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date: 21 February 2019

(p. 895) Subject Index

(p. 895) Subject Index

abessive 198, 216, 446, 514
accusative, see also zero accusative 30, 32, 39, 46, 53, 64, 76, 81, 92, 95, 97, 112, 116, 118–19, 145, 171, 173, 189, 195, 223, 226, 277, 283, 335, 350, 372, 374, 384, 388, 408–9, 412–13, 416, 430–5, 453, 459, 529, 538–9, 549–61, 611–12, 622, 645, 654, 659–62, 664, 745–50, 754, 773, 790, 809
definite 555
indefinite 555–6, 646
acquisition 5, 288–9, 369–83, 387
action tier 34
Active Filler Hypothesis (AFH) 408, 410, 412
active voice, see voice, active
adelative 179, 359, 362–3, 365, 623
adessive 80, 196, 216, 444–7, 465, 500, 516, 595, 616, 619–20, 678
adjective 13–14, 63, 74, 175, 194, 197–8, 203–4, 224, 226–7, 229, 234–5, 239–40, 284, 286–7, 385, 395, 424, 429, 447, 485, 567, 624, 629, 657–8, 692, 725
denominal 439, 446
prenominal 284, 287
adjunction vs. subjunction 131–2
adposition
inflected 613
spatial 530, 610, 613, 615, 619, 656
adverb
inflected 621
affectedness 20, 35, 145–6, 167, 267, 275, 322, 326, 330, 338, 340–1, 345, 347, 357, 360, 362–3, 514, 550, 574–6, 661, 804
Affectedness relation/AFF relation 34
total 145–6
affectee 152, 159, 165, 168
agent
non-volitional 323–6, 340, 350, 352, 623
agglutinative 23–4, 201, 456, 500, 564, 657, 706, 711–12
agrammatism 420–35
Agreement-Tense Omission Model 372, 374
alignment
accusative 57, 241, 292, 310–2, 347, 492, 510, 512, 521, 565, 570, 665, 696, 705
double-oblique 534, 552, 691, 705–6, 709–10
double subject 779, 784–6
(p. 896) ergative 292, 312, 347, 364, 512, 521, 565, 662, 679, 706, 757
indirective 521, 533, 557
marked nominative 68, 74, 76, 310, 329, 341, 364, 466, 492, 512, 535–548, 560, 635, 653, 659, 663, 666, 691, 699, 744, 761, 801
neutral 316–17, 485–6, 521, 696
secundative 308, 514, 521, 532, 557–60
split accusative 741
split intransitive (split S) 251, 269, 272, 275, 305, 308, 325, 344, 523, 556, 791–2
tripartite 309, 314, 521, 614, 618
alignment map 522–3, 531, 534
alignment type/typology 305–6, 318, 320–1, 339, 353, 357, 364, 512, 520–2
basic 317–18, 358, 364
alternation
accusative-partitive 553
dative 34, 397
dative-ergative 32
ergative-dative 36, 41
intransitive/intransitivizing 361
spray/load 531
transitive/transitivizing 5, 340–1, 344–5, 351, 357–8, 361–2
ambiguity, see also disambiguate
syntactic 403, 405, 413, 416
analogy 21, 212, 215, 229, 375, 378, 453, 470, 473–5, 518, 557, 706, 711, 719, 721, 728
anaphor 256, 273, 279, 283, 293, 298, 300, 754–5, 767, 788
antecedent (role) 270, 273, 527
antipassive, see voice, antipassive
aphasia 372, 380, 419–36
Broca's 419–21, 427–8, 432
Wernicke's 419–20, 422–3, 428, 432, 434–5
apudelative 617
apudessive 211, 617
apudlative 617
apudtranslative 617
argument
argument marking 102, 223, 225, 229, 706
argument role 30, 90, 93–4, 305–6, 308, 313, 321, 486, 763, 812, 818
argument selection 268, 344
argument-sharing 133–4, 305
argument structure 7, 33, 37, 39, 54, 59, 62, 93–4, 170–1, 181, 305, 334, 334, 396, 403, 470, 476–8, 769, 773, 776–7, 790, 793, 802, 809, 813, 815
aspectual class of predicate 77
associative 514, 605
asymmetric case system, see case system(s), asymmetric
asymmetry, see case asymmetry
attribute-value-matrix (AVM) 60, 62
Autotyp database 7, 480, 482, 484–8, 490–3
aversive 515, 640
axis
Innovation Axis 702, 704
Nominal-Pronominal Axis/Noun-Pronoun Axis 702, 713
Reduction Axis 702
backgrounding 143
Balkan Sprachbund 456, 717
Balkanization 717, 721
Beard's Criterion 3, 186, 194, 199, 658, 660
benefactive, beneficiary 152, 334–7, 458, 463, 467–8, 511, 514, 524–7, 573–7, 604, 638, 678, 708, 726
boundedness 27, 174, 176–7
(p. 897) case alternation 5, 32, 53, 72–3, 76–8, 87, 93–5, 101, 175, 206, 339–41, 347, 349, 351, 662, 814
asymmetric 341
fluid 341, 345
split 341–2
symmetric 341, 347, 350
case anomaly 666, 731, 734
