Ugric 630
Oceanic 293–4, 564, 630
Ometo languages 542–6
Omotic 542–4, 547, 622, 801
Omotik 544
Ongamo 544
Oromo 492
Osco-Umbrian 460
Ossetic 440, 445–7, 452, 456, 500, 589, 711–12
Ostyak see Khanty
Otomí 607
Pacific languages 563–4, 596, 687
Páez 618
Pama-Nyungan 189, 223–4, 550, 564, 571, 585, 598, 756, 769
Pamir 309, 444, 463, 662, 689
Panoan 350, 564, 568, 571, 687
Päri 466, 544, 546–7, 690
Parthian 700, 708
Pashto 228, 694, 701–3, 713
Pazih 337
Persian 283, 294, 310, 319, 346, 349, 354, 459, 495, 498–9, 553, 690, 692, 702–3, 706, 708, 710
Persian, Colloquial 700, 707, 715
Persian, Middle 700
Persian, Modern 703, 707
Persian, New 706–7
Persian, Old 446, 700, 706
Philippine languages 10, 337–8, 590–1, 777
Pidgins 501, 606
Pipil 465
Pitjantjatjara 255–6, 346
Pitta-Pitta 579
Polabian 627
Polynesian 268, 564, 570, 587
Pomo 325, 583, 597, 631
Portuguese 501
Prasuni 444
Proto-Finnish 617
Proto-Indo-European 147, 440–1, 443–6, 449–50, 452–3, 470–1, 473–4, 591, 600
Provençal 472, 687, 693
Quechua 24, 74, 80, 92, 189, 236, 239, 327, 533, 556–7, 559, 580
Quechua, Cochabamba 92
Quechua, Huanca 92
Quechua, Imbabura 75, 533, 585–6
Rashti 711–12
Razajerdi 700, 708
Rendille 544
Resígaro 495
River Walihío 334–5
Romance languages 7, 84, 195, 207, 243, 346, 455, 465, 471–2, 496, 501, 558, 578, 580, 604, 621, 638, 695–6, 699, 721
Romani 198, 238, 442, 697
Roshani 706
Rumanian 294, 346, 559
Russenorsk 501
Russian, North 327, 697
Rutul 669, 673, 677, 685
Rwanda 583
Sahaptin 514
Sakha see Yakut
Samelai 553
Sami 462
Sangesari 559, 707–8, 711
Sanumá 567
Sardinian 346, 621
Scandinavian languages, dialects 476, 495, 687
Sedang 515
Semitic 285, 652, 687, 695
Semnani 701–2, 713
Serbo-Croatian 234–5, 284, 376, 425
Shapsug 564
Shiilh 544
Shilluk 491
Shipibo-Konibo/Conibo 350, 360, 567–9, 629, 640
Shoshone, Tümpisa 597
Shtokavian dialects (of Serbian) 717
Sidamo 544
Sierra Miwok, Southern 629
Sinhala 324, 441–2, 456, 585, 589, 591
Siuslawan 591
(p. 927) Slavic/Slavonic languages 9, 75, 138, 148, 157, 235, 243, 254, 330, 340, 375, 380, 382, 443, 450, 452, 454–6, 470, 495, 500, 560, 590, 597, 607, 611, 627–9, 652, 655, 716–17, 719–21, 724–5, 728
Slavonic, Old Church 446, 453–4, 627, 716–18
Slovak 627
Slovene 716
Sogdian 227–8, 696
Somali 544, 547
Sorbian, Lower 627
Sorbian, Upper 465, 627
Sorxei 704, 710–11, 713, 715
Spanish 53, 153, 247, 251, 294, 302, 310, 317, 346, 348–9, 472–3, 499, 501, 558, 604, 621, 788
Squamish 689
Sri Lanka Creole Portuguese 604
Sumerian 515, 563, 603, 637–8
Suri-Chai 537
Surmic 538, 544–7
Swahili 194, 606
Swedish 247, 477, 499, 550, 687, 700
Tabasaran see Tabassaran
Tabassaran 23–4, 132, 669, 671–2, 675–7
Tachelhit 690
Tagalog 316–17, 483, 777
Tajik 495, 498
Takelma 30, 244, 605
Takestani 703
Takic 223
Talyshi 700–1, 703–5, 713
Tamazight 544
Tamil 560
Tangkic 189, 197, 483, 580, 647, 763
Tariana 354, 497, 501, 595–6, 644
Tatar 495
Tati 701–2, 706, 708, 713
Tauya 562, 569
Tennet 538, 544, 546
Teso 544
Tetun Fehan 596
Thai 580, 809, 811, 814
Thakali 569
Thalanyji 767
Tibetan 325, 568
Tibetan, Classical 511
Tibetan, Lhasa 362–3
Tibeto-Burman 292, 468, 558, 563, 567–9, 654
Tindi 669, 676
Tinrin 294
Tiriyó 569
Tiwa 301
Tladal Bezhta 676
Tlapanec 10, 523, 576, 665, 797–801, 804–5, 807
Tocharian 440, 443, 451, 455–6
Tokelau 564
Toposa 544
Totonac 602
Tsakhur 615, 669, 671, 673, 675, 679, 683–4,
Tsez 516, 585, 610, 618, 669, 671, 673, 675–6, 685
Tsova Tush see Bats
Tswana 611–12, 614, 622
Tuareg 544
Tukang Besi 10, 584, 644, 662, 770–3, 776–7
Tukita Karata 672
Tunumiisut see Eskimo
Turkana 544, 546–7
Irano-Turkic 495, 498–9
Turkish 5, 23, 67, 95–6, 198, 243, 246, 283, 288, 346, 351, 354, 370, 375, 382, 482, 495, 499, 500, 510, 511, 579–80, 586, 589, 604, 614, 618, 624, 652, 719
Turkish, West Rumelian 501
Tzutujil 595
Ubykh 447, 565
Udi 500, 588, 669, 671, 678
Udi, Nidzh 678
Udi, Vartashen 678
Udihe 514–15, 630
Udmurt 187
Ukrainian 450, 627
Umbundu 543–6
Upper Sorbian 465, 627
Ura 359
Uralic 187, 192–3, 196, 244, 455, 480, 492, 498, 500, 514, 516, 556, 604
Uralo-Yukaghir 563, 571, 606
Usan 251
Uto-Aztecan 223, 310, 462, 509, 558–9, 577, 653, 687, 690–1
Uzbek 495, 498–9
Vietnamese 305, 507, 809, 818
Volga-Finnic 446
Wakhi 689
Wambaya 66, 515
Waris 574
Warlpiri 57, 77, 172, 238, 333, 346, 759
Warrgamay 577–8, 580
Warrungu 328, 346
Warumungu 77
Washo 251, 257
Wayãpi 603
Welsh 629
West Greenlandic see Greenlandic
Wintu 596
Witotoan 495
Wolaitta 537, 544–6
!Xun 466
Yakut/Sakha 283, 498, 501, 640–2
Yamphu 515
Yapese 629
Yaqui 691, 694
Yaqui, Sonora 558
Yawuru 491
Yazgulyam 309, 444
Yiddish 586
Yidiny 577
Yimas 187, 194, 254, 687–90, 695, 773
Yiwaidjan languages 687
Yolngu 223
Yoruba 491
Yukaghir, Kolyma 789, 794, 795
Yukaghir, Tundra 789–90, 794–5
Yukulta 197, 579, 642
Yuman languages 544
Yup'ik 122, 129, 618, 623
Zargulla 544–6
Zayse 544
Zazaki 701, 702, 704, 708, 711–12
Zyryan see also Komi-Zyryan 243–4