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date: 18 March 2019

Abstract and Keywords

The study of diagnostic expertise initially focused on characterizing the reasoning process and, later, on understanding the nature of expert knowledge and its impact on performance, including memory, comprehension, and reasoning. This research demonstrated that medical expertise is not a simple construct, and its development is characterized by non-linear growth in skills and knowledge. Facilitated by new technology, recent research has moved toward real-world studies (or a combination of both laboratory-based and naturalistic studies), with automated and often precise methods of data collection and analysis. Findings from these studies contribute to our knowledge of medical experts’ performance, which often varies as a function of domain complexity as well as the clinician’s ability to recognize and correct medical errors. The role of cognitive science in modeling diagnostic reasoning plays a significant role when building successful systems to support reasoning processes of individual experts, teams, and trainees in real-world settings.

Keywords: diagnostic reasoning, medical expertise, knowledge organization, decision support systems, learning, medicine, health care

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