case asymmetry 4, 246–52, 254–6, 520, 551
additive 250–2
equipollent-quantitative 250
figure-ground 141
qualitative 255
split-function 251–2
subtractive 253
trajector-landmark 141
case doubling 544, 636
case drop 97, 354, 780, 786
case feature, see also uninterpretable feature 54, 65, 84, 186–7, 200, 221, 289, 378, 380, 386–7, 392, 395, 398, 403, 408, 411, 413, 657–8
case filter 45–7, 49, 51–2, 55, 58, 70, 75–6, 96, 372
case grammar 3, 30, 36, 38, 42, 73, 121–35, 263, 530
case hierarchy 7, 9, 38, 332–3, 640, 651, 653–6
case identification 736
distributional 657
formal (form-based) 657
case-inflected adverbs 737
case loss 476, 501, 655–6, 704, 724
case marking
alternative strategies for 10, 290–303, 553–4, 596, 604, 637, 664, 667, 704, 713
differential object marking (DOM) 5, 8, 9, 67, 95–9, 172–3, 223–4, 257, 283, 310, 340–1, 345–55, 358, 360, 523, 529, 532, 551–2, 554, 556, 558, 659–60, 705–7, 709–10, 714–15, 742, 746
differential subject marking (DSM) 5, 8, 67, 93, 95, 97–9, 223, 341, 349–55, 742, 749, 754
multilayer 439, 445–6
optional 71, 236, 372
split 691
case markers, position of 465, 693
case meaning, see also semantics (of case) 7, 137–40, 143, 146, 169, 218, 721
Sonderbedeutung/individual meaning 21
General Meaning/Gesamtbedeutung/generalized meaning 20–1, 138, 156, 201, 217–18, 519, 792
Hauptbedeutung/principal meaning 21
meaning change/extension 143, 149, 524, 527, 533
case neutralization 6, 129, 134, 204–5, 305, 537, 686, 694–5, 699, 719, 722, 728, 731
case percolation 636, 648
case polysemy 8–9, 15, 137, 139–40, 143, 147, 149–50, 466–7, 500, 511–12, 518–34, 567, 590, 598, 653, 688, 690
accusative-allative 558
accusative-dative 558
accusative-genitive 559
allative-dative-accusative 559
comitative 605–6
comitative-instrumental 467
dative-accusative 532
dative-allative 518, 532
dative-genitive 529, 532
ergative 567
ergative-genitive 532
ergative-instrumental 598
genitive-ablative 532
genitive-locative 591
instrumental-accusative 532
instrumental-comitative 532, 598
regular polysemy 519
case reduction 147, 470–2, 501, 655, 695, 699, 712
case relation 29, 127–8, 132, 257, 354, 639, 804, 807
case relationship 28–9
case role 28–31, 394, 507
case spreading 115–16, 660
case stability hierarchy 724
case stacking 8, 10, 64, 115–16, 118–20, 188, 193, 230, 597, 657, 660
case series 122, 210–16, 616–18, 625
case system(s)
bidimensional/two-dimensional spatial 615–17, 620
case-asymmetric 4, 246–257
case increasing languages 439, 451, 455–6
case reducing 455–6
(p. 898) case stable 452, 455–6
caseless 472, 485–6, 543, 704, 706, 715, 722
decline of 194, 470–8, 697, 722, 724
emergence of 456, 613, 616, 696
ergative 44, 57
erosion of case inflection in 441, 451–2, 455, 459–60, 470–1, 473, 695, 702
history of, see diachrony/diachronic
minimal 642, 652, 686
polycasual 695–7, 699
reduction of 147, 470–2, 501, 655, 695–6, 699, 701–15
renewal of 637, 700–15
symmetric type 353, 590
tridimensional spatial case system 618
unidimensional spatial case system 614, 619
case, abessive, see abessive
case, ablative, see ablative
case, abstract 3–4, 17, 30, 39, 44, 50, 54, 187, 218, 372, 507–8, 510, 512
case, absolutive, see absolutive
case, accusative, see accusative
case, adverbal 17, 24
case, adverbial 508
case, adelative, see adelative
case, adessive, see adessive
case, allative, see allative
case, analytic 716, 722
case, apudelative, see apudelative
case, apudessive, see apudessive
case, apudlative, see apudlative
case, apudtranslative, see apudtranslative
case, associating 761–2, 764, 766–8
case, associative, see associative
case, aversive, see aversive
case, central 22
case, comparative, see comparative
case, complementizing 190, 761, 764–8
case, complex 43, 207–8, 217, 511, 773
case, complex markers of 618–19, 769
case, composite 644
case, compound 191, 196, 241
case, concrete 253, 508, 514, 660
case, constructive, see constructive
case, core 25, 55, 89, 194, 222–5, 227, 229, 244, 317, 458, 485–6, 489, 495, 497, 499, 508, 524, 540, 542, 556, 558, 572, 592, 600, 661–2, 664, 667, 689, 736, 777, 809, 816, 818
case, dative, see dative
case, deep 19, 138, 263–4, 507
case, delative, see delative
case, default 63, 69–70, 73, 112, 272, 363, 372, 429–30, 537–8, 690, 735
case, designative, see designative
case, direct 14, 508–9, 690, 694, 698, 700, 702, 704–5, 709, 717
case, directive, see directive
case case, elative, see elative
case, equative, see equative
case, ergative, see ergative
case, essive, see essive
case, external 206–7, 239–40, 636
case, functions of 5, 7, 27, 54, 121, 139, 351, 369, 406, 691–2, 779, 812
case, general 207, 371, 717, 786
case, general oblique 560, 590, 717, 719, 722, 725–9
case, genitive, see genitive
case, grammatical 2, 8, 75, 77–8, 80, 83–4, 200–1, 207, 210–12, 364, 508, 603, 672–3, 677
case, illative, see illative
case, inelative, see inelative
case, inessive, see inessive
case, inherent 63, 76, 433, 508, 660
case, instrumental, see instrumental
case, interelative, see interelative
case, interlative, see interlative
case, lative, see lative
case, lexical 6–7, 51, 63, 73–4, 76, 79–80, 82, 84, 86, 270, 273, 341, 372, 412, 420, 432–4, 508, 655
case, local 20–1, 24, 122, 147, 177–9, 196, 215, 348, 573, 640
case, locative, see locative
case, marginal, see case, Randkasus
case, marked 91, 187, 228, 268, 417, 452, 482, 622, 654, 699
case, modal 8, 190, 646, 648
case, morphological/m-case 3–4, 9, 51–2, 56–7, 72–4, 76–8, 82, 84, 90, 94–5, 98–9, 128, 172, 175, 185–8, 199, 203, 247, 249, 272, 276–90, 304, 306, 375, 403, 420, 423–4, 427, 433–4, 476, 512, 603, 627, 655–60, 664, 667, 688, 722, 812
case, nominative, see nominative
case, non local 23, 672–4, 677
case, partitive, see partitive
case, peripheral, see case, Randkasus
(p. 899) case, perlative, see perlative
case, positional 69
case, pragmatic 8, 10, 643–4, 648, 662
case, prepositional, see prepositional
case, presentative 643
case, primary 110, 209, 333, 443
case, prolative, see prolative
case, proprietive, see proprietive
case, prosecutive, see prosecutive
case, proximative, see proximative
case, quirky 40, 44, 51, 57, 63, 70, 287, 400, 508, 646, 752
case, Randkasus 22, 251, 508–10, 697
case, relational 189, 191, 508, 646, 687, 767
case, secondary 208–11, 214–15, 218, 333, 443, 624
case, similative, see similative
case, structural 6, 53, 56–8, 69, 73, 77, 80, 84, 87, 91, 172, 177, 197, 270, 272, 274, 345, 372, 412, 417, 433, 508, 550, 576, 655, 660–1, 665
case, subelative, see subelative
case, subessive, see subessive
case, sublative, see sublative
case, subtranslative, see subtranslative
case, superelative, see superelative
case, superessive, see superessive
case, superlative, see superlative
case, supertranslative, see supertranslative
case, surface 29, 138, 155, 204, 527
case, syntactic/s-case 3, 9, 21, 72–4, 76–87, 121–2, 173, 185–7, 199–200, 289, 550, 590, 598, 621, 637, 644, 656–62, 667
case, synthetic 716–17
case, terminative, see terminative
case, translative, see translative
case, theories of, see also Cognitive Grammar, Generative Grammar, Generative Semantics, Government Binding theory/GB, Lexical Functional Grammar, Localist Case Grammar, Minimalism, Natural Morphology, Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM), Optimality Theory, Relational Grammar, Role and Reference Grammar
case in tiers 3, 36, 38, 43, 72–87, 654
cognitive-functional approach, see also Cognitive Grammar/CG 369, 382, 519
European Structuralists 20, 137–9
functionalist approach 54, 373
humanistic theory of case 125
semantic approaches 155, 172, 266, 274
case, tonal 484, 489, 491, 544, 546, 635, 695
case, verbal 8, 190–1, 197, 580, 642, 647
case, vocative, see vocative
case, Vollkasus 22
causal (meaning) 15, 376, 378, 397, 461, 515, 527, 567, 596, 640, 673
causal chain model 527
characterizing (function), see also indexing (function) 4–5, 262–3, 269
clitic 186, 194–5, 277, 292, 298, 301–2, 310, 458, 481, 484, 487, 553, 564, 595–6, 604, 638, 692, 713–15
second position clitic 692
floating clitic 714
cliticization 620
Cognitive Grammar/CG 3, 36, 38, 42, 136–50, 519
cognitive scenarios 155–6
coherence 21, 215, 476, 667, 809
cohorts
case cohorts 215
nominal cohorts 201
companion metaphor 137, 148–9, 606–7
comparative (case) 511
complementation 46, 131, 285, 305, 721
(p. 900) concord, complete/total (rule of) 636, 646, 765–6, 769
configuration, spatial 42, 614
constituent structure [c-structure] 59–61, 71, 386, 390, 392–4, 397, 399, 763, 769
constituent, discontinuous 66
constituent, discontinuous 66
animacy constraint 815
cognitive constraint 377
distinguishability constraint 664
economy constraint 95–7, 99–100, 345, 349
global constraint 348
iconicity constraint 95
morphological sequence constraint 766–7
paradigm structure constraint 205, 212
part of speech constraint 391
Repeated Morph Constraint 768
syntactic frame constraint 388
topological constraint 530
well-formedness constraint 371
construct state 125, 285, 630, 639
constructive case 64, 68
contiguity 522, 524, 534
contrastive 278–80, 643, 663, 782
controller 57, 83, 293
copulative 731, 737
copying
combinational 496
frequential 496, 500
global 495
selective 495, 497, 499
semantic 496
core case see ‘case, core’
core functions 24, 652
coverb 526, 559, 594
Creoles 465, 604, 606
cross-reference 19, 25, 205, 553–4, 556, 563, 570, 576–7, 583, 645, 653, 665–6, 739, 741, 749, 759, 772, 774, 777, 798, 805
cumulative 176, 693
dative 31, 51, 63, 67, 112–15, 149, 279, 288, 327, 335–6, 372, 380, 411, 416–17, 428, 430–1, 434, 442, 468, 506–14, 534, 572–8, 584, 603, 641, 647, 726, 767
“body part” 165
“can do” 160
dative-accusative case 529, 641
“feel good/bad” 162
“have” 158–9
instrumental 62, 73, 75–6
internal 160
judger's dative/dativus iudicantis 528
“see/hear/know” 161
declension
declension type 374, 439, 448–53, 473, 475, 520, 671, 724
declensional paradigm 200–18, 441, 518
indeclinable 194, 506, 723
decompositional representation 104–5
deep case, see case, deep
default case, see case, default
Default Macrorole Assignment Principles 107
definiteness 16, 27, 67, 95, 173, 187, 243, 250, 261, 291, 294, 301, 340, 345–6, 349, 351, 360, 384, 389, 432, 483–4, 506, 537, 543, 546, 551, 554–5, 578, 582, 585, 587, 663–4, 691, 745, 818
deflection 281, 283, 285–6
deictic 172, 256, 381, 516, 621, 786
deixis 676
delative 516, 616, 640
demotion 89, 97, 346
demoted object 97, 579, 623
demoted subject 97–8, 623
dependency 30, 60, 130–2, 134, 207, 212, 231, 284, 291, 350, 410, 507, 609, 636, 656, 756–7, 763, 796
asymmetrical 206
dependent-marking 57, 298, 482, 485, 488, 506–7, 553, 557, 563, 583–4, 587, 637, 665–6, 687, 769, 800
desemanticization 459–61, 463, 498
designative 237, 556, 644–7
desyntacticization 229
diachrony/diachronic
diachronic sources 695
historical change 194, 524
diachrony: history of case systems 150, 190, 194, 201, 217, 238, 245, 323, 443, 445, 449–50, 462, 464–8, 524, 526, 534, 541, 546, 559, 607, 619, 642, 716–20
direction 22, 24, 34, 41, 48, 52, 55, 124, 134, 143, 145–6, 148, 178, 191, 287, 320, 358, 469, 511, 513, 515–16, 524, 526, 528, 547, 580, 592, 598, 615, 674, 744, 814
directional 22, 125, 129–30, 132, 134, 177–8, 205, 331, 452, 515–16, 519, 524, 529, 573, 619, 639, 780
disambiguate 6, 295, 297, 299, 351–2, 408–9, 411, 415, 424, 555, 566, 664, 713, 715, 793, 808–9, 812
discriminatory (function), see also case, functions of 9, 262, 291–2, 294, 303
disorder 2, 420
disposal construction 560
distinguishing (function), see also discriminatory function 4–5, 7, 15, 54, 97, 262–3, 269, 347–51, 355, 663–5
distinguishability 348–5, 423, 426, 441, 511, 521, 524, 575, 664
Distributed Morphology 188, 288–9
Dual-path Network 387–8
Effectiveness Condition (EF-CON) 339–41, 344
ellipsis 377, 432, 809–12, 816, 818
Elsewhere Case, see also case, default 69, 652–3
equative 21, 446–7, 515, 673, 712
ergative 28, 31, 32, 37, 39, 44, 57, 65, 66, 70, 73, 77, 85, 95, 97, 99, 100, 121, 122, 124, 148, 172, 197, 212, 214, 223, 268, 287, 300, 307, 328, 330, 332, 335, 350, 352, 363, 376, 447, 463, 466, 467, 531, 532, 546, 547, 561, 562–70, 590, 757, 764, 772, 806
ergative 28, 31, 32, 37, 39, 44, 57, 65, 66, 70, 73, 77, 85, 95, 97, 99, 100, 121, 122, 124, 148, 172, 197, 212, 214, 223, 268, 287, 300, 307, 328, 330, 332, 335, 350, 352, 363, 376, 447, 463, 466, 467, 531, 532, 546, 547, 561, 562–70, 590, 757, 764, 772, 806
ergative case system, see case system(s), ergative
ergative language 30–2, 73, 97–8, 195, 268–9, 272, 287, 319, 323, 328, 330–3, 335, 343, 346–7, 349, 351, 353, 372, 376, 447, 521, 532, 537, 541, 556, 560, 563–6, 570, 665, 670, 760, 801
ergativity 8–9, 56–7, 255, 320, 323, 491, 544, 550, 570, 705, 710
erosion, see also case systems 439, 441, 451–2, 455, 459–60, 463, 470–1, 473, 498, 695, 702
exceptional case marking (ECM) 46, 73
expansion 439–40, 454, 456, 475, 652, 704–5, 715, 785
exponence
exponent 147, 153–4, 159, 201, 204, 207, 210, 214, 221, 250, 484, 507, 509, 556, 564, 587, 692–4, 699
mono/polyexponence 484
faithfulness 90, 93
feature
primary vs. secondary 133
feature decomposition 221
uninterpretable 54, 58
filler-gap processing 407, 410
flagging 553, 557
flexivity 7, 482, 484, 489, 492–3
focus
focus domain, actual 109, 118
focus domain, potential 109
focus, predicate 109, 644
focus, sentence 109, 118
foregrounding 143, 782
functional explanation 622
functional motivation 95, 229, 648
functional processes 391, 401
functional structure (f-structure) 60–2, 64, 66, 71
functions, core, see core functions
functions of case, see case, functions of
garden path 406–7, 411, 414, 417
general oblique, see case, general oblique
Generative Grammar 96, 138, 262, 264–5, 272–3, 660
Generative Semantics 34, 138
genitive
genitive-dative 534, 584, 692, 767
genitive of negation 347, 381, 589
genitive subject 41, 175, 477–8
Government Binding theory/GB, see also Minimalism 35, 37–41, 43–60, 70, 75–6, 277, 283, 289, 507
(p. 902) hierarchy
actor-undergoer 106, 111, 114–15
grammatical relations 36, 43, 72, 74, 87
lexical content 25
nominal 256–7
NP-hierarchy 28
person 348, 552, 790
referential 305, 310, 316, 320–1
subject-selection 107, 133–4
(semantic) role 130, 263–6, 268, 798
Thematic Role 62
homonymy 139–40, 149–50, 615
Human sentence processing mechanism (HSPM) 402–3, 405, 407–8, 411, 413, 415–18
hypostasis 236, 239
iconicity 95, 127, 233, 244, 323–4, 341, 350, 380, 519, 639, 657, 666, 692
impairment 6, 380, 419–20, 427, 433–4, 655
inanimate, inanimacy, see animacy
incremental 6, 101, 108, 378–9, 383, 388–90, 396, 398–400, 409–10, 531
incremental theme 267
Incremental Procedural Grammar 388
Indefinite Object Deletion/IOD 361
indexing (function), see also characterizing (function) 4–5, 7, 97, 127, 292–5, 301, 303, 347, 350–5, 510, 514, 524, 553, 557, 583–5, 637, 665, 805
indexation 294–5
indexical 257, 292, 447
indirective alignment, see alignment
indirective (case) 179
inelative 617
inflection (al) class 186–7, 201, 204–5, 229, 246
information structure 10, 54, 108, 346, 389, 413, 416, 466, 644, 660, 690, 714, 781, 783, 791, 795, 809, 814
inside-out functional designation 65
instigation 531
instrumental (function, role) 8, 62, 73, 142, 252, 496, 500, 530–1, 557, 593–9, 642, 652, 684
intensional meaning 21
interelative 617
interlative 617
islands, see verb islands
Kāraka 2, 18–19, 33, 39
landmark 41, 50, 141–2, 145–6, 155, 609, 674–6
language contact 469, 478, 494, 497, 547, 711
copiability 498
copying 494–502, 711
contact patterns 479
language learning 169
language production, see also speech production 384–401, 422, 428, 435
language sample 244, 596, 598
language teaching 169
language types
agglutinative 23–4, 195, 370, 380–1, 456, 564, 712
fusional 246, 249
inflectional 564
isolating 483, 488, 491, 507, 599, 808–9, 812, 818
polysynthetic 284
layered structure of the clause 103–4
Lexical Conceptual Structure/LCS 34
lexical decomposition 4, 33, 41, 281
lexical structure 130–1
Lexical Functional Grammar/LFG 3, 35, 37–41, 52, 59–71, 141, 188, 262, 264–5
linking
linking algorithm 103, 108, 110
Linking Theory 35, 37, 39–41, 59, 62, 64, 68
Localist Case Grammar 3, 15, 30, 36, 38, 121–35
localist tradition 32
locational nouns 616–17, 619–20
M-atransitive 107
M-intransitive 107, 112, 115, 596
M-transitive 107, 111–12
macro-roles 35, 37, 41, 105–8, 111–15, 117, 523, 531, 603, 804
(p. 903) malefactive 527, 573–4
makeshift languages 501
Mapping Theories 39, 59
markedness 6–8, 91, 95–6, 100, 106, 146, 149, 228, 332, 348, 351–2, 355, 403, 416–18, 531, 536–7, 590, 607, 635, 653–6, 661, 665, 690, 692, 698–9, 801
markedness reversal 348, 665
Marker, Person Agreement/PAM 714–15
Maximal Semantic Distinguishability 350
meaning, see case meaning
means/material function 531
merger, morphological 696
metaphoric extension 140
metonymic 148, 506
middle voice, see voice, middle
Minimal Chain Principle/MCP 410, 412
Minimalism/MP, see also Government Binding theory 35, 37–41, 43–60, 70, 277, 289
mixed patterns 557
modal case, see case, modal
modality 32, 42, 468, 579, 771
Modistae 17
morphophonology 39, 67, 70, 196, 374, 383, 385, 440, 564, 595, 625, 632, 639, 648, 693
morphophonological alternation 632, 693, 800
morphological opposition 690, 793
morphologization 224, 229, 349, 608, 617, 676
morphomic 202
movement 146, 166, 179, 267, 486, 760
multilayer case marking, see case marking, multilayer
mutation 186, 629–31, 635, 693
Natural Morphology 6, 200–1, 369, 380, 382
Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM) 3, 151–69
NSM English 168
NSM Polish 168
Neogrammarians 137
nominalization 48, 75, 108, 191, 242, 293, 420, 431, 469, 589, 761–2
nonspecificity 295, 590
noun class 187, 208, 220, 228, 500, 583, 613, 654
noun incorporation 556
noun, relational 331, 460, 465, 482, 526, 587, 596, 737
NP-types 4, 249, 256, 531
object
nominative 36, 57–8, 72, 74, 77, 84
primary 106, 308, 310, 312, 316, 485–6, 513, 805
secondary, see also indirective, secundative 63, 513, 521, 652, 662
object agreement 554, 557, 577, 638, 652–3, 745–9, 753–4
object alternation 67, 339–40
object incorporation 351, 554
object shift 662
Objectivist's misconception 127
oblique, see case, oblique; see also alignment; subject
obviation 798–9
operator projection 103
Optimality Theory 3, 6, 32, 36, 40, 59, 67, 70–1, 88–101, 345, 409–10, 654
orientation 29, 122–3, 141, 178, 191, 196, 516, 610–11, 614–15, 617, 619, 621, 674–5, 677–8, 814
orientation marker 23–4, 517, 677–7
ornative 514, 605
paradigm
specified 207–8
paradigmatic levelling 241, 470, 475
Paradigmatic Selection Principle 344
paradigmatic structure 693, 699
paradigm structure constraints 188, 204–5, 207, 209, 212, 247, 670–1
paragrammatism 422, 428
parsing 294–5, 299, 402, 406, 408, 413, 417–19
passive voice, see voice passive
pegative 10, 523, 666, 797, 799, 801–7
perlative 21, 179–80, 463, 515, 569, 616, 618, 640
phonology 39, 70, 82, 135, 187, 420, 634
phonotactic 8, 628, 671
pidgin 501, 606
polyfunctionality 140, 558–9, 590, 642, 704
population movements 493
possession 15, 143, 154, 159–60, 162–3, 211, 242, 322–4, 334, 381, 464–5, 528–9, 532–3, 538, 569, 583, 591, 599, 605–6, 608, 680, 683–4, 706, 717, 738, 752, 760, 801–2, 807
alienable 143
external 5, 322–3, 337, 528–9, 533, 588, 806
inalienable 84, 143, 588
possessive 8, 64, 244, 254, 256, 266, 354, 374, 428–9, 447, 458, 461, 464–7, 484, 511, 513, 526, 530–2, 555–6, 568, 578, 581–92, 630, 633, 641–2, 645–6, 652, 659, 676, 684, 713, 724–5, 746, 760, 763, 792–3
possessive predication, see predication, possessive
posture 618
pragmatics 102–3, 108, 135, 643, 778, 809, 818
predicate type 273–4, 757–9
predication, possessive 684
premorphology 380
prepositional (case) 431, 449, 560, 611, 643
Primary Actant Immunity Principle/PAIP 98, 351, 353
pro-drop 257, 297, 682
production, speech see speech production
prolative 515, 530, 533, 559, 607, 652
pronominal 24–5, 30, 45, 108, 195, 226, 246–7, 251–2, 254, 257, 284, 287, 292–3, 316, 447, 452, 473, 481, 513, 551, 555, 563, 565, 582, 585–6, 596, 622, 630, 638–9, 657, 687, 702, 713, 739–40, 743–4, 746, 748–51, 754–5, 768, 800
pronominalization 108, 293, 622
proprietive 64–6, 189, 514, 530, 646, 764–5
prosecutive 21, 515, 725–6
proto-role 4, 33, 35–6, 40, 266–9, 275, 344
proto-agent 35, 267–8, 270, 273, 344, 531, 662
proto-patient 35, 268, 270, 344, 662
protomorphology 374, 380–1
proximative 179–80, 316, 640
proximity 21, 599, 608
psychological predicate, see also experiencer; verb, experiencer 269, 270, 273, 753–4
psych verbs 31, 41, 397, 412
psycho-collocations 319
radial categories 138–40, 143, 147, 149
Randkasus see case, Randkasus
reanalysis 151, 413, 452, 455, 497, 557, 560, 570, 638, 647, 662–4, 768, 796
recognition 57, 62, 125, 291, 297
referentiality 256, 292, 295, 317, 320, 707
referral, see rule of referral
reflexive, see voice, reflexive
Relation-Preservation Principle 378
Relational Grammar/RG 36–8, 41, 47, 262, 509
relative pronoun, see pronoun
Relevance Principle/RelP 244, 350, 666
retention 702, 715, 724
rhythmical law 696
Role and Reference Grammar/RGG 3, 35, 37, 40–1, 102–20, 266, 379, 808, 810, 818
role, antecedent, see antecedent (role)
role, subsequent, see subsequent (role)
rule of referral 188, 205
saliency 15, 141, 191, 193, 200, 292–3, 320, 361, 363–4, 374, 380, 382, 388, 468, 498, 598, 641, 778, 795
sandhi 799, 801
satellite 609, 624
scales 148, 235, 665, 809
Scale of Reduction 702–4
Scale of topological adpositional relations 656
scrambling 279, 281–4, 288, 410, 664
secundative, see alignment
semantic bleaching 140, 591
semantic decomposition 35–6, 274
semantic extension 42, 139, 146–50, 526, 530
semantic map 8, 343, 467, 511, 518–21, 523–4, 528–30, 534, 599, 605–6, 608, 653, 813
semantic prime 153–5
semantic primitive 34–6, 127, 265
semantic projection 62, 103, 109, 272, 351
semantic relations, see also semantic role, thematic relations, thematic role 6, 15, 18, 35, 128–30, 132–4, 375
semantics (of case), see also case, meaning 138, 152, 167, 169, 362, 661, 803
sentence comprehension 6, 385, 404, 413, 418, 423, 425, 427
sentience 263, 267, 269–70, 273, 275, 531, 574–6
serial verb construction 336, 510, 559–60, 602–3
similative 515
spatial morphology 676, 678
speech errors 6, 385, 391, 395, 655
speech production 6, 371, 377, 384, 420–2, 428, 430–4
spontaneous voice, see voice, spontaneous
spreading activation 387
statistical modelling 479
stimulus (role) 106, 344, 677, 679, 802–3, 815
Stoic grammarians 14, 509
Strong Competence Hypothesis 402
Structuralists 20, 137–9, 143, 511
Structure-building approach 378, 380–1, 387, 405, 432–4
subelative 179, 617
subessive 179, 211, 617
subject
accusative 56, 476–8
dative 41, 94, 324, 326, 476–8, 579
experiencer 270, 344, 643, 741, 751–2, 816
oblique 72, 80, 353, 477
quirky 51, 270, 278, 286–7
subject agreement 9, 665, 745–6, 750, 752–5, 759, 768
subject alternation 32, 67, 340
subject formation 134
subject selection 107, 130, 133–4, 264–5
sublative 179, 432, 516, 615–17
subsequent (role) 527
subtranslative 617
Suffixaufnahme 189, 196–7, 239, 583, 633, 636, 644, 763
suffixing preference 245, 693
superelative 179, 213–14, 617, 678
superessive 179, 211–14, 461, 501, 516, 616–19, 678, 712
superlative 179, 615, 617, 619
supertranslative 617
surface form 60, 126, 207, 209, 370
suspended affixation 198, 240
switch-reference 190, 553, 557, 757, 789, 798–9, 811
syncretism 137, 143, 147, 188, 203–4, 219–30, 241, 248, 253, 451–2, 470–1, 474, 501, 527, 623, 642, 657–8, 757
accidental 229, 519
parasitic 207
systematic 209, 220–1, 228, 519
whole word 201–2, 206
syntactic impairment 419–20, 433
syntactic movement 266, 411
syntactic pivot 37–8, 40
syntactic priming 385, 387, 392–3, 397, 401
Syntagmatic Selection Principle 344
tense-aspect split 691
terminative 198, 216, 515, 610, 619, 674
terminological ethnocentrism 155
tertium comparationis 155
thematic relations, see also semantic role, thematic relations, thematic role 1, 54, 105–6, 262
theme (role), see also patient 33, 34, 36, 53, 62–4, 68, 74, 105–6, 114, 264–5, 267, 291, 417, 513, 523, 531, 533, 552, 557, 559, 577, 609, 639, 647, 654, 680, 798, 802, 813, 815, 817
theme, incremental, see incremental theme
theta-criterion 75, 262
topic 23, 109, 118, 186, 231, 261, 278–80, 337, 415, 464, 466, 506, 541, 546, 548, 591, 660–1, 665, 733–4, 757, 770, 779–84, 786–8, 795, 810, 812, 814
topic drop 288
topic-comment structure 109, 780–1, 784, 786–8
topic-prominent language 779–80, 784, 786, 788
topicality 27, 257, 307, 322, 346, 483, 586, 660, 662–4, 742, 782, 786, 810
trajector 141–2, 145–6, 609
Transformational Grammar 29–30, 126
transitivity 2, 5, 34, 76, 107–8, 115, 242, 266, 275, 308, 322, 325, 339–42, 344–5, 350–1, 356–65, 550, 574–5, 590, 660, 666, 681, 751, 791–2, 805–6, 809, 817–18
decreasing 361
increasing 357, 361
semantic 344, 357, 359, 550, 574, 590
translative 24, 179, 209, 211–12, 216, 446, 514–16, 616–18, 625, 674, 677
Tree Adjoining Grammar 43, 390
typology, see also language types 2, 9, 31–2, 56, 142, 168, 222, 253, 275, 293, 296, 305, 321, 342, 351, 356–66, 521, 528, 564, 583, 651–67, 688
unaccusativity, see also verb, unaccusative 31, 36–8, 44, 47, 50, 53, 412, 557, 751
Unaccusative Hypothesis 29, 36–7
undergoer 37, 41, 106–8, 110–17, 164–5, 311, 590, 603, 605, 735, 797–8, 804–7, 809, 812, 817, 819
undergoer, dative-like 10
unergativity, see verb, unergative
unidirectionality 148, 269, 459, 497–8, 524, 526, 600
uniformity of theta-assignment hypothesis (UTAH) 39, 262, 265
universal grammar 17, 155, 371
universals 17, 28, 47, 62–3, 88, 96, 108, 125, 153–5, 238, 242, 244, 256, 262, 265, 276, 295, 321, 371, 410, 451, 479–80, 491, 507, 510, 519–20, 534, 536, 590, 605, 648, 666, 683, 746, 801, 807
usage-based 6, 369, 373, 375, 381–2
Utterance Generation Model 386
valency change, see also voice
applicative 8, 20, 26, 334–6, 510, 538, 596–7, 623, 637–8
causative 26, 104–5, 108, 134, 265, 270, 322, 329, 336, 476, 515, 569, 579, 681, 749, 751–2, 792, 798, 811
verb islands 379
verbal case, see case, verbal
voice, see also valency change 15, 53, 74, 76, 89–90, 95, 97–8, 101, 107, 171, 322–38, 349, 400, 777
active 19, 36, 38, 74, 84, 90, 107, 269, 305, 323–4, 326, 328, 331, 341, 384, 388, 390, 393, 425–6, 590, 780
middle 191, 322–3
reflexive 270, 332, 554–5, 659
spontaneous 322–5
voice marking 53, 90, 323–4, 332–3
Vollkasus see case, Vollkasus
vowel lengthening 629, 632
WALS (World Atlas of Language Structures) 7, 185–6, 480, 482, 484–8, 490–2, 651
word and paradigm model 202, 205
word order
freezing 71, 281, 554, 664
free 28, 61, 276–7, 288, 393
linear 60
SOV 61, 743, 817
SVO 61, 424–6, 429, 554, 666, 817
VO 279, 282, 336, 757
VSO 17
verb-final 6, 296–8, 302, 401, 541, 547, 779, 782
verb-initial 296–8, 302, 541, 547, 731
verb-medial 296–9, 302, 541, 547
verb-second 53, 278, 296
word order/serialization 134, 336
zero marking 193, 235, 357, 531, 551, 610, 787
zero accusative 556, 659
zero marked 172, 250, 310, 357, 359, 363–4, 482, 512, 551, 554, 558, 674
zero morpheme 284 (p. 908